Chapter 1: Introduction 3
Chapter 2: Project Lifecycle and Organization 3
Chapter 3: Project Management Processes for a Project 4
Chapter 4: Project Integration Management 5
4.1 Develop Project Charter (Initiating) 5
4.2 Develop Project Management Plan (Planning) 6
4.3 Direct and Manage Project Execution (Execution) 6
4.4 Monitor and Control Project Work (Monitoring & Control) 7
4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control (Monitoring & Control) 8
4.6 Close Project or Phase (Closure) 8
Chapter 5: Project Scope Management 9
5.1 Collect Requirements (Planning) 9
5.2 Define Scope (Planning) 9
5.3 Create WBS (Planning) 10
5.4 Verify Scope (Monitoring & Control) 10
5.5 Control Scope (Monitoring & Control) 11
Chapter 6: Project Time Management 11
6.1 Define Activities (Planning) 11
6.2 Sequence Activities (Planning) 11
6.3 Estimate Activity Resources (Planning) 12
6.4 Estimate Activity Durations (Planning) 12
6.5 Develop Schedule (Planning) 13
6.6 Control Schedule (Monitor & Control) 14
Chapter 7: Project Cost Management 15
7.1 Estimate Costs (Planning) 15
7.2 Determine Budget (Planning) 15
7.3 Control Costs (Monitor & Control) 16
Chapter 8: Project Quality Management 16
8.1 Plan Quality (Planning) 17
8.2 Performance Quality Assurance (Execution) 18
8.3 Plan Quality Control (Monitor & Control) 19
Chapter 9: HR Management 20
9.1 Develop HR Plan (Planning) 20
9.2 Acquire Project Team (Execution) 21
9.3 Develop Project Team (Execution) 22
9.4 Manage Project Team (Execution) 22
Chapter 10: Communications 24
10.1 Identify Stakeholders (Initiating) 24
10.2 Plan Communications (Planning) 25
10.3 Distribute Information (Executing) 25
10.4 Manage Stakeholders (Executing) 26
10.5 Report Performance (Monitor & Control) 26
Chapter 11: Project Risk Management 27
11.1 Plan Risk Management (Planning) 27
11.2 Identify Risks (Planning) 28
11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis (Planning) 28
11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis (Planning) 29
11.5 Plan Risk Responses (Planning) 30
11.6 Monitor and Control Risks (Monitor & Control) 31
Chapter 12: Project Procurement Management 31
12.1 Plan Procurements (Planning) 32
12.2 Conduct Procurements (Execution) 34
12.3 Administer Procurements (Monitor & Control) 35
12.4 Close Procurements (Closure) 35
Chapter 1: Introduction
A Standard is a formal document that describes established norms, methods, processes, and practices. A standard is a guide rather than a methodology. PMBOK is a standard.
Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. A project can involve a single person, a single organizational unit or multiple organizational units.
Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
A Portfolio refers to a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. The projects or programs of that portfolio MAY or may NOT necessarily be interdependent or directly related. Portfolio management refers to the centralized management of one or more portfolios, including identifying + authorizing + managing + controlling projects/programs/related work to achieve specific strategic business objectives.
Program is defined as a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Programs management is defined as the centralized coordinated management of a program to achieve the program’s strategic objectives and benefits.
A PMO provides PM support and responsible to give direction management across projects. PMO during initiation is an integral stakeholder to make recommendations, or to terminate.
Depending on Org structure, PM may/may not report to functional manager
Management by Objective (MBO) is a management philosophy with three objectives:
* Establish unambiguous and realistic objectives
* Periodically Evaluate if objectives are being met
* Take corrective actions.
MBO works only if management supports it.

Chapter 2: Project Lifecycle and Organization
A project lifecycle is a collection of generally sequential and sometimes overlapping project phases. Project lifecycle structure:
Starting –> Organizing & preparing –> Carrying out the work –> Closing
Graph trend from begin until end: Downward for stakeholder influence, risk, uncertainty and details; Upward for cost and inverted “U” for staffing levels (sometimes also cost)

Project phases are divisions within a project where extra control is needed. End of phase called as phase exits, milestones, phase gates, decision gates, or kill points. Some projects can have only one phase (like telecoms installation), while few would have multiple sequential (like facility decommissioning, waste removal, cleanup, landscaping) and others would have multiple overlapping phases (like design and overlap with construction). Overlapping increases risk and can result in rework if subsequent phase progresses before accurate information is available. End of phase is used to reassess effort to change/terminate the project if necessary.

Project Governance provides a comprehensive, consistent method of controlling the project and ensuring its success. This should be described in Project Management Plan.
Operations are ongoing and produce repetitive product services, or results.
Stakeholders are people or entities who are actively involved in project or whose interest may be positively or negatively affected by the performance or completion of the project. Stakeholder identification is a continuous process.
* Customers / Users: people that will use the project’s product or service or result. Internal or external.
* Sponsor: provides financial resources. Champions the project. Leads the project including selection progress until formally authorized.
* Facilitator gives guidance as required without interfering and has more power than a coordinator and a coordinator has more power than an expeditor. The project coordinator reports to a higher-level manager and has authority to make some decisions. The project expediter has no authority to make decisions.
* Project Manager role
Planning: Directing | Executing: Coaching / Assisting / Integrator
Initiating: Listening | Monitor & Control: Verification / Checking

Organizational Influences on Projects

Chapter 3: Project Management Processes for a Project
A process is a set of interrelated actions and activities performed to achieve a pre-specified product, result, or service.
Tailoring: address each process and its ITTO for individual projects for fit.
The Process Groups are NOT project phases.
Rolling Wave Planning: Planning and Documentation are iterative (progressive) and ongoing processes.
Two types of project selection:
Benefits Measurement:
* Murder Boards – This involves a committee asking tough questions from each project
* Scoring Models – Different projects are given scores based on certain defined criteria. Project with higher score is selected.
* Benefits Cost Ratio – This technique involves computing benefits to cost ratio (BCR) for a project. This formula compares benefits to costs, not just profit. Payback is equated to benefits here. Project with higher BCR is selected.
* Payback period – This technique involves considering how long it takes back to “pay back” the cost of the project. Discount rate or Inflation or interest earned in not considered in this technique (least precise). A project with lower pay back period is better.
* Discounted Cash Flow – This technique takes into account the interest earned on the money. The Future Value (FV) of projects is compared.
* FV=PV(1+i)n
* PV is the present value of the project, ie- today’s value of future cash flows. We convert a future cash flow into a value today. This allows us to DIRECTLY compare two future cash flows (most conservative). Present value (PV) = 12,000 / (1 + 10%). A project with higher present value is better. The number of years is already included in the calculation of NPV. You simply pick the project with the highest NPV.
* Internal Rate of Return (IRR) – Refers to the rate which occurs as the present value of the cash inflows equal to that of the cash outflows (ie- NPV=0). Remember, the internal rate of return is similar to the interest rate you get from the bank. A project that has higher IRR is better, as it is giving higher return on money.
Constrained Optimization:
Linear Programming (mathematical model), Non-Linear Programming, Integer Algorithm, Dynamic Programming, Multi-objective Programming

Chapter 4: Project Integration Management
Includes processes, activities needed to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate processes and pm activities within PM process groups.

4.1 Develop Project Charter (Initiating)
It is recommended that PM participates in the development of the Project Charter. Initiated based on needs analysis, business case.

