SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIES IN ENGINEERING INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Amusan Lekan M; Building Technology Department, School of Environmental Sciences, Covenant University , Ota. Ogun State. Nigeria Email- firstname.lastname@example.org
It is an undeniable fact that production of maintenance- free infrastructure is not feasible. The reality is that all the elements and components that make up an engineering infrastructure unavoidably, deteriorates with time due to inherent defects in design and construction, and the effects of environmental agents and users activities.
All engineering infrastructures are subject to aging, wear and tear in the performance of their functions and deterioration by exposure to outside operating environment. Hence, left to themselves, engineering infrastructures will eventually become inefficient, unreliable and fail. The issue then is how the existing infrastructure can be sustained to the extent that the functions they are designed to perform will not be compromised. To this end, this study will researched into sustainability strategies that can be adopted in engineering infrastructure maintenance. Data will be collected for purpose of extracting information on deployable strategies, including the use of Public engineering infrastructure in Southwestern part of Nigeria as case study. The study will later recommend strategies than can be adopted to aid this present generation provide solution to their environmental needs without compromise ability of future generation to meet their needs, which concept of sustainability has birthed.
KEY WORDS: Sustainability, Strategy, Infrastructure and Maintenance.
1.1 SUSTAINABILITY PHENOMENON
Sustainability issue in recent times has dominated the arena of discussion in built environment. Billions of dollars worth of building investment are being initiated world over while little emphasis is placed on the aspect of maintenance of such infrastructure, this however could result into building an unsustainable buildings. In the tropic, careful consideration is often given to planning while proactive thought is not often accord the maintenance aspect, this however is common to the public utilities and infrastructure. Most sectors, unfortunately, are yet to give issue of sustainable design and building, an appropriate emphasis, buildings meant for human habitation are developed without much emphasis on design concept, space ergonomics, construction process, renewable material and post construction post occupancy requirement.
It is however pertinent at this juncture to appreciate the component of a sustainable building and infrastructure. Sustainable building are those that through their design, spatial orientation, choice of building components, construction and operational strategy, are highly efficient, also have low operating costs, environmentally friendly, and do not affect the health of their users and occupants negatively (1) Solomon, 2005)
An infrastructure that contains structure and form that are not sustainable can be describe as high and this has become a phenomenon in the tropic, it is high time however that paradigm should shift from non sustainable development to sustainable one, through proactive strategy which this study aimed to achieve.
2.0 PERSPECTIVES TO THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY
There are existing views to the definition of sustainability concept; sustainable design/construction is one of such views. Sustainable infrastructure is viewed as the one that eliminates associated negative impact of infrastructures on user and environment. One of the schools of thought is the one that considers sustainability from the sustainable design/construction perspective, that, it is the design of and construction of infrastructure in a way that will enable the present generation meet their needs without compromising the prospect of future generation in meeting their needs.
Sustainable design/construction can also be described according to (1,2), as the proper use of land, minimization of waste water, the use of less mechanical energy, understanding the site ecology, the application of eco-effective and recyclable materials among others. This can be generally described as producing an high performance infrastructure.
Another school of thought, viewed sustainable concept from the perspective of eliminating associated negative impact of infrastructure on users and environment, this school of thought emphasize maintaining infrastructure form and structure. (2) belong to this school of thought, that it is a design and construction practices that significantly reduce or eliminate the negative impact of building/infrastructures on the environment. It was established that this is achievable from the following six (6) key areas: Bioclimatic design indoor-environmental quality, construction of materials and resources, energy efficiency and renewable energy, and community design and connections; and sustainable design.
So also another school of thought believed that sustainable infrastructure should benefit society at large, improves standard of living (socially financially and economically), and secures the users health and safe for habitation. (2,1)
3.0 INFRASTRUCTURE DETERIORATION PHENOMENA AND MAINTENANCE CONCEPT
Maintenance-free or self-sustaining infrastructure is highly desirable but not feasible. Infrastructures deteriorates with time due to wear and tear effect on the component, users and occupiers activity, inherent defects in design and construction and effects of environmental role in the deterioration of infrastructures’ component; hence left to themselves, facilities will eventually become inefficient, unreliable and fail (3), (4), (5) opined that function change or function termination of the user, owner or manager is limited once the building’s acceptance threshold has been passed. If such building is sold the risk will then be transferred to the buyer, as did the original owner, it is at this stage that maintenance of such infrastructure is of great necessity, only repair or rehabilitation can bring such building back to the improved state or as-good-as-new state (3,1).
