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[Help us with translations!] Seven deadly sins
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This article is about cardinal sins. For Balanchine, Brecht and Weill’s 1933 ballet, see The Seven Deadly Sins.
For other uses, see Cardinal sin (disambiguation) and Seven deadly sins (disambiguation).
Hieronymus Bosch’s The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things
The Seven Deadly Sins, also known as the Capital Vices or Cardinal Sins, is a classification of the most objectionable vices that has been used since early Christian times to educate and instruct followers concerning (immoral) fallen humanity’s tendency to sin. The final version of the list consists of wrath, avarice, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony.
The Catholic Church divided sin into two principal categories: “venial sins”, which are relatively minor and could be forgiven through any sacramentals or sacraments of the church, and the more severe “capital” or mortal sins. Mortal sins are believed to destroy the life of grace and create the threat of eternal damnation unless either absolved through the sacrament of confession or forgiven through perfect contrition on the part of the penitent.
Beginning in the early 14th century, the popularity of the seven deadly sins as a theme among European artists of the time eventually helped to ingrain them in many areas of Catholic culture and Catholic consciousness in general throughout the world. One means of such ingraining was the creation of the mnemonic “SALIGIA” based on the first letters in Latin of the seven deadly sins: superbia, avaritia, luxuria, invidia, gula, ira, acedia.[1]
Contents
[hide]
* 1 Biblical Lists
* 2 Development of the Traditional Seven Sins
* 3 Historical and modern definitions of the deadly sins
o 3.1 Extravagance
o 3.2 Lust
o 3.3 Gluttony
o 3.4 Greed
o 3.5 Acedia
o 3.6 Despair
o 3.7 Sloth
o 3.8 Wrath
o 3.9 Envy
o 3.10 Pride
o 3.11 Vainglory
* 4 Catholic virtues
* 5 Associations with demons
* 6 Patterns
* 7 Cultural references
o 7.1 Enneagram Integration
o 7.2 Literary works inspired by the seven deadly sins
o 7.3 Art and music
o 7.4 Film, television, radio, comic books and video games
o 7.5 Science
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Further reading
* 11 External links [edit] Biblical Lists
In the Book of Proverbs, it is stated that “the Lord” specifically regards “six things the Lord hateth, and the seventh His soul detesteth.” namely:[2]
* Haughty eyes
* A lying tongue
* Hands that shed innocent blood
* A heart that devises wicked plots
* Feet that are swift to run into mischief
* A deceitful witness that uttereth lies
* Him that soweth discord among brethren
While there are seven of them, this list is considerably different from the traditional one, the only sin on both lists being pride. Another list of bad things, given this time by the Epistle to the Galatians, includes more of the traditional seven sins, although the list is substantially longer: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, “and such like”.[3]
[edit] Development of the Traditional Seven Sins
The modern concept of the Seven Deadly Sins is linked to the works of the 4th century monk Evagrius Ponticus, who listed eight evil thoughts in Greek as follows:[4]
* Gast??µa???a (gastrimargia)
* ????e?a (porneia)
* F??a?????a (philargyria)
* ??p? (lype)
* ???? (orge)
* ???d?a (akedia)
* ?e??d???a (kenodoxia)
* ?pe??fa??a (hyperephania)
They were translated into the Latin of Roman Catholic spiritual pietas (or Catholic devotions), as follows:[5]
* Gula (gluttony)
* Fornicatio (fornication, lust)
* Avaritia (avarice/greed)
* Tristitia (sorrow/despair)
* Ira (wrath)
* Acedia (acedia)
* Vanagloria (vainglory)
* Superbia (Pride)
These ‘evil thoughts’ can be broken down into three groups:[5]
* lustful appetite (Gluttony, Fornication, and Avarice)
* irascibility (Anger)
* intellect (Vainglory, Sorrow, Pride, and Discouragement)
In AD 590, some years after Evagrius, Pope Gregory I revised this list to form the more common Seven Deadly Sins, by folding sorrow/despair into acedia, vainglory into pride, and adding extravagance and envy, while removing fornication from the list. In the order used by both Pope Gregory and by Dante Alighieri in his epic poem The Divine Comedy, the seven deadly sins are as follows:
1. luxuria (extravagance)
2. gula (gluttony)
3. avaritia (avarice/greed)
4. acedia (acedia/discouragement)
5. ira (wrath)
6. invidia (envy)
7. superbia (pride)
The identification and definition of the seven deadly sins over their history has been a fluid process and the idea of what each of the seven actually encompasses has evolved over time. Additionally, as a result of semantic change:
* Lust was substituted for luxuria in all but name
* socordia (sloth) was substituted for acedia
It is this revised list that Dante uses. (However, the extravagant are not off the hook-Dante has the wasteful punished in the fourth circle of hell). The process of semantic change has been aided by the fact that the personality traits are not collectively referred to, in either a cohesive or codified manner, by the Bible itself; other literary and ecclesiastical works were instead consulted, as sources from which definitions might be drawn. Part II of Dante’s Divine Comedy, Purgatorio, has almost certainly been the best known source since the Renaissance.