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Project statement of work
The SOW references Business Need, Product Scope description and Strategic Plan

.2 Business Case
Contains Business Need and cost-benefit analysis

.3 Contract
Input only if work is done for an external customer.

.4 EEF
.5 OPA .1 EJ
These can be internal / external sources .1 Project Charter
Documents business needs, understanding of customer, measurable project objectives + success criteria amongst other high level facets like risk / scope / budget / milestone / purpose / assumptions / etc…
Assumptions are identified in initiating. They are analyzed in project planning (risk management), and they are reviewed for validity throughout the project. Assumptions are factors that are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration. Assumptions are analyzed as part of risk management.

4.2 Develop Project Management Plan (Planning)
This is the process of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans.
Performance Measurement Baseline is composed of scope, schedule + cost baseline which is used for Earned Value Measurements (EVM).

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Project Charter
.2 Outputs from planning processes

.3 EEF
.4 OPA .1 EJ
Tailoring is involved + defines level of configuration mgmt + determines which project documents will be subject to change control process. .1 PM plan
Comprises of three baselines (Schedule, Cost, and Scope) along with subsidiary plans on scope mgmt, requirements mgmt, schedule mgmt, cost mgmt, quality mgmt, process improvement plan, HR plan, Communications mgmt, procurement mgmt plan Configuration management consists of Technical and Administrative procedures

4.3 Direct and Manage Project Execution (Execution)
It is the process of performing the work defined in the PM plan to achieve project’s objectives. Also involves implementation of approved changes by project team via CRs:
* Corrective action: documented direction to bring back expected future performance in line with PM plan (get outcomes to align with plan)
* Preventive action: documented direction to reduce probability of negative consequence associated with project risks (reduce impact of risk events)
* Defect repair: the formally documented identification of a defect in a project component with a recommendation to repair (or) replace the component.
Corrective and preventive actions do not normally affect project baselines, only the performance against the baselines.

Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM Plan
.2 Approved CRs
.3 EEF
.4 OPA .1 EJ

This is a type of EEF and not OPA .1 Deliverables
Must be verifiable

.2 Work Performance Information
Eg: Deliverable status, Schedule progress, costs incurred, lessons learned, includes procurements.

.3 CRs
.4 PM plan updates
.5 Project document updates
Includes Requirement document, Project Logs like issues / assumptions, etc… then risk register, and stakeholder register.
4.4 Monitor and Control Project Work (Monitoring & Control)
Process of tracking, reviewing the regulating the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the PM plan. Monitoring is performed throughout the project, which includes collecting, measuring, distributing performance information, assessing measurements and trends to effect process improvements.

Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM plan
.2 Performance reports
Prepared by Project Team detailing accomplishments, milestones, issues, problems, current status, forecasts, and issues.

.3 EEF
Work Authorization System (WAS)

.4 OPA .1 EJ
.1 CRs
.2 PM plan updates
.3 Project document updates
Eg: Forecasts, Performance reports, and issue log A work authorization system is a collection of formal documented procedures that specifies how project work is authorized to ensure that work is done by the identified organization at the right time and in the proper sequence. It is a subsystem of the overall project management system. It includes the steps, documents, tracking system, and defined approval levels needed to issue work authorizations. The primary mechanism is typically a written authorization to begin work on a specific activity or work package. Depending on the size of the project, the design of a work authorization system would vary. Project Work is assigned via WAS. For example, on many smaller projects, verbal authorizations will be adequate.
4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control (Monitoring & Control)
This is the process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes, and managing changes to the deliverables, OPA, project documents and PM plan.

Configuration Control: Focused on the specification of both the deliverables and the processes, while Change Control: Focused on the application of the configuration management system, including change control processes, such as Configuration identification, configuration status accounting, configuration verification and audit.
PMIS –> Configuration Management –> Change Control System (Control Management System)
Configuration Control: specification of deliverables and process
Change Control: Changes to project & product baselines

Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM plan
.2 Work performance information
.3 CRs
.4 EEF
.5 OPA .1 EJ
.2 Change Control meetings .1 CR status updates
Implementation of the approved CRs is done by the “Direct and Manage Project Execution process”

.2 PM plan updates
.3 Project document updates Corrective & Preventive actions do NOT normally affect project baselines; only affect the performance against those baselines. Changes to scope require baselining.

4.6 Close Project or Phase (Closure)
This is the process of finalizing all activities across all PM Process Groups to formally complete the project or phase. Via if it satisfied exit criteria, audit project success / failure, gather lessons learned, archive project information for future use, etc…

Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM plan
.2 Accepted deliverables
.3 OPA .1 EJ .1 Final product, service, or result transition
.2 OPA updates
Eg- Project files like PM plan, project calendars, risk registers, change mgmt documentation, etc… Addition (Operations); Starvation (Cut resources); Integration (Reassign resources); Extinction (Successful end)

Chapter 5: Project Scope Management
Product Scope (What): The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result.
Project Scope (How): The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions. Completion of the project scope is measured against the PM plan. Completion of the produce scope is measured against the product requirements.
5.1 Collect Requirements (Planning)

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Project Charter
.2 Stakeholder register .1 Interviews
.2 Focus Groups
Guided by a trained moderator

.3 Facilitated workshops

.4 Group creativity techniques
.5 Group decision making techniques
.6 Questionnaires and surveys
.7 Observations
.8 Prototypes .1 Requirements documentation
Unambiguous, measurable, testable, traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. Need to be elicited, analyzed, and recorded. Signed by stakeholders (functional & non functional requirements)

.2 Requirements management plan
Configuration mgmt + requirements prioritization + product metrics + traceability

.3 Requirements traceability matrix Group Creativity Techniques: Brainstorming, Nominal Group Technique (brainstorming + voting process), Delphi Technique (solicit unbiased opinions to critique – collect merge remove names distribute critique), Idea / mind mapping, Affinity diagram (sort ideas into groups for review and analysis – also used in Plan Quality)
Group Decision Making Techniques: Unanimity, Majority (> 50%), Plurality (largest block in group even if majority is not achieved), Dictatorship

5.2 Define Scope (Planning)

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Project Charter
.2 Requirements document
.3 OPA .1 EJ
.2 Product analysis
.3 Alternatives identification
.4 Facilitated workshops .1 Project scope statement
Includes scope desc + acceptance criteria + deliverables + exclusions + constraints + assumptions

.2 Project document updates Product Analysis examples include product breakdown, system analysis, requirements analysis, systems engineering, value engineering, and value analysis. Value analysis is a way of finding the least expensive way to do the work. And it does NOT assess the value a project brings to an organization.
Alternatives identification techniques include brainstorming, lateral thinking, pair wise comparisons

5.3 Create WBS (Planning)
The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project. The planned work is contained within the lowest WBS components called work package that can be scheduled, cost estimated, monitored and controlled.
Rolling wave planning: decomposition may not be possible for into the future, so team waits until deliverable or clarification is received so that details of WBS can be developed. If a task is not in the WBS, then it is not part of the project.
8/80 rule for WBS – No task should be less than 8 hours or more than 80 hours. Also referred to as Heuristic Rule of Thumb.
100% rule: total of work at all work packages represents all project + product work.
WBS Dictionary: Detailed description of tasks, codes of accounts, responsible organization, milestones, quality requirements, acceptance criteria, resources, cost estimates, etc…