(4,1) submitted that infrastructural facilities depreciate at a rate varying between 6% and 10% depending on their physical conditions in a period of 10 years. When maintenance is ignored the effect is to aggravate the rate of infrastructures deterioration from year to year.
4.0 CRITICAL SUSTAINABILITY FACTORS IN ENGINEERING INFRASTRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE
Engineering infrastructures are required virtually at all facets of human endeavor, they are found at various stages of human economic and social economic life, buildings are common one around, it as well includes road, dam, equipment in building, production structures, drainage facilities, waste disposal and processing facilities, material production units, health facilities, transportation units, electricity outfits, and telecommunication systems. However, huge cost is always involved in infrastructures maintenance. (5), (6) identified three sets of factors which influence maintenance requirement and costs. These are: (i) Internal parameters pertaining to intrinsic characteristics of the building such as design and construction and the interdependence of building component and elements (ii) Usage and environmental effects which exert stress on the infrastructure and (iii) The effects of the previous users actions and owners response to maintenance need.
(i) Previous users action (Vandalism): Users action often constitute a great source for maintenance need in infrastructure maintenance. This could be described as vandalism, it has its roots in the social fabric of the community, and its often out of psychological disposition to cause damage, it is as well often calculated intention to express dissatisfaction to authority or society at large (7). Among the factors adduced as responsible for act of vandalism are wrong choice of materials, poor space layout, poor lighting arrangements and lack of security among others. Vandalism impairs the aesthetic of building, and reduces its life span and cost intensive.
(ii) Environmental stress effects on infrastructure: (Sick building Syndrome) Environmental agencies such as climatic conditions (rainfall, humility, temperature, wind groundwater conditions), chemical agents like chlorides and sulphates impact stress building and occupants. These stressors acts base on orientation of the structure and on external elements of the structure. The resultant effect of these stressors on the building is referred to as sick building syndrome.
(iii) Deficiency in design construction and interdependency of building components: The nature in which some elements in building were designed often hinders their maintainability. This may result from non-availability of replacement parts and components as in the case of many imported household items like lift, and air-conditioning (including Nigeria), in this kind of situation therefore, the most effective maintenance strategy should be one that minimizes the incidence of maintenance works through appropriate design. To be able to sustain a design or concept, it should be maintainable, and maintainability in the real sense of it is a measure of the ease of maintaining a building or its elements and components, which depends not only on the design and technical aspects but also on the availability of the building or components, when required for maintenance. (8).
5.0 STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING INFRASTRUCTURE
Constructing sustainable engineering infrastructure is approached in different ways with different priorities in different countries ranging from ecological impact on the environment, economic, social cultural consideration, density and demography of population, availability of land and water, energy production and supply, loss of natural habitat to lack of adequate facility to handling and resultant waste processing. So also strategies that could be adapted varies, however the some of the proactive strategy recommend could be any of the following or combination of more than one. Integrated project delivery system, re-engineering of construction process, environmental quality of construction, new construction concepts, assembly and disassembly approach, public awareness, setting of benchmark for regulation and best proactive, research and development, capacity building of construction sector, and energy conservation.
(a) Integrated approach in infrastructural design and construction: (I. A. I. D. C.) Because there is tendency for design process to increase in importance and complexity, there is therefore an urgent need for an integrated approach requiring among others co-engineering partnership between designers, engineers, and manufacturers. This will engender work cohesion in changing design information for an optimized alternative. This will enable adequate feedback for future design and improvement and as well information on best approach to maintain the existing infrastructure, so as to sustain them in from, structure and function.
(b) Process management (P.M): Management and Organization of key factors that comes to play in sustainability issue is as important as the concept itself. The subject must engage other issues not only technical aspect, but as well social, legal, economic and political matter. A structuring of the maintenance problem must be done in such a way that the complex interrelationship can be modeled for communication purpose. Also, a system of measuring progress must be put in place so that the extent of progress achieved can be appraised. A management framework must be developed which allows for planning, design, construction, monitoring and feedback on sustainability, as a key element in the development occupation and maintenance of infrastructures.
(c) Integrated project delivery system (I. P. D. S): An integrated delivery system is needed if the sustainability of engineering infrastructure will be realizable. Key actors involved are to be galvanized, from federal government, state government, and local government to designer, client, manufacturers and suppliers. Research has revealed that public infrastructures are poorly maintained, the federal government then should ensure the development of clear national sustainable policies and plans, local governments on the other hand holds key responsibility for land use, planning and implementation of sustainability policies as formulated by the federal government. Designers, builders and clients are responsible for reducing construction energy in building as well as non renewable resources. Thus builders, management and designers, are also to be responsible for increasing the recyclable material contents of building, waste generation and detoxification to produce an eco-friendly by-products.