The modern Roman Catholic Catechism lists the sins as: “pride, avarice, envy, wrath, lust, gluttony, and sloth/acedia”.[6] Each of the seven deadly sins now also has an opposite among corresponding seven holy virtues (sometimes also referred to as the contrary virtues). In parallel order to the sins they oppose, the seven holy virtues are humility, charity, kindness, patience, chastity, temperance, and diligence.
[edit] Historical and modern definitions of the deadly sins
[edit] Extravagance
Main article: Extravagance
Extravagance (Latin, luxuria) is unrestrained excess. Extravagant behaviour includes the frequent purchase of luxury goods, and forms of debauchery.
In the Romance languages, the cognates of luxuria (the Latin name of the sin) evolved to have an exclusively sexual meaning; the Old French cognate was adopted into English as luxury, but this lost its sexual meaning by the 14th century.[7]
[edit] Lust
This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. More details may be available on the talk page. (May 2009)
This article or section may contain previously unpublished synthesis of published material that conveys ideas not attributable to the original sources. See the talk page for details. (May 2009) Main article: Lust
Lust or lechery is usually thought of as excessive thoughts or desires of a sexual nature. Aristotle’s criterion was excessive love of others, which therefore rendered love and devotion to God as secondary. In Dante’s Purgatorio, the penitent walks within flames to purge himself of lustful/sexual thoughts and feelings. In Dante’s “Inferno”, unforgiven souls of the sin of lust are blown about in restless hurricane like winds symbolic of their own lack of self control to their lustful passions in earthly life.
[edit] Gluttony
Main article: Gluttony
“Excess”
(Albert Anker, 1896)
Derived from the Latin gluttire, meaning to gulp down or swallow, gluttony (Latin, gula) is the over-indulgence and over-consumption of anything to the point of waste. In the Christian religions, it is considered a sin because of the excessive desire for food, or its withholding from the needy.[8]
Depending on the culture, it can be seen as either a vice or a sign of status. Where food is relatively scarce, being able to eat well might be something to take pride in. But in an area where food is routinely plentiful, it may be considered a sign of self-control to resist the temptation to over-indulge.
Medieval church leaders (e.g., Thomas Aquinas) took a more expansive view of gluttony,[8] arguing that it could also include an obsessive anticipation of meals, and the constant eating of delicacies and excessively costly foods.[9] Aquinas went so far as to prepare a list of six ways to commit gluttony, including:
* Praepropere – eating too soon.
* Laute – eating too expensively.
* Nimis – eating too much.
* Ardenter – eating too eagerly (burningly).
* Studiose – eating too daintily (keenly).
* Forente – eating wildly (boringly).