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Project scope statement
.2 Requirements documentation
.3 OPA .1 Decomposition .1 WBS
.2 WBS dictionary
.3 Scope baseline
.4 Project document updates Scope baseline = Scope statement + WBS + WBS dictionary

5.4 Verify Scope (Monitoring & Control)
This includes reviewing deliverables with the customer or sponsor to ensure that they are completed satisfactorily. Scope verification = completeness + acceptance and quality control = correctness of the deliverables. QC takes place prior to Verify Scope.
Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM plan
.2 Requirements documentation
.3 Requirements traceability matrix
.4 Validated deliverables .1 Inspection
Reviews, product reviews, audits, walkthroughs .1 Accepted deliverables
.2 CRs
.3 Project document updates If project gets cancelled / terminated, it is mandatory to still perform this process of Verify Scope. Why? To document the degree of completion
5.5 Control Scope (Monitoring & Control)
This is the process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline. Uncontrolled changes are referred as Scope Creep.
Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM Plan
.2 Work performance information
Progress, when deliverables started and when planned to finish. (This is an output of Direct & Manage Project Execution and input for most Monitor & Control processes)

.3 Requirements documentation
.4 Requirements traceability matrix
.5 OPA .1 Variance Analysis .1 Work performance measurements
Activity metrics including planned vs actual. (Output for Control Scope/Schedule/Cost & Input for Report Performance + Perform Quality Control)

.2 OPA updates
.3 CRs
.4 PM plan updates
.5 Project document updates
Chapter 6: Project Time Management
6.1 Define Activities (Planning)
WBS Work Packages are decomposed into smaller items called Activities. WBS are typically follow nouns while activities as verbs. Involve team members in decomposition to yield better and more accurate results. Rolling Wave Planning is a form of progressive elaboration planning where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail and future work is planned at a higher level of the WBS.
Inputs TT Outputs .1 Scope baseline
.2 EEF
.3 OPA .1 Decomposition
.2 Rolling Wave Planning
.3 Templates
.4 EJ .1 Activity List
.2 Activity attributes
Including Level of Effort, discrete effort + apportioned effort + IDs / codes + predecessors / successors / relationships / leads + lags

.3 Milestone list 6.2 Sequence Activities (Planning)
Project Schedule Network diagram using Precedence Diagramming Method which is a method used in Critical
Finish to Start (FS): Initiation of the successor depends on the completion of the predecessor (most common)
Finish to Finish (FF): Completion of the successor depends on the completion of the predecessor
Start to Start (SS): Initiation of the successor depends on the initiation of the predecessor
Start to Finish (SF): Completion of the successor depends on the initiation of the predecessor (rarely used)

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Activity List
.2 Activity attributes
.3 Milestone list
.4 Project Scope Statement
.5 OPA .1 Precedence diagramming method (PDM)
.2 Dependency determination
.3 Applying leads and lags
.4 Schedule network templates .1 Project schedule network diagrams
.2 Project document updates
Dependency determination: mandatory dependencies (hard logic –> contracts / physical limits), discretionary dependency (also best practices, preferred, preferential, soft logic – eg fast tracking – these should be documented as they can create arbitrary float values), External dependency (like government / legal)
Leads: allows acceleration to successor activity
Lags: directs a delay in the successor activity (inserted waiting times in between tasks. For example Task B cannot start until three days after task A completes.)
A Network Logic diagram has multiple predecessors. This type results in sink node.
6.3 Estimate Activity Resources (Planning)

Inputs TT Outputs .1 .1 Activity List
.2 Activity attributes
.3 Resource calendars
.4 EEF
.5 OPA .1 EJ
.2 Alternatives analysis
Using different machines, tools, make vs buy

.3 Published estimating data
Published rates and costs

.4 Bottom-up estimating
.5 PM software .1 Activity resource requirements
Type & quantities of resources needed

.2 Resource breakdown structure (RBS)
.3 Project document updates Resource breakdown structure (RBS) is a hierarchical structure of resources by resource category and resource type used in resource leveling schedules and to develop resource-limited schedules, and which may be used to identify and analyze project human resource assignments. ie – resources by category & type

6.4 Estimate Activity Durations (Planning)

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Activity List
.2 Activity attributes
.3 Activity resource rqmts
.4 Resource calendars
.5 Project scope statement
.6 EEF
.7 OPA .1 EJ
.2 Analogous estimating
.3 Parametric estimating
.4 Three-point estimating
.5 Reserve analysis .1 Activity duration estimates
Ranges may be included like 2 weeks +/- 2 days

.2 Project document updates
Analogous estimating: Top down (big boss from previous similar project like appearance in terms of dictionary + activities+ historical info + EJ). Used when limited amount of detailed info is available. Less costly + less accurate + less time
Parametric estimating: statistical relationship based on historical info and other variables like unit cost, duration, labor rates (sample: x$ per feet)
Three point estimates:
PERT = (0+4M+P)/6
Standard Deviation (Sigma) = (P – O)/6
Variance = (Standard Deviation)^2
For more than one task:
PERT = Sum of individual PERTS
Standard Deviation = Square Root (Sum of all individual variances)
Variance = Sum of all individual Variances
Reserve Analysis: aka time reserves aka buffers as % of estimated activity duration, fixed duration or developed using quantitative analysis –> buffers, time reserves

6.5 Develop Schedule (Planning)
Process of generating a schedule with planned dates for activities and milestones. Milestones have ZERO duration.
Inputs TT Outputs .1 Activity List
.2 Activity attributes
.3 Project schedule network diagrams
.4 Activity resource requirements
.5 Resource calendars
.6 Activity duration estimates
.7 Project scope statement
.8 EEF
.9 OPA .1 Schedule network analysis
.2 Critical path method
.3 Critical chain method
.4 Resource leveling
.5 What-if scenario analysis
Via Simulation using Monte Carlo Analysis

.6 Applying leads and lags
.7 Schedule compression
.8 Scheduling tool .1 Project schedule
.2 Schedule baseline
.3 Schedule data
.4 Project document updates Schedule = Schedule data + model
Activity on Array (AOA) network diagrams have the following characteristics.
* AOA only uses Finish-To-Start relationship between tasks.
* PERT and CPM can only be used with AOA.
* Dummy events are shown with dotted lines. They do not take any time. They show dependencies between tasks
GERT is another type of network diagram. It can support looping.
Total Float = positive difference between early and late dates. Critical paths have zero or negative total float. Multiple critical paths are possible. Near Critical Path as the second highest duration
Critical chain is an analysis technique to modify the project schedule to account for limited resources + management of buffers. The critical chain method focuses on managing remaining buffer durations against the remaining durations of task chains.
Resource leveling is an analysis technique. Can be used when shared or critical required resources are available online at certain times. This is necessary when resources have been over allocated. This can cause original critical path to change. Need to allocate scarce resources to critical path first and keeping the resources same across the duration of the project. Resource leveling deals with scheduling resources.
Critical Path Method refers to determining early and late start and finish dates the. Calculating multiple project durations with different sets of assumptions describes what-if analysis.
Schedule compression via Crashing (bring additional resources which can shorten the duration and may increase risk + cost) and Fast tracking (activities performed in parallel and may increase in risk + rework again to shorten duration)
EF = ES + D (forward pass)
LS = LF – D (reverse pass)
Float, Total Float, Slack, Path Float = LF – EF (or) LS – ES
Total amount of time that can be delayed from its early start without delaying the project finish date. LF – EF = LS – ES
Free Float: Total amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activity (ESnext activity – Efcurrent activity – 1)
Project Float: Total amount of time that the project can be delayed without delaying the externally imposed project completion date required by the customer / sponsor
6.6 Control Schedule (Monitor & Control)

Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM plan
Contains schedule mgmt plan

.2 Project schedule
.3 Work performance information
.4 OPA .1 Performance reviews

.2 Variance analysis
.3 PM software
.4 Resource leveling
.5 What-if scenario analysis
.6 Adjusting leads and lags
.7 Schedule compression
.8 Scheduling tool .1 Work performance measurements
.2 OPA updates
.3 CRs
.4 PM plan updates
.5 Project document updates
Including schedule data + project schedule Monitor project status v/s schedule baseline. Critical Path: All SV will impact schedule. Critical Chain: compare buffer times (needed v/s remaining)
Chapter 7: Project Cost Management
Cost management plan is part of PM plan which includes level of accuracy, unit of measure, control thresholds, formats, etc…
7.1 Estimate Costs (Planning)
Project in initiation is Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) +/- 50% and later to a budgetary +25% / -10% and further narrows to a definitive range of +/- 10%. Costs estimated also for inflation and/or contingency costs as a special category.

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Scope baseline
.2 Project schedule
.3 HR plan
Includes reward/recog

.4 Risk register
.5 EEF
Market conditions

.6 OPA
Policies/templates .1 EJ
.2 Analogous estimating
.3 Parametric estimating
.4 Bottom-up estimating
.5 Three-point estimates
.6 Reserve analysis
.7 Cost of quality
.8 PM estimating software
.9 Vendor bid analysis .1 Activity cost estimates
.2 Basis of estimates
Including ranges + constraints + assumptions + indication of confidence level on final estimate

.3 Project document updates
Analogous: Historical + expert. It is a gross value estimating project (top down). Based on past similar projects. Less costly, less accurate
Parametric: statistical like sqft costing, unit rates, duration.
Bottom-up: estimating components of work then rolled up
Three-point estimates PERT = (O + 4M + P)/6
Reserve Analysis: includes contingency reserves to account for uncertainty again – % or fixed or via quantitative analysis methods
Depreciation is technique used to compute the estimated value of any object after few years. There are three types of depreciation techniques. These are
* Straight line depreciation: The same amount is deprecated (reduced) from the cost each year.
* Double-declining balance: In the first year there is a higher deduction in the value – twice the amount of straight line. Each year after that the deduction is 40% less than the previous year.
* Sum of year depreciation: Let’s say the life of an object is five years. The total of one to five is fifteen. In first year we deduce 5/15 from the cost, in second year we deduce 4/15, and so on.
Law of diminishing returns: For each additional resource, you will NOT realize the same increase in benefit that you realized from previous resource.
7.2 Determine Budget (Planning)
Aggregating all estimated costs of work packages to establish cost baseline including all authorized budgets, excluding management reserves.
Inputs TT Outputs .1 Activity cost estimates
.2 Basis of estimates
.3 Scope baseline
.4 Project schedule
.5 Resource calendars
.6 Contracts
.7 OPA .1 Cost aggregation
.2 Reserve analysis
.3 EJ
.4 Historical relationships
Analogous + Parametric

.5 Funding limit reconciliation
Budget related .1 Cost performance baseline
S-Curve charts (time vs cost)

.2 Project funding requirements
.3 Project document updates
Reserve Analysis: Contingency reserve (allowances for unplanned but required changes resulting from risk), Management reserve (reserved for unplanned changes to scope and cost –> PM needs approval to spend from mgmt reserve). Management reserves are NOT part of EVM calculations.

7.3 Control Costs (Monitor & Control)

Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM plan
.2 Project funding requirements
.3 Work performance information
.4 OPA .1 Earned Value mgmt (EVM)
.2 Forecasting
.4 Performance reviews
.5 Variance analysis
.6 PM software .1 Work performance measurements
.2 Budget forecasts
.3 OPA updates
.4 CRs
.5 PM plan updates
.6 Project document updates
SV = EV – PV
CV = EV – AC
EAC = BAC / CPI –> ETC performed at present CPI/rate with mistakes being repeated
EAC = AC + (BAC – EV) –> ETC performed at budgeted rate and mistakes won’t repeat
EAC = AC + [ (BAC – EV) / (CPI*SPI) ] –> ETC work considering SPI & CPI
TCPI = (BAC – EV) / (BAC – AC) –> Based on BAC
TCPI = (BAC – EV) / (EAC – AC) –> Based on EAC
Apart from this, know the difference between Direct Cost, Indirect Cost, Variable Cost, Marginal Cost, Sunk Cost, and Fixed Cost.

Chapter 8: Project Quality Management
This addresses management of the project and product of the project.
Standard: Approved by a recognized body. Should be followed but not legally required
Regulation: Mandatory and requires strict adherence
Quality: degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements
Grade: Category assigned to products / services having the same functional but different technical characteristics.
Precision: values of repeated measurements are clustered and have little scatter
Accuracy: measured value is very close to that of the true value.
Prevention is better than inspection.
Marginal Analysis: You compare the cost of incremental improvements against the increase in revenue made from quality improvements. Optimal quality is reached when cost of improvements equals the costs to achieve quality. The aim of quality is to ensure “Conformance to requirements” and “fitness for use”.
Approaches to Quality
Crosby: Zero defects. Do it right the first time
Juran: Grades of quality and fit for use. Quality by design
Deming TQM: PDCA + 85% of cost of quality is management problem
Six Sigma: measurement based on defect elimination. Normal distribution Sigma values
1 sigma: 68.26% 2 sigma: 95.46% 3 sigma: 99.73% 6 sigma: 99.99%
Kaizen: Theory of applying small improvements to improve cost s & ensuring consistency. Continuous improvement and everyone involved.
8.1 Plan Quality (Planning)
Identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and product.
Cost of Quality

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Scope baseline
.2 Stakeholder register
.3 Cost performance baseline
.4 Schedule baseline
.5 Risk register
.6 EEF
.7 OPA .1 Cost-benefit analysis
.2 Cost of quality
.3 Control charts
.4 Benchmarking
.5 Design of experiments
.6 Statistical sampling
.7 Flowcharting
.8 Propriety quality mgmt methodologies
.9 Additional quality planning tools .1 Quality Management Plan
.2 Quality metrics
.3 Quality checklists
.4 Process improvement plan
Part of PM plan

.5 Project document updates
Cost of quality: Refers to the total cost of all efforts related to quality throughout the product life cycle.
Control charts: Used to determine if process is stable or has predictable performance. Upper & lower specifications have max/min values allowed. A process is considered out of control when a data point exceeds a control limit or if seven consecutive points are above or below the mean. Typical control limit = 3 sigma
Benchmarking: Comparing actuals / planned with comparable projects.
Design of experiments: Statistical method (prototyping) for identifying which factors may influence variables of product or process. Important role in optimization of products or processes. It reduces the sensitivity of product performance. Provides a statistical framework for systematically changing all of important factors, rather than one at a time. Eg- prototyping that which combination of tires & suspensions will be most desirable at reasonable cost.
Statistical sampling: Involves choosing part of population – like 10 out of 70 drawings. The sample size and frequency should be determined during Plan Quality process. Used when it would take too long or cost too much to do entire group
Additional quality planning tools: Brainstorming, Affinity diagrams (identify logical groupings based on natural relationship. Also used in Collect Requirements), Force Field analysis (forces for and against change), Nominal group techniques (small group brainstorming and reviewed and/or voted by bigger group), Matrix diagrams (rows / columns), Prioritization matrices

Quality metrics: A project or product attribute and how quality control processes will measure it. Tolerance defines allowable variation on the metrics. Eg – stay within approved budget +/- 10% could be the measure of cost of every deliverable, on-time performance, budget control, defect frequency, failure rate, etc…
Quality checklists: Structured tool, component specific used to verify if required set of steps have been performed.

