Career Issues for Dual Career Couples
Submitted To: Submitted By:
Miss. Mariyn koul Arun sambyal
Lecturer MBA (LSB) MBA 2nd Sem
I would like to take this last opportunity to thank all my teacher for providing me with their invaluable help in all my activities & experiences. Today I am able to present this Term paper because of the knowledge that I have gained in all the months in this institution. I would specially like to thank Miss Mariyn koul, subject teacher for being my inspirer. Last but not the least I would like to thank all my friends for their constant effort in making this term paper a success, without their help it would have not been completed.
Review of Literature 7-13
How Companies are handling these problems 14
The objective must be prepared with some objective. If there is no objective of the study conducted, it will give no drawbacks and we will be left in midair to know why we have prepared so. So an objective must reflect the advantages & disadvantages including all basic materials which define it and could bring out a conclusion.
In my study I am to find the career issues for dual career couples. I need to find out what are the causes for the couples stress life. We can sum up the objective into the following:-
Career issues for the couples
Their approach towards the problem.
The overall consequences of the problem.
Work Life and Personal life are the two sides of the same coin. It is very hard to have a balance between work life and our personal life, especially the females who have to balance their Personal as well as their professional and have to work twenty hours a day. The increasing work pressures, globalization and technological advancement have made it an issue with both the sexes, all professionals working across all levels and all industries throughout the world. Achieving “work-life balance” is not as simple as it sounds.
Work life and personal life are inter-connected and interdependent. Spending more time in office, dealing with clients and the pressures and of job can interfere and affect the personal life, sometimes making it impossible to complete the household chores. On the other hand, personal life can also be demanding if you have a kid or aging parents, financial problems or even problems in the life of a dear relative. It can lead to absenteeism from work, creating stress ad lack of concentration at work.
Work and personal life conflict occurs when the burden, obligations and responsibilities of work and family roles become incompatible. Obligations of one can force an individual to neglect the other.
A decade back, employees used to have fixed working hours or rather a 9-5 job from Monday to Friday. The boundary between the work and home has disappeared with time. But with globalization and people working across countries, the concept of fixed working is fading away. Instead of just 7 or 8 hours a day, people are spending as much as 12-16 hours every day in office.
For this today a new subject has been added in our life called Stress management, i.e how to manage your personal and professional life. Stress management is the need of the hour. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation, life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. Moreover, be it our anxiety, mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes, we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors, if not escapable, are fairly manageable and treatable.
But the thing to see here is how one couple manages one’s life in this stress life, consequently managing their home as well as their office. In the life of a couple it has to see both the needs of their home as well as the demands of their office. A male has to perform his job in office as well as looks into the wants of his house, whereas a woman has look into her office job as well as has to meet the day to day affairs of home. In this situation both of them lead a stress life and have to come up with the challenges of life where 18 hours of the day they are involved in work.
Stress can lead to many factors like:
Potential Sources Consequences
Review of Literature:
Hartwell F. (2010), in her article “Work life balance-are you balancing your work and life successfully?” analyzed that when the balance between work and home life is disrupted, the stress and worry experience also affects a person ability to think clearly and perform at their best. If you were at your best you don’t know just what to do right? According to her one should first get start by drawing a large circle, which represents your life and divide it into 8 slices and label each slices with areas of your life. i.e finance, health, relationship, career, personal development etc. now take each area and ask yourself “how satisfied am I with my life”. To have a balanced life, the numbers should be roughly equal. The idea is to wheel the roll smoothly. If you have a 0 in your health and a 5 in your finances then the imbalance could be affecting your experience of life and how happy you feel. This unevenness is giving you a bumpy ride. Take each area and write down one thing you can do today to feel better. It could be make a phone call, arrange to see a friend who you haven’t seen for ages, to eat a healthy meal, anything just do it. Notice the immediate difference you feel when you take the action you’ve been putting off.
Sonia M. (2010), in her article “What is the real meaning of work life balance?” has explained the meaning of work life balance. According to her once you begin to establish healthy boundaries between your work life and your personal life, you begin to feel more fulfillment and personal satisfaction. The study done by CEB showed that more than 60% of the employees polled identified flexible schedules as the most important work-life practice their employer could provide. In reality time is of incredible value to both the employer and the employee. Confident employers are realizing this and using work life balance programs and perks to attract talent which they may not be able to afford. These days, many talented workers are not looking for more money. They are instead looking for better quality of life…that which we get through work- life balance.