[edit] Greed
Main article: Greed
Greed (Latin, avaritia), also known as avarice or covetousness, is, like lust and gluttony, a sin of excess. However, greed (as seen by the church) is applied to a very excessive or rapacious desire and pursuit of wealth, status, and power. St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that greed was “a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things.” In Dante’s Purgatory, the penitents were bound and laid face down on the ground for having concentrated too much on earthly thoughts. “Avarice” is more of a blanket term that can describe many other examples of greedy behavior. These include disloyalty, deliberate betrayal, or treason,[citation needed] especially for personal gain, for example through bribery . Scavenging[citation needed] and hoarding of materials or objects, theft and robbery, especially by means of violence, trickery, or manipulation of authority are all actions that may be inspired by greed. Such misdeeds can include simony, where one profits from soliciting goods within the actual confines of a church.
[edit] Acedia
Main article: Acedia
Acedia (Latin, acedia) (from Greek a??d?a) is the neglect to take care of something that one should do. It is translated to apathetic listlessness; depression without joy. It is similar to melancholy, although acedia describes the behaviour, while melancholy suggests the emotion producing it. In early Christian thought, the lack of joy was regarded as a wilful refusal to enjoy the goodness of God and the world God created; by contrast, the apathy was regarded as a spiritual affliction that discouraged people from their religious work.
When Thomas Aquinas described acedia in his interpretation of the list, he described it as an uneasiness of the mind, being a progenitor for lesser sins such as restlessness and instability. Dante refined this definition further, describing acedia as the failure to love God with all one’s heart, all one’s mind and all one’s soul; to him it was the middle sin, the only one characterised by an absence or insufficiency of love.
[edit] Despair
Main article: Despair
Despair (Latin, Tristitia) describes a feeling of dissatisfaction or discontent, which causes unhappiness with one’s current situation, especially involving thoughts of hopelessness. Since unhappiness inherently results from the sin, the sin was sometimes referred to as sadness. Since sadness often results in acedia, Pope Gregory’s revision of the list subsumed Despair into Acedia.
This section requires expansion. [edit] Sloth
Main article: Sloth (deadly sin)
Gradually, the focus came to be on the consequences of acedia, rather than the cause, and so, by the 17th century, the exact deadly sin referred to was believed to be the failure to utilize one’s talents and gifts.[citation needed] In practice, it came to be closer to sloth (Latin, Socordia) than acedia. Even in Dante’s time there were signs of this change; in his Purgatorio he had portrayed the penance for acedia as running continuously at top speed.
The modern view goes further, regarding laziness and indifference as the sin at the heart of the matter. Since this contrasts with a more willful failure to, for example, love God and his works, sloth is often seen as being considerably less serious than the other sins, more a sin of omission than of commission.
[edit] Wrath
Main article: Wrath
Wrath (Latin, ira), also known as anger or “rage”, may be described as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of hatred and anger. These feelings can manifest as vehement denial of the truth, both to others and in the form of self-denial, impatience with the procedure of law, and the desire to seek revenge outside of the workings of the justice system (such as engaging in vigilantism) and generally wishing to do evil or harm to others. The transgressions born of vengeance are among the most serious, including murder, assault, and in extreme cases, genocide. Wrath is the only sin not necessarily associated with selfishness or self-interest (although one can of course be wrathful for selfish reasons, such as jealousy, closely related to the sin of envy). Dante described vengeance as “love of justice perverted to revenge and spite”. In its original form, the sin of wrath also encompassed anger pointed internally rather than externally. Thus suicide was deemed as the ultimate, albeit tragic, expression of wrath directed inwardly, a final rejection of God’s gifts.