8.2 Performance Quality Assurance (Execution)
This is the process of auditing quality requirements and the results from the quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards. Paper work/administrative (therefore audits + process analysis + planning tools). QA provides an umbrella for continuous process improvement, which reduces waste and eliminates activities that do not add value. Focus: correct & most efficient processes + enables continuous process improvement
Quality Assurance is done during execution of the project. It includes –
* Process of evaluating overall performance on a regular basis
* Re-evaluating quality standards
* Quality audits – structured review of quality activities that identify lessons learned. These lessons learned are used for process improvement.
Perform Quality Assurance involves reviewing the quality requirements and auditing the results from quality control measurements. Perform Quality Assurance uses data created during Perform Quality Control

Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM plan
Includes QM and PI plan

.2 Quality metrics
.3 Work performance information
.4 Quality control measurements .1 Plan Quality and Perform Quality Control tools and techniques
.2 Quality audits
If as per organizational and project policies, processes and procedures.

.3 Process analysis
Includes root cause analysis .1 OPA updates
.2 CRs
.3 PM plan updates
.4 Project document updates
Includes completed checklists, lessons learned like causes of variance
8.3 Plan Quality Control (Monitor & Control)
No HR stuff, totally technical. Focus is on accuracy of project results (therefore various types of diagrams + charts + inspection).This is the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.
Prevention: Keeping errors out of processes
Inspection: Keeping errors out of the hands of the customer
Attribute Sampling: results either conforms or does not conform
Variables Sampling: Results is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity
Tolerance: specified range of acceptable results
Control Limits: thresholds, which can indicate whether the process is out of control

Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM plan
.2 Quality metrics
.3 Quality checklists
.4 Work performance measurements
Planned vs actual technical / schedule / cost performance

.5 Approved CRs
.6 Deliverables
.7 OPA .1 Cause n effect diagrams
.2 Control charts
.3 Flowcharting
.4 Histogram
.5 Pareto chart
.6 Run chart
.7 Scatter diagrams
.8 Statistical sampling
.9 Inspection
.10 Approved CRs .1 Quality control measurements
.2 Validate changes
.3 Validated deliverables
.4 OPA updates
.5 CRs
.6 PM plan updates
.7 Project document updates
Control charts: Illustrates how a process behaves over time and when is subject to a special cause variation. Is the process variance within acceptable limits. Process should be adjusted when a process is outside acceptable limits.
Special causes: unusual events & Common / Random: normal events
Run charts: Similar to control charts without displayed limits. Shows history and pattern of variation. Shows trends in a process over time, variation over time, declines or improvements in a process over time
Scatter diagrams: Shows relationship between two variables. Closer the points are to a diagonal line, the more closely there are related.
Inspection: May be called as reviews, peer reviews, audits, walkthroughs, validation defect repairs. Inspection keeps defects from reaching customer while prevention keeps defects from occurring.
In Just-In-Time (JIT) Quality, the amount of inventory is zero. The inputs are made available, just when they are required. This reduces the storage cost.
Rule of seven: In control charts, if there are seven points on one side of mean, then an assignable cause must be found.

Chapter 9: HR Management
Project management team is subset of project team and responsible for project mgmt and leadership activities across all process groups – group can be referred to as core, executive or leadership team. Sponsor works with leadership team
Staffing Management Plan: When and how resources will be met (acquisitions, calendars, release, training needs, compliance, safety)
Resource Histogram: depicts resource loading / usage for a project
9.1 Develop HR Plan (Planning)
Process of identifying and documenting project roles/responsibilities/required skills/reporting relationships/creation of staffing mgmt plan, including timetable for staff acquisition and release. May also include identification of training needs, team building strategies, recognition and reward programs, compliance considerations, safety issues, …

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Activity Resource Requirements
progressively elaborated as part of HR planning process

.2 EEF
Org culture, existing hr, personnel admin policies and marketplace conditions

.3 OPA
org standard processes / policies / standardized role desc / templates for org charts / position desc / historical info on org structures .1 Organization charts & position descriptions
Formats: hierarchical, matrix (RAM/RACI), text-oriented. Each work package has an unambiguous owner and that all team members have a clear understanding of their roles/resp.

.2 Networking
Formal/informal, proactive correspondence, luncheon meetings, trade conf, symposia

.3 Organizational Theory .1 HR Plan
Part of PM plan, providing guidance on how HR should be defined, staffed, managed, controlled and eventually released.
components: role / authority / resp / competency / project org charts / staffing mgmt plan – staff acquisition / resource
calendars / staff release plan / training needs / recog rewards / compliance / safety policies
A PM may yield authority over the project team in one of the following ways –
* Referent / Inferred: Project team knows the PM
* Formal Power / Legitimate: Power due to PM’s position
* Technical Power / Expert (best method): PM has strong technical skills in the projects domain.
* Coercive Power / Punishment: The project team is afraid of the power the PM holds.
* Reward / Incentive

Organizational theory provides information regarding the way in which people, teams, and organizational units behave. Effective use of this information can shorten the amount of time, cost, and effort needed to create the human resource planning outputs and improve the likelihood that the planning will be effective.
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory: People accept to be rewarded for their efforts. This is a motivation factor. People put in more efforts because they accept to be rewarded for their efforts.
McGregory Theory of X and Y: There are two type of employees. Employees of type X need to be always watched. They cannot be trusted and need to be micro managed. Employees of type Y, on the other hand, are self-motivated. They can work independently.
Ouchi Theory of Z: focused on increasing employee loyalty to the company by providing a job for life with a strong focus on the well-being of the employee, both on and off the job. According to Ouchi, Theory Z management tends to promote stable employment, high productivity, and high employee morale and satisfaction.
Herzberg Theory: Hygiene factors (salary, cleanliness etc.) if not present can destroy motivation. However, good hygiene alone does not improve motivation. What motivates people is the work itself. The motivation factors for employees include responsibility, self-actualization, growth, recognition etc.
Contingency Theory: Theory & & Hygiene. People motivated to be competent and remain so.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs: there are various levels of needs for an employee. When a lower level is met, employee attempts to reach the next higher level. The maximum satisfaction is achieved when the employee reaches the highest level of satisfaction – self-fulfillment. These levels of needs from the highest to lowest are –

Self-Actualization/fulfillment/Growth –> Esteem –> Social –> Safety –> Physiology

9.2 Acquire Project Team (Execution)
Process of confirming HR availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project assignments. PM team may or may not have direct control over team member selection because of collective bargaining agreements/use of subcontractor personnel, matrix environment, etc… Meetings are considered as Informal verbal.
Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM Plan
HR plan in particular from the PM plan.