Granth C. (2010), in her article “How is your work – life balance?” analyzed that hard work can be held as the promise of reward, but there is a down size if you find yourselves not enjoying the living of it. If balance between work and life outside of work is not maintained, your well-being can suffer, harming your peace of mind, physical health, and your relationships. Even if you love your work, thrive on it, and can do it all day and into the night, it is important to take some time to rest and create a balance. Your relationships need attention, your spirit needs nurturing, your body needs care, and your mind needs some time off. If these are neglected, there is no how you can make up for their loss? Accordingly you can do 10 different things every day to aid you in this worthy endeavor.
1. Inhale with awareness.
2. Walk in nature, even for just 10 minutes. Aim for 30.
3. Sit in silence and still your mind for at least 10 minutes each day.
4. Notice if you are thirsty, hungry, tired. What do you do about it?
5. While eating, slow down and give your full attention.
6. Avoid people who consume your energy.
7. Embrace people who accept and support your endeavors.
8. Regard the beauty of your surroundings.
9. Appreciate the freedom and ability to work or establish a business of your own.
10. Exhale completely.
King W. (2009), analyzed in his article “How important is the work – life balance?” that work life balance is the separation between your work life and your personal life. It is the boundary that you create between your career, business and every other segment that makes up your life. Aside from your career, these segments include your family, personal growth, spirituality, fitness and health, and community and friendships. He has mentioned that there should consistent separation between your job and the other segments of your life; which enable you to truly be present in each realm of your life. You no longer worry about work projects while at home and even don’t worry about things you need to do at home while at the office. This allows you to be sharper, more efficient, and better-focused. It also enables you to use your time more efficiently, be more effective with your communication, task completion, and decision making, and to enjoy your time at work much more than ever before.
Helene M. (2008), in her article, “shared identity and strategic choice in dual-career couples” analyzed the concept of a couple-level shared identity as forming the basis for the development of dual-career couples’ strategies regarding involvement in work and family roles. A model is developed that is intended to help researchers in this area conceptualize the relationship between career choices and career progression between members of a dual career couple. Examining career development at the couple-level extends one’s understanding of how the decisions made by one member of the dyad influence the career of the other.
Reitman F. (2008), in his article “Enabling the new careers of the 21st centuary” analyzed in his article about the new careers of the 21st century are turbulent compared to the ideal corporate climb of the 1950s. Owing to the greater presence of women in the workforce, diminished job security, and increased focus on psychological aspects of success, many workers have moved onto non-traditional career paths provide. The new careers involve changing organizations, lateral rather than vertical moves, and often include interruptions in employment. The expectation is that employees will manage their own careers, choosing to work for companies that opportunities to meet their objectives. Organizations need to embrace the realities of 21st century careers and recognize the importance of programs and policies that enable the careers of their employees. Career-enabling programs address time-control issues (e.g., part-time options, job sharing, flextime, telecommuting, and leaves) as well as knowledge and skill development (e.g., training, job rotation, tuition remission, mentoring). Such programs help employees meet both career and life goals and will promote the long-term success of the organization.
Hall S. (2004), analyzed in his article that Qualitative research has investigated distinct couple types that divide work and family responsibilities based on employment circumstances and relationship characteristics, but such research is not conducive to identifying frequencies of couple types or statistically comparing work-family circumstances across couple types. The current study incorporated both employment and family variables in identifying four distinct dual-earner couples types among respondents from the National Survey of the Changing Workforce. Couple types were compared regarding demographic information and memberships in couple types was predicted based on this information. Some significant differences emerged that may begin to explain the circumstances and motivations behind selecting certain work-family arrangements, though the more peer-like couple were less distinct and in some ways less economically advantaged than expected.