(d) Re-engineering of the building and maintenance process: The penetration of new technology will lead to better output. New technology that involves better management of infrastructure development process through total quality managements and improved project coordination facilities as well as proactive maintenance system will be of immense value. This will help to large extent in having sustainable development.
(e) Improvement of environmental standard in construction and maintenance of engineering infrastructures: There should be a clear policy as regards standard obtainable in design, construction and maintenance of infrastructures. Paradigm should shift in the direction of “Green building Concepts.” According to (10), Green buildings are designed to meet certain objectives such as protecting occupant health, improving employee productivity, using energy, water and other resources more efficiently and reducing the overall impact to the environment. In this vein however, Green infrastructure is being advocated. It is high time that construction stakeholders shift focus to the direction of Green infrastructure. The infrastructure that will have less operating costs through increasing productivity and using less energy and water; improved public and occupant health due to improved indoor air quality and reduced environmental impacts.
(f) Introduction of new construction and maintenance concepts: The penetration of new technology and design concepts, construction and maintenance of infrastructure, will produce an economic and environmental valid construction products. Therefore, synergic approach in this respect, among designers, builders, and material manufacturers is needed to produce advanced products. The development and incorporation of subsystems however should not be cost intensive, the application should be flexible and environmentally compatible and sustainable. New concepts in maintenance should be introduced; introduction of Total Maintenance Operation Management (T. M. O. M.) is advocated. T. M. O. M. is a technique that involves appraising techniques used in maintenance of an item, with a view to establishing an optimized approach better in term of quality, and fair in term of cost and as well pliable in the aspect of environmentally friendly by-products.
(g) Incorporating eco-friendly construction materials: Studies reveals that people spent 80-85% of their time indoors, and most of the building materials often used in construction emits fumes and odour. The odour and emission from such are often poisonous, the effect can be carcinogenic or mutagenic, while other effects includes but not limited to the following: dizziness, memory loss, skin problem, respiratory tracts infection, migraine, headache, allergies of diverse kind, disturbance in biological functions and damage of cellular growth and genetics and destruction of ecosystem ( 8,2). Therefore eco-friendly materials are needed in construction work in order to sustain life and structure, that uses the construction products and bye products.
6.0 ANALYSIS OF RESULT AND DISCUSSION.
Table 1: Sample frame for the study
State No. of federal owned hospital No. selected for study No. of state owned
hospital No. studied No. of federal owned road No. selected for study No. of state owned road No. selected for study Percent studied hospital Percentage studied road Lagos 5 4 16 15 20 19 32 30 76.0 52.70 Ogun 2 2 24 22 12 2 12 11 32.0 14.00 Osun 1 1 12 11 5 5 12 11 16.0 17.21 Oyo 1 1 20 19 3 3 13 12 26.67 16.13 Total 9 8 72 67 30 29 69 64 150.67 100.04 Source: Field survey 2009
Table 1 present sample frame for the study, it include the sample selected from population. Samples were picked from Federal owned Health infrastructure (hospital) and State owned infrastructure. Sixteen (16) Federal Hospitals were chosen from Lagos with fifteen (15) State Hospitals, twenty-four (24) federal from Ogun State, and twenty-two (22) State Hospitals, Twelve (12) Federal Hospitals from Osun with Eleven (11) State Hospitals, while twenty (20) Federal Hospital were selected from Oyo State and nineteen (19) State Hospitals.
Also, on Road infrastructure, a total number of thirty federal roads were sampled, while sixty-nine roads were selected. As regards sample selected criterion like road topography maintenance operation frequency, road size, road accessories, road design, surface feature among others were used to sensor users opinion on roads sustainability issue, the analysis of the respondents response is as presented in table 9.
Table 2: Analysis of number of building managed by maintenance department
Number of buildings Frequency Valid percent Percentage cumulative Fewer than 5 building 42 22.8 22.80 6 – 10 building 18 9.78 32.58 10 – 15 35 9.6 52.18 20 – 30 38 20.65 72.83 24 – 40 6 3.26 76.09 28 – 50 7 3.80 79.89 32 – 60 18 9.78 89.67 More than 60 20 10.87 100.54 Total field 184 90.54 526.66
Source: Survey 2009
Analysis of building infrastructure maintained by the maintenance department of the organization is presented in table 2. Results indicate 20-30 building which constitutes 20.65% of the organizations structures were maintained by the department.
Summarily the range can be stated as 19.54% building as being maintained by maintenance department of the organization
Table 3