.2 EEF
Personnel admin policies may affect outsourcing, availability, experience levels, interests, costs, abilities of resources

.3 OPA
.1 Pre-assignment
defined within project charter, or part of competitive proposal, or dependant on expertise of particular persons

.2 Negotiation
For best resources suited as defined earlier.

.3 Acquisition
Hiring individual consultants or subcontracting work to another organization because in-house staff skills not available.

.4 Virtual teams
email, audio/video conf, we-based meetings. Good communications required for this .1 Project staff assignments
Project team directory, memo, names in project org charts/schedules/pm plan.

.2 Resource calendars

.3 PM plan updates
focused on hr plan
9.3 Develop Project Team (Execution)
Influence team, be professional and behave ethically. Process of improving overall competencies, team interaction/environment to enhance project performance. PM should provide an environment that facilitates team work. Team work is a critical factor for project success. PM should continually motivate team by providing challenges and opportunities, timely feedback/support/recognizing/rewarding good performance.

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Project staff assignments
.2 PM plan
.3 Resource calendars .1 Interpersonal skills
.2 Training
.3 Team-building activities
Formal / informal / theories like from Tuckman (Forming / Storming / Norming / Performing / Adjourning)

.4 Ground rules
.5 Co-location
.6 Recognition and rewards .1 Team performance assessments
Formal/informal assessment of project team’s effectiveness by using team development efforts used via above TTs. Criteria should be determined & incorporated in the inputs. Evaluation Indicators may include improvements in skills, competencies, reduced staff turnover rate, increased team cohesiveness

.2 EEF updates
9.4 Manage Project Team (Execution)
Process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues & managing changes to optimize project performance.

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Project staff assignments
.2 PM plan
.3 Team performance assessments
By continually assessing team’s performance, actions can be taken to resolve issues, modify communications, address conflict and improve team interaction

.4 Performance reports
information from performance reports and related forecasts assists in determining future HR requirements / recognition / rewards / staffing mgmt plan

.5 OPA
Certificate of appreciation, newsletters, websites, bonus, etc… .1 Observation & conversation
.2 Project performance appraisals
.3 Conflict management
.4 Issue Log
.5 Interpersonal skills
Leadership / Influencing / Effective Decision Making .1 EEF updates
.2 OPA updates
.3 CRs
.4 PM plan updates
Conflict management: Sources include scarce resources, scheduling priorities, personal work styles. Team ground rules, group norms, communications.
Conflict Intensity (from highest to lowest):

Schedules –> Priorities –> Manpower –> Technical Issues –> Administration –> Personality Conflict –> Cost

Planning, role definition reduce amount of conflict. Conflict is a team issue and openness resolves it. Resolution should focus on issues not personalities & on present not the past.
Confronting / Problem-solving: requires give n take attitude & open dialogue (win-win)
Compromising: Searching for solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to all parties (middle route)
Withdrawing / Avoiding: Retreating
Smoothing / Accommodating: Emphasizing areas of agreement rather than difference
Forcing: Pushing one’s viewpoint, offers win-lose solution
Collaborating: multiple viewpoints + insights from differing perspectives to consensus and commitment
Halo Effect is the assumption that because the person is good at a technology, he will be good as a project manager.

Chapter 10: Communications
Sender: Responsible for clarity, completeness and confirming
Receiver: Responsible for information receiving in entirety, understanding correctly and acknowledging.
10.1 Identify Stakeholders (Initiating)
Critical for project success to identify the stakeholders early in the project, and to analyze their levels of interest, expectations, importance & influence

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Project Charter
.2 Procurement Docs
.3 EEF
.4 OPA .1 Stakeholder Analysis
.2 EJ
.1 Stakeholder register
Identification Information, Assessment Information, Classification

.2 Stakeholder management strategy
Stakeholder analysis matrix (Stakeholder group / Interest / Impact Assessment / Strategies)

Stakeholder Analysis: Systematically gathering & analyzing quantitative & qualitative information (surveys / questionnaires) to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project. Identifies interest, expectations & influence and relates them to the project purpose.
Power/Interest grid: level of authority / level of concern regarding project outcomes
Power/Influence grid: level of authority / active involvement in the project
Influence/Impact grid: active involvement / ability to effect changes to project planning or execution
Salience model: power (ability to impose their will), urgency (need for immediate attention), and legitimacy (appropriate involvement)

10.2 Plan Communications (Planning)
Determining stakeholder information needs & defining comms approach. ie- who needs what info/when they need it/how it will be given / by whom. This is a key component to determine and limit who will communicate with whom and who will receive what information

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Stakeholder register
.2 Stakeholder management strategy
.3 EEF
.4 OPA
Org chart used .1 Communications requirements analysis
comm channels = n*(n-1)/2
.2 Comm Technology
brief conversations, extended meetings, simple docs to material like schedules & databases
.3 Comm Models
Encode – Message & Feedback message – Medium – Noise – Decode
.4 Comm Methods
Interactive (meetings + phone call + video conf), Push Comm (letters, memos, reports, emails, faxes, voice mails, press releases)
Pull Comm (intranet, e-learning, knowledge repository) .1 Comms mgmt plan
.2 Project Document Updates
Effective Communications: Right format + right time + right impact
Efficient Communications: Providing information as needed
10.3 Distribute Information (Executing)
Process of making relevant information available to stakeholders as planned. Performed throughout entire project lifecycle but focus on execution. PM spends 90% of his/her time communicating via written & verbal means.
Groups of 5-11: Manageable & accurate decisions. PM is responsible for producing lessons learned –> professional obligation.

Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM Plan
.2 Performance Reports
Precise, current and sent prior to meetings. forecasts are updated (using EVM and/or analogy with past projects, re-estimating remaining work, inclusion of impact of external events in schedule)

.3 OPA
.1 Comm Methods
sender-receiver models, choice of media (video – audit conference, comp chats), facilitation techniques (building consensus and overcoming obstacles) + meeting mgmt techniques (preparing agenda & dealing with conflicts)

.2 Information Distribution tools
Hard copy doc distribution manual filing, press releases, electronic databases; email, fax, voice mail, telephone, video/web conf, websites and web publishing; scheduling, pm s/w .1 OPA updates
10.4 Manage Stakeholders (Executing)
Influence their desires to increase likelihood of project acceptance, addressing concerns that haven’t become issues yet, clarifying + resolving issues that have been identified

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Stakeholder register
.2 Stakeholder management strategy
.3 PM Plan
.4 Issue Log
.5 Change Log
.6 OPA .1 Communication Methods
.2 Interpersonal skills
Building trust, resolving conflict, active listening & facilitating change

.3 Management skills
Presentation, negotiating, writing and speaking .1 OPA updates
.2 CRs
.3 PM Plan updates
.4 Project document updates
10.5 Report Performance (Monitor & Control)
Collecting & distributing performance information, including status reports, progress measurements and forecasts. Involves periodic collection & analysis of baseline v/s actuals to communicate progress + performance + forecast

Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM Plan
provides information on project baselines integrating scope, schedule, cost and may also include technical + quality parameters.