[edit] Envy
Main article: Envy
Like greed, Envy (Latin, invidia) may be characterized by an insatiable desire; they differ, however, for two main reasons. First, greed is largely associated with material goods, where as envy may apply more generally. Second, those who commit the sin of envy resent that another person has something they perceive themselves as lacking, and wish the other person to be deprived of it. Dante defined this as a desire to deprive other men of theirs.” In Dante’s Purgatory, the punishment for the envious is to have their eyes sewn shut with wire because they have gained sinful pleasure from seeing others brought low. Aquinas described envy as “sorrow for another’s good”.[10]
[edit] Pride
Main article: Pride
In almost every list Pride (Latin, superbia), or hubris, is considered the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins, and indeed the ultimate source from which the others arise. It is identified as a desire to be more important or attractive than others, failing to acknowledge the good work of others, and excessive love of self (especially holding self out of proper position toward God). Dante’s definition was “love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for one’s neighbor.” In Jacob Bidermann’s medieval miracle play, Cenodoxus, pride is the deadliest of all the sins and leads directly to the damnation of the titulary famed Parisian doctor. In perhaps the best-known example, the story of Lucifer, pride (his desire to compete with God) was what caused his fall from Heaven, and his resultant transformation into Satan. In Dante’s Divine Comedy, the penitents were forced to walk with stone slabs bearing down on their backs to induce feelings of humility.
[edit] Vainglory
Main article: Vainglory
Vainglory (Latin, vanagloria) is unjustified boasting. Pope Gregory viewed it as a form of pride, so he folded vainglory into pride for his listing of sins.
The Latin term gloria roughly means boasting, although its English cognate – glory – has come to have an exclusively positive meaning; historically, vain roughly meant futile, but by the 14th century had come to have the strong narcissistic undertones, of irrelevant accuracy, that it retains today.[11] As a result of these semantic changes, vainglory has become a rarely used word in itself, and is now commonly interpreted as referring to vanity (in its modern narcissistic sense).
[edit] Catholic virtues
The Roman Catholic Church also recognizes Seven virtues, which correspond inversely to each of the seven deadly sins.
Vice Virtue Lust Chastity Gluttony Temperance Greed Charity Sloth Diligence Wrath Patience Envy Kindness Pride Humility [edit] Associations with demons
In 1589, Peter Binsfeld paired each of the deadly sins with a demon, who tempted people by means of the associated sin. According to Binsfeld’s classification of demons, the pairings are as follows
* Lucifer: Pride (superbia)
* Mammon: Greed (avaritia)
* Asmodeus: Lust (luxuria)
* Leviathan: Envy (invidia)
* Beelzebub: Gluttony (gula or gullia)
* Satan/Amon: Wrath (ira)
* Belphegor: Sloth (acedia)
[edit] Patterns
According to a 2009 study by a Jesuit scholar, the most common deadly sin confessed by men is lust, and for women, pride.[12] It was unclear whether these differences were due to different rates of commission, or different views on what “counts” or should be confessed.[13]
[edit] Cultural references
The seven deadly sins have long been a source of inspiration for writers and artists, from morality tales of the Middle Ages to modern manga series and video games.

[edit] Enneagram Integration
The Enneagram of Personality integrates the seven with two additional “sins”, deceit and fear. The Enneagram descriptions are broader than the traditional Christian interpretation and are presented in a comprehensive map.[14][15]
[edit] Literary works inspired by the seven deadly sins
* John Climacus (7th century) in The Ladder of Divine Ascent places victory over the eight thoughts as individual steps of the thirty-step ladder: wrath (8), vainglory (10, 22), sadness (13), gluttony (14), lust (15), greed (16, 17), acedia (18), and pride (23).