Lockwood, Nancy R. (2003), in their article “Work/life balance: challenges and solutions” have analyzed that in organizations and on the home front, the challenge of work/life balance is rising to the top of many employers’ and employees’ consciousness. In today’s fast-paced society, human resource professionals seek options to positively impact the bottom line of their companies, improve employee morale, retain employees with valuable company knowledge, and keep pace with workplace trends. This article provides human resource professionals with an historical perspective, data and possible solutions–for organizations and employees alike–to work/life balance. Three factors–global competition, personal lives/family values, and an aging workforce–present challenges that exacerbate work/life balance. This article offers the perspective that human resource professionals can assist their companies to capitalize on these factors by using work/life initiatives to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace.
Moore M. (2002), analyzed in the article about the findings from a Catalyst study that explored why there are so few women with global assignments. The study reveals several prevailing assumptions in corporate and professional America about women’s willingness and ability to relocate. One of the most pervasive is that dual-career issues hinder women’s ability to relocate internationally. This assumption is applied universally to women regardless of personal situation and discounts how men are also in dual-career relationships. Furthermore, the study provides recommendations for employers to support dual-career couples relocating globally, thereby increasing the likelihood that assignment offers will be accepted and the assignment completed successfully.
Moore M. (2002), analyzed in his article about the findings from a Catalyst study that explored why there are so few women with global assignments. The study reveals several prevailing assumptions in corporate and professional America about women’s willingness and ability to relocate. One of the most pervasive is that dual-career issues hinder women’s ability to relocate internationally. This assumption is applied universally to women regardless of personal situation and discounts how men are also in dual-career relationships. Furthermore, the study provides recommendations for employers to support dual-career couples relocating globally, thereby increasing the likelihood that assignment offers will be accepted and the assignment completed successfully.
Tryon W. (2002), in his article “Issues in the lives of dual-career couples” analyzed in his article that presents a systematic review of the issues involved in dual career marriages. A definition of dual-career couples/families is provided. The literature is then reviewed with respect to employment issues, employment issues specific to dual-career couples, career interruptions, household chores, child care, and marital difficulties. Some suggestions are made f or conducting therapy with dual-career couples.
Riusala K. (2000), analyzed in his article that the relationship between foreign assignment and career development has been stated to be unclear, and further research has been called for with regard to career challenges and career management programme of expatriates. Furthermore, today an extensive proportion of marriages are dual-career partnerships with both partners employed, and thus a need to take this into account has been stressed in expatriate literature. The present study covers these issues based on the experiences of about 300 Finnish expatriates. Career arrangements after repatriation were a very prominent concern among expatriates. On the other hand, the results also indicate that career-related support practices were not very common in this sample, but there was clear inconsistency between perceived necessity and actual use of these programmes. Dual-career couples’ career considerations played a central role as in the case of expatriates. However, dual-career support was not commonly available although it was again seen as necessary.
Smith C. (1997), in his article analyzed in his article that Presents findings from a study investigating the career transitions of a sample of dual-career managerial couples within Australian organizations. Results confirm that job changes are complex processes, which are determined by biographical factors such as sex, age, parental status, and stakeholder influence and career salience. However, they are very much influenced by work factors such as the culture of the employing organization which recommends more flexible career paths, employment practices and managerial conventions, to facilitate the career development of the growing numbers of dual-career couples, and to enhance labour retention and organizational productivity.
Smith C. (1997), in his article “Career transition of dual-career couples: an empirical study” analyzed in his article about the Presents findings from a study investigating the career transitions of a sample of dual-career managerial couples within Australian organizations. Results confirm that job changes are complex processes, which are determined by biographical factors such as sex, age, parental status, and stakeholder influence and career salience. However, they are very much influenced by work factors such as the culture of the employing organization, Recommends more flexible career paths, employment practices and managerial conventions, to facilitate the career development of the growing numbers of dual-career couples, and to enhance labour retention and organizational productivity.
Rever S. (1995), in his article “Today’s expatriate family” analyses about the multinational organizations which avoid contemporary family issues, which only compound the problems already plaguing them due to a lack of strategic key staffing and planning on a global scale. These shortcomings may pose serious questions about US industry’s ability to compete globally. But for HR executives, these obstacles also present an opportunity: They can help their companies gain a competitive advantage both by developing programs to attract, develop, and retain the best-available global talent and by specifically addressing family issues that stymie the process. To date, few multinationals have made serious attempts to build a global talent pool and analyze the needs and wants of expatriates and their families. But without this internal analysis the multinational firm will not be able to develop and implement cost effective programs.