.2 Work performance information
Info from project activities is collected on performance results such as deliverables status + schedule progress + costs incurred

.3 Work performance measurements
To generate project activity metrics to evaluate actual progress v/s planned progress. in relation to schedule + cost + technical

.4 Budget forecasts
.5 OPA
can have org defined variance limits
.1 Variance analysis
After the fact look at what caused difference between baseline & actual performance. Also includes impact of variance in cost + schedule + quality + scope

.2 Forecasting methods
Time series methods (EVM + moving average, extrapolation linear prediction, trend estimation & growth curve); Causal/econometric methods (regression: eg sale of umbrellas associated with weather conditions): identifying underlying factors that might influence the forecasted variable;
Judgment methods (Intuitive + probability + composite forecasts + surveys + Delphi + scenario building + technology forecasting + forecast by analogy); Other methods include simulation, probabilistic and ensemble forecasting

.3 Comm methods
Status review meetings. Push comm technique to distribute performance reports

.4 Reporting systems
software packages + dist formants include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, presentations .1 Performance reports
Common formats include bar charts, S-curves, histograms, tables, variance analysis, EV analysis, forecast data

.2 OPA updates
.3 CRs
Analysis of project performance often generates CRs which are processed through Perform ICC process.
Chapter 11: Project Risk Management
Risk is planned for an unplanned event. Specific unknown risks cannot be managed proactively, which suggests that a contingency plan should be created.
Risk Tolerance: Organizations and stakeholders are willing to accept varying degrees of risk.
11.1 Plan Risk Management (Planning)
Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS) is created in this process.
Inputs TT Outputs .1 Project Scope statement
.2 Cost mgmt plan
.3 Schedule mgmt plan
.4 Communications mgmt plan
.5 EEF
.6 OPA .1 Planning meetings and analysis
Risk contingency reserve application approaches may be established or reviewed. Definitions of levels of risk, probability by type or risk, impact by type, etc… .1 Risk Management Plan
Describes how RM will be structured and performed including methodology, roles/responsibilities, budgeting, timing like frequency, risk categories – RBS, definitions, probability and impact matrix, stakeholders’ tolerance levels, how tracked, reported, etc…
11.2 Identify Risks (Planning)
It is an iterative process and used to determine which risks affect the project and documenting their characteristics. PM should involve project team so they can develop and maintain a sense of ownership and responsibility for the risks and associated risk response actions.

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Risk management plan
.2 Activity cost estimates
.3 Activity duration estimates
.4 Scope baseline
.5 Stakeholder register
.6 Cost mgmt plan
.7 Schedule mgmt plan
.8 Quality mgmt plan
.9 Project documents
This includes Assumptions, Work performance reports, EVM reports, Network diagrams, baselines, …

.10 EEF
.11 OPA .1 Documentation reviews
.2 Information gathering techniques
Brainstorming with experts who are NOT part of team, either in a free-form or nominal group technique. Delphi technique + Interviewing + Root Cause Analysis

.3 Checklist analysis
Can be created based on historical information and knowledge.

.4 Assumptions analysis
.5 Diagramming techniques
Cause n Effect + system / process flow charts + Influence diagrams + Causal

.6 SWOT analysis
.7 EJ .1 Risk register updates
List of identified risks and its potential responses.
11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis (Planning)
This is the process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact. This process assesses priority of identified risks using their relative probability or likelihood of occurrence, its impact to objectives and other factors such as time frame and tolerance associated with project constraints. This is a rapid and cost effective means of establishing priorities for Plan Risk Responses.
Watchlist: Risks with low rating for future monitoring.

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Risk Register
.2 Risk mgmt plan
.3 Project scope statement
.4 OPA .1 Risk probability and impact assessment
.2 Probability and impact matrix
.3 Risk data quality assessment
Requires credible and unbiased data

.4 Risk categorization

.5 Risk urgency assessment
.6 EJ .1 Risk register updates
Now includes grouped by categories, ranking, priority list, watchlist, trends, etc… Risk Probability assessment investigates the likelihood that each risk will occur & Risk Impact assessment investigates the potential effect on a project objective / constraint.
Probability Impact Matrix helps classify risks as High / Medium / Low

11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis (Planning)
This is the process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on project objectives. Performed only on high priority risks identified in the earlier process.

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Risk Register
.2 Risk mgmt plan
.3 Cost mgmt plan
.4 Schedule mgmt plan
.5 OPA .1 Data gathering and representation techniques
Interviewing + Probability distributions

.2 Quantitative risk analysis and modeling techniques
Sensitivity analysis + Expected Monetary Value Analysis via Decision Tree

.3 EJ .1 Risk register updates
Includes probabilistic analysis + probability of achieving time and cost + prioritized list of quantified risks + trends Data Gathering can include three point estimates, which probability distributions include:
* Continuous probability distribution: modeling and simulation represent the uncertainty in values such as durations of schedule activities and costs of project components. Eg – Beta & Triangular distribution
* Discrete distribution: Used to represent uncertain events such as the outcome of a test or a possible scenario in a decision tree.
* Uniform distribution: Can be used ONLY if there is NO obvious value
Sensitivity Analysis: helps determine which risks have the most potential impact on the project. Eg- Tornado diagram
Expected Monetary Value analysis: statistical concept that calculates the average outcome when the future includes scenarios that may or may not happen. Opportunities would be positive values while threats in negative. EMV is calculated by multiplying the value of each possible outcome by its probability of occurrence and adding the products together + modeling / simulation via Monte Carlo
Decision Tree Diagram

11.5 Plan Risk Responses (Planning)
Process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives. It includes identification and assignment of one person “risk response owner”

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Risk Register
.2 Risk mgmt plan
.1 Strategies for negative risks or threats
.2 Strategies for positive risks or opportunities
.3 Contingent response strategies
.4 EJ .1 Risk register updates
.2 Risk-related contract decisions
.3 PM plan updates
.4 Project document updates
Negative Risk Strategies:
* Avoid / Evade: Eliminate the threat entirely
* Transfer: Transferring the liability via insurance, bonds, warranties, guarantees, etc. Note Cost plus contract may transfer the cost risk to buyer while fixed price contract may transfer risk to seller
* Mitigate: Lowering the impact to be within acceptable threshold levels. Eg – less complex processes
* Accept: Team agrees not to do anything and perhaps establish a contingency reserve, time, money, resources to handle such risks – eg – natural disasters.

Positive Risk Strategies:
* Exploit: Exploit responses by assigning most talented resources to project
* Share: Risk-sharing partnerships, special purpose companies, joint ventures
* Enhance: Take steps to increase the probability. Eg – adding more resources to end activity early
* Accept: Do nothing by not actively pursuing it. Establish contingency reserve. Accept if it comes along.

Risk Register updates / Contingency Planning
Fall back plans – proactively planned should primary response prove inadequate
Residual risks – left over risks after planned responses have been taken, or those that have been deliberately accepted
Secondary risks – ones that arise as a direct outcome of implementing a risk response
Contingency reserve – are needed to bring the risk of overrunning stated project objectives to a level acceptable to the organization. Reactive as it comes up because of a trigger. Calculated based on the quantitative risk analysis
Selected risk response strategies may cause additional (secondary) risks to occur. Analyzing secondary risks is part of the Plan Risk Responses process.