* Dante’s (1265-1321) The Divine Comedy is a three-part work composed of “Inferno”, “Purgatorio”, and “Paradiso”. “Inferno” divides Hell into nine concentric circles, four of which directly correspond to some of the deadly sins (Circle 2 to lust, 3 to gluttony, 4 to greed, and 5 to wrath, as well as sloth). The punishment of these two sins take place in the Stygian lake, the wrathful being punished atop the lake, attacking one another with the various members of their person, including fangs.[16] The slothful are punished underneath the lake breathing sighs in bubbles, singing a dolorous song, as told by Virgil in Canto VII.[17] The remaining circles do not neatly map onto the seven sins. In “Purgatorio”, Mount Purgatory is scaled in seven levels and follows the sin sequence of Aquinas (starting with pride).[citation needed]
* William Langland’s (c. 1332-1386) Vision of Piers Plowman is structured around a series of dreams that are critical of contemporary errors while encouraging godly living. The sins are mentioned in this order: proud (pride; Passus V, lines 62-71), lechour (lecherousness; V. 71-74), envye (envy; V. 75-132), wrathe (wrath; V. 133-185), coveitise (covetousness; V. 186-306), glutton (gluttony; V. 307-385), sleuthe (sloth; V. 386-453) (using the B-text).[clarification needed][18]
* John Gower’s (1330-1408) Confessio Amantis centres on a confession by Amans (“the Lover”) to Genius, the chaplain of the goddess Venus. Following confessional practice of the time, the confession is structured around the seven deadly sins, though focuses on his sins against the rules of courtly love.[19]
* Geoffrey Chaucer’s (c. 1340-1400) Canterbury Tales features the seven deadly sins in The Parson’s Tale: pride (paragraphs 24-29), envy (30-31), wrath (32-54), sloth (55-63), greed (64-70), gluttony (71-74), lust (75-84).[20]
* Christopher Marlowe’s (1564-1593) The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus shows Lucifer, Beelzebub, and Mephistophiles coming from hell to show Dr. Fastus “some pastime” (Act II, Scene 2). The sins present themselves, in order: pride, greed, envy, wrath, gluttony, sloth, lust.[21]
* Edmund Spenser’s (1552-1599), The Faerie Queene addresses the seven deadly sins in “Book I (The Legend of the Knight of the Red Cross, Holiness)”: vanity/pride (Canto IV, stanzas 4-17), idleness/sloth (IV. 18-20), gluttony (IV. 21-23), lechery/lust (IV. 24-26), avarice/greed (IV. 27-29), envy (IV. 30-32), wrath (IV. 33-35).[22]
* Garth Nix’s “The Keys to the Kingdom” is a seven-book children’s series in which the main nemesis of each book is afflicted by one of the seven deadly sins.

[edit] Art and music
* Hieronymus Bosch, The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things (1485).
* Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht, The Seven Deadly Sins (Die sieben Todsünden) (1933)
* Modern artist Paul Cadmus painted a series of graphically disturbing, anthropomorphic depictions of the seven deadly sins, in the style of comic books. After his death, this series was willed to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
* The album Heaven and Hell by Joe Jackson is a modern musical interpretation of the seven deadly sins.
* The Tiger Lillies’s new album and stage show 7 Deadly Sins is based on the sins being experienced by a modernized version of Punch and Judy (in itself a reworking of Adam and Eve) called “Punch and Jude”.
* The album Melankolia / XXX Couture by Danish rapper L.O.C. focuses on how the artist came into contact with each of the sins, and then how these sins have come to be culturally accepted.
* Kendell Geers, “The Seven Deadly Sins” 2006: Series of 7 Ultra Violet neons exhibited at Stephen Friedman Gallery in London, Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst in Ghent Belgium, DA2 in Salamanca Spain and the 2007 Venice Biennial
[edit] Film, television, radio, comic books and video games
* There was a series of seven silent films made in 1917 that bore the series title, The Seven Deadly Sins, which began with Envy (1917), continued with Pride (1917), Greed (1917), Sloth (1917), Passion (1917), and Wrath (1917), and concluded with the synonymicly-titled The Seventh Sin (1917). The final installment was given the title because Gluttony was originally too offensive to be a film title, and the producers couldn’t come up with an adequate synonym.
* The film The Devil’s Nightmare is about a succubus who kills a group of tourists who are each guilty of one of the seven sins.
* The original version of the film Bedazzled (1967) (remade in 2000) includes all seven sins; Raquel Welch as (Lillian) Lust, Barry Humphries as Envy, Alba as Vanity, Robert Russell as Anger, Parnell McGarry as Gluttony, Daniele Noel as avarice and Howard Goorney as Sloth.
* In the film Se7en (1995), written by Andrew Kevin Walker, directed by David Fincher and starring Brad Pitt and Morgan Freeman, a mysterious serial killer punishes transgressors of each of the deadly sins through his crimes.
* The Magnificent Seven Deadly Sins (1971) is a British film built around a series of comedy sketches on the seven deadly sins, and referencing the classic Western film The Magnificent Seven.
* In the video game Overlord, the seven heroes that the protagonist must defeat are based on the seven sins.
* The Seven Deadly Sins (traditionally given as “The Seven Deadly Enemies of Man”) figure prominently in the mythos of Fawcett/DC Comics superhero Captain Marvel, and have appeared several times as supervillains in recent DC Comics publications.
* In the manga and anime Digimon, the Seven Great Demon Lords, each of whom represent one of the sins, are a major group of antagonists.
* In the manga and anime Katekyo Hitman Reborn!, the member of Varia each match one of the Seven Deadly Sins, their Latin names, or the respective demons of the sins.
* In the manga and anime Fullmetal Alchemist, each sin is used as the name of each member of a group of powerful false humans called “homunculi”, with each homunculi’s personality being based on the sin he or she is named after.
* In the videogame Devil May Cry 3, the seven deadly sins are represented by a group of common enemies, as well as by seven infernal bells. Fallen angels that personify the sins are also featured heavily in the prequel manga, in which they are important in summoning the bell-containing tower in the first place.
* In the Philippines TV series Lastikman each major villain represents one of the deadly sins.
* In the Norwegian TV show De syv dødssyndene (The Seven Deadly Sins), Christopher Schau attempts to invoke the wrath of God by carrying out each of the seven deadly sins. When Schau was talking about the show on the talk show Senkveld (Late Night), he said “If I don’t end up in Hell, then there is no Hell.” The program caused a great deal of public debate surrounding the issue of censorship.
* In Matt Fraction’s comic book Casanova, the series’ issues are named, in Latin, for each of the seven sins, beginning with Luxuria.
* Rengoku II: The Stairway to Heaven is based around eight levels of a tower, seven named after the sins, the eighth being Paradise.
* In the webcomic Jack, the seven sins are personified by anthropomorphs.
* Comedian Mark Watson examined the seven sins in the first series of the BBC radio show Mark Watson Makes the World Substantially Better. To fit the sins into a six part series Greed and Gluttony were combined as the ‘similar sins’.
* In Knight Online’s Bifrost are monsters that can hunt for Fragments of the seven sins. Fragments can be turned into unique items, or collected to gain access to the chamber of Ultima.
* In 11eyes, the Black Knight was named Avaritia, Ira, Invidia, Acedia, Gula, and Superbia. This was a direct reference of the 7 Cardinal sins.
* In Cycle 4 of America’s Next Top Model, the seven remaining girls each portrayed one of the seven sins in a photo shoot.
* In Umineko no Naku Koro ni, the Seven Sisters of Purgatory that are summoned by Beatrice and Ange-Beatrice to kill are name after each of the seven sins
* In the Charmed series in the episode “Sin Francisco” people were infected by one of the seven deadly sins.
* In the TV series Supernatural, the Seven Deadly Sins are seven demons who, when they touch a person, can cause the person they touch to feel whatever sin the respective demon represents.
* in the comics series Archie, four out of the five main characters are breaking one of the seven deadly sins each.
* In the computer game Of Light and Darkness: The Prophecy, the main plot is to redeem the spirits of those who have sinned one of the seven deadly sins.
* In the web comic Grim Tales from Down Below Him mentions the seven deadly sins and reveals that the main characters Jr. and Mini represents evny and lust repectfully.
* In the popular manga Full Metal Alchemist, the Seven Deadly Sins manifest themselves in homunculi.
[edit] Science
* Kansas State University geography research associate Thomas Vought presented his study “The Spatial Distribution of the Seven Deadly Sins Within Nevada”. In addition, the study covers some 3,000 counties across the country, and includes the interactive maps of sin distribution across the U.S.[23]
[edit] See also
* Cardinal virtues
* Purgatorio
* The Seven Sins of Memory
[edit] References
Notes
1. ^ Boyle, Marjorie O’Rourke (1997). “Three: The Flying Serpent”. Loyola’s Acts: The Rhetoric of the Self. The New Historicism: Studies in Cultural Poetics,. 36. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 100-146. ISBN 978-0-520-20937-4. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft2t1nb1rw/.
2. ^ Proverbs 6:16-19
3. ^ Galatians
4. ^ Evagrio Pontico,Gli Otto Spiriti Malvagi, trans., Felice Comello, Pratiche Editrice, Parma, 1990, p.11-12.
5. ^ a b Refoule, 1967
6. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church
7. ^ Oxford English dictionary
8. ^ a b Okholm, Dennis. “Rx for Gluttony”. Christianity Today, Vol. 44, No. 10, September 11, 2000, p.62
9. ^ “Gluttony”. Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06590a.htm.
10. ^ “Summa Theologica: Treatise on The Theological Virtues (QQ[1] – 46): Question. 36 – OF ENVY (FOUR ARTICLES)”. Sacred-texts.com. http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/aquinas/summa/sum291.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
11. ^ Oxford English dictionary
12. ^ Two sexes ‘sin in different ways’
13. ^ True Confessions: Men And Women Sin Differently
14. ^ Maitri, The Enneagram of Passions and Virtues, pp.11-31
15. ^ Rohr, The Enneagram
16. ^ see Inferno, Canto VII
17. ^ Inferno, Canto VII.120-128, translated by H.F. Cary, courtesy Project Gutenberg
18. ^ http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/c/cme/cme-idx?type=HTML&rgn=TEI.2&byte=21030211
19. ^ “Confessio Amantis, or, Tales of the Seven Deadly Sins by John Gower – Project Gutenberg”. Gutenberg.org. 2008-07-03. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/266. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
20. ^ “The Canterbury Tales/The Parson’s Prologue and Tale – Wikisource”. En.wikisource.org. 2008-11-01. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Canterbury_Tales/The_Parson’s_Prologue_and_Tale. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
21. ^ “Christopher Marlowe, The Tragedie of Doctor Faustus (B text) (ed. Hilary Binda)”. Perseus.tufts.edu. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.03.0011&query=scene%3D%236&layout.norm=compare. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
22. ^ http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~rbear/queene1.html
23. ^ By dukeofurl. “One nation, seven sins – Thursday, March 26, 2009 | 2 a.m.”. Las Vegas Sun. http://www.lasvegassun.com/news/2009/mar/26/one-nation-seven-sins/. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
Bibliography
* Refoule, F. (1967) Evagrius Ponticus. In Staff of Catholic University of America (Eds.) New Catholic Encyclopaedia. Volume 5, pp644-645. New York: McGrawHill.
* Schumacher, Meinolf (2005): “Catalogues of Demons as Catalogues of Vices in Medieval German Literature: ‘Des Teufels Netz’ and the Alexander Romance by Ulrich von Etzenbach.” In In the Garden of Evil: The Vices and Culture in the Middle Ages. Edited by Richard Newhauser, pp. 277-290. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
[edit] Further reading
* The Divine Comedy (“Inferno”, “Purgatorio”, and “Paradiso”), by Dante Alighieri
* Summa Theologica, by Thomas Aquinas
* The Concept of Sin, by Josef Pieper
* The Traveller’s Guide to Hell, by Michael Pauls & Dana Facaros
* Sacred Origins of Profound Things, by Charles Panati
* The Faerie Queene, by Edmund Spenser
* The Seven Deadly Sins Series, Oxford University Press (7 vols.)
[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: The Seven Deadly Sins * Article on Sloth’s minor position in the sins
* The Seven Deadly Sins, White Stone Journal
* Catholic Catechism on Sin
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