Cooper C. (1995), in his article “Working together: men and women in organizations” analyzed in his article some of the issues that prevent men and women working together effectively in organizations. It explores the impact of gender stereotypes and the perception of women as the “weaker sex”. In addition, attempts to highlight organizational strategies that would ensure the successful working practice of men and women in organizations
How Companies Are Handling These Issues:
Work – life balance is a very situation to maintain in one’s career. One has to deal hard to face with day to day problem. Companies like Goggle provide one with the choice of doing your work at home, which works vice-versa for both the employer as well as the employee. The employer gets the work done and the employee does in his flexible way. The companies today also provide Maternity benefits to women employees. Companies like IBM, Wipro, SAP, Infosys etc, provide a lot to their employees like flexible Work Hours (Where Appropriate) Basic and Supplemental Life Insurance Short- and Long-Term Disability Insurance and Supplemental Long-Term Disability Business Travel Accident Insurance Accidental Death & Dismemberment Insurance SOS Emergency Evacuation (for illness or injury incurred while overseas on Action Aid business) Bereavement Leave Interest-free Computer Purchase Loan (After six months of employment) etc.
We can see with the following example how companies today are handling these issues:
Alcatel, for one, has structured a remarkably effective policy on international mobility, as one of our clients, Jan Van Acoleyen, Vice-President Human Resources of Alcatel Microelectronics, says: “Family issues remain the sensitive aspect of international mobility. Today, we place a great deal of attention on dual career problems. The opportunities for work for the partner may turn out to strongly affect the acceptance of an international assignment and will later prove to be fundamental in guaranteeing the integration of the transferee and his/her family in the new host country. One often forgets that for the transferee, the continuity of his or her career is unaffected, as there is no change of employer, merely of country of residence. For the partner, however, the change is total.”
Recent studies show that a substantial percentage (60%) of international companies now provides specific support for partner job searches. Thirty percent have a systematic approach and a clear and structured policy.
We can lastly conclude that work life balance is an important aspect of our life, which needs to be maintained. In our life a lots of career related problems arises which should be adjusted accordingly. Juggling between the obligations towards the families and expectations of the organization and constant struggle to maintain a balance can work can have serious implications on the life of an individual. Therefore, it is important for employees to maintain a healthy balance between work and their private lives. This will help them achieve their personal and professional goals as well the organization they are working for.
In 1950, the typical family structure consisted of a full-time working father, who was the sole wage earner, and a stay-at-home mom. Today, less than 3% of the population fit that stereotype. A couple can define their own sense of equity within their relationship. The distribution of roles does not necessarily have to be equal. It can be different depending on peaks and valleys of the couples work schedules.
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2. Sonia M.(2010), what is the real meaning of work life balance?,3d.ed http://ezinearticles.com/?How-is-Your-Work—Life-Balance?&id=4091971
3. Granth C. (2010), how your work – life balance?,3d.edhttp://ezinearticles.com/?What-is-the-Real-Meaning-of-Work-Life-Balance?&id=3906672
4. Scott s.(2009),a typology of dual earner marriages based on work and family arrangements, vol 30, journal of Family and economic issues, pp.215
5. Moore M.(2002), same ticket different trip- supporting dual career couples on global assignments, MCB UP Ltd., women in management review, vol 17, pp. 61-67. http://188.8.131.52/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=65EF7B6B552548D0B6522551548DA8C4?contentType=Article&contentId=1412225
6. Smith C.(1997),career transition of dual career couples: an empirical study, vol 2, career development international, pp. 229-237.
7. Riusale K.(2000), Expatriation and careers: perspective of expatriates and spouses, vol 5, career development international, pp 81-90
8. Lockwood, Nancy R.(2003), work-life balance: challenges and solutions, vol 4, N.R. Publishing ltd, pp.261
11. Meredith J.Moore(2002) http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/09649420210421763
12. Harvey, Michazhttp://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-21223774/global-dual-career-couple.html