11.6 Monitor and Control Risks (Monitor & Control)
Process of implementing risk response plans, tracking, monitoring, identifying new risks, evaluating the process, etc…

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Risk Register
.2 PM plan
.3 Work performance information
.4 Performance reports
.1 Risk reassessment
.2 Risk audits
Examine and document effectiveness of a risk response

.3 Variance and trend analysis
.4 Technical performance measurement
.5 Reserve analysis
.6 Status meetings .1 Risk register updates
.2 OPA updates
.3 CRs
Corrective actions- contingency plans + workarounds.
Preventive actions- documented directions to perform

.4 PM plan updates
.5 Project document updates
Technical Performance Analysis: weight, transaction times, # of delivered defects, storage capacity, etc…
Reserve Analysis: Compares the amount of contingency reserves remaining to the amount of risk remaining at any time in the project to determine adequacy

Chapter 12: Project Procurement Management
This includes the contract management and change control processes required to develop and administer contracts or purchase orders issued by authorized project team members. Depending on application area, a contract can also be called as an agreement, an understanding, a subcontract, or a purchase order. As contracts are legal binding, they are subjected to more extensive approval process. Entering into a contract is a method of allocating the responsibility for managing or sharing potential risks.
12.1 Plan Procurements (Planning)

This is the process of documenting project purchasing decisions, specifying approach, and identifying potential sellers. Whether to acquire outside support, if so what and how, and how much and when.

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Scope baseline
.2 Requirements documentation
.3 Teaming agreements
These are legal contractual agreements for partnership and/or joint venture.

.4 Risk register
.5 Risk-related contract decisions
Agreements including insurance, bonding, services.

.6 Activity resource requirements
.7 Project schedule
.8 Activity cost estimates
.9 Cost performance baseline
.10 EEF
.11 OPA .1 Make or buy analysis
Make vs Buy and if Buy: Purchase vs Lease
Buy costs should consider actual out-of-pocket direct costs to purchase and indirect costs of supporting the purchase process and item

.2 EJ

.3 Contract types
Sharing of risks between parties via Fixed Price or Cost Reimbursable. Third hybrid is called Time & material.
.1 Procurement mgmt plan
.2 Procurement SOW
This is created for each procurement in sufficient detail.

.3 Make or buy decisions
.4 Procurement documents
Eg- Tender, bid, quotation, RFI, RFP, IFB

.5 Source selection criteria
Generally part of procurement documents to rate / score potential sellers across various dimensions. Source Selection = (Weight*Price) + (Weight*Quality)

.6 CRs
Fixed Price Contracts:
* Firm Fixed Price Contracts (FFP): Preferred for most buying organization as price is set at the outset with clear specification. Best of buyer. Cost overruns borne by seller
* Fixed Price Incentive Fee Contracts (FPIF): Gives buyer & seller sine flexibility from performance, with financial incentives tied to achieving agreed metrics. Final contract price is determined after completion of work based on seller’s performance. A price ceiling is set and anything above is responsibility of the seller.
* Fixed Price with Economic Price Adjustment Contracts (FP-EPA): Used when seller’s performance period spans across many years. Fixed price contract, however with a special provision allowing for pre-defined final adjustments to contract prices due to changes such as inflation, cost increases/decreases for specific commodities. This protects both buyer & seller.

Cost reimbursable Contracts :
* Cost Plus Percentage of Costs (CPPC): Worst for buyer
* Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contracts (CPFF): Seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs + receives fixed fee payment calculated as a percentage of estimated project costs. Fee amount changes only due to scope. Best for seller. Fee is seller’s profit
* Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contracts (CPIF): Seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs + receives predetermined incentive fee based on performance objectives. If the final cost is less than original estimated, then both buyer/seller share costs based upon a pre-negotiated ratio like 80/20. Win/win
* Cost Plus Award Fee Contracts (CPAF): Seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs + majority of fee is earned based on satisfaction of certain performance criteria. Determination is based by buyer and is not subject to appeals generally. Buyer discretion

Time and Material Contracts (T&M) – win/win
* Are a hybrid type of contractual arrangements that contain aspects of both cost-reimbursable and fixed-price contracts. When precise statement of work cannot be described, acquisition of experts / support is taken on an open ended contract and maybe subjected to a cost increase for the buyer. Many organizations require not exceeding time and costing limits in the contract to prevent unlimited cost growth. Unit labor and/or material rates can be preset by buyer + seller.

12.2 Conduct Procurements (Execution)
This involves obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract. Contracts / Procurement documents should be flexible enough to allow seller suggestions for improvement

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Procurement mgmt plan
.2 Procurement documents
.3 Source selection criteria
.4 Qualified seller list
Pre-screened based on qualifications and past experience.

.5 Seller proposals
.6 Project documents
.7 Make or buy decisions
.8 Teaming agreements
.9 OPA .1 Bidder conferences
Held prior to submittal of a bid / proposal. To establish clear and common understanding without any preferential treatment.

.2 Proposal evaluation techniques

.3 Independent estimates
Mainly established by independent estimators to ensure that costs are not way off that can give an indication that seller is unclear + has ambiguity.

.4 EJ
Multi-disciple review team including sales + legal + etc

.5 Advertising
.6 Internet search
.7 Procurement negotiations
The PM may not be the lead negotiator on procurements. Present for support and advise any clarification on project requirements. .1 Selected sellers
High complex, value, risk are selected by senior mgmt

.2 Procurement contract award
Can be Purchase Order or a complex document

.3 Resource calendars
.4 CRs
.5 PM plan updates
.6 Project document updates
Sole Source refers to a market condition in which only one qualified seller exists in the market.
Single Source refers to a market condition in which the company prefers to contract with only one seller.
Oligopoly refers to a market condition where very few sellers exist, and the action of one seller will have impact on other seller prizes.
Centralized Contracting refers to a separate contracting office that handles contracts for all projects. In De-centralized Contracting a contract administrator is assigned for each project.
Force majeure is a powerful and unexpected event, such as hurricane or other disaster.
Privity is contractual information between customer and vendor.
Fait Accompli means things already done (negotiation distraction technique)

12.3 Administer Procurements (Monitor & Control)
This involves managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as needed. Monitor payments, review seller performance as per terms, managing terminations. Contracts can be amended prior to contract closure by mutual consent.

Inputs TT Outputs .1 Procurement documents
.2 PM plan
.3 Contract
.4 Performance reports
Seller developed documentation / deliverable + seller performance reports

.5 Approved CRs
.6 Work performance information .1 Contract change control system
.2 Procurement performance reviews
.3 Inspections and audits
Can be conducted during execution to verify compliance in sellers’ processes / deliverables.

.4 Performance reporting
.5 Payment systems
Accounts Payable module

.6 Claims administration
Claims, Disputes, appeals are documented, processed, monitored and managed. Called as Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). Settlement via negotiation is preferred. Other techniques include mediation, arbitration + litigation which is least desirable.

.7 Records management system
To manage all procurement related documentation + records .1 Procurement documentation
.2 OPA updates
.3 CRs
.4 PM plan updates
12.4 Close Procurements (Closure)
It involves verification that all work and deliverables were acceptable + finalizing open claims. Unresolved claims may be subjected to litigation after closure.
Inputs TT Outputs .1 PM plan
.2 Procurement documentation .1 Procurement audits
.2 Negotiated settlements
.3 Records management system .1 Closed procurements
Buyer gives a written notice that contract is completed.

.2 OPA updates Closure should be in form of formal written. Close Project before Closing Procurements.

Noaman Sayed

PMP Study Notes Jan 1, 2012 Page 1 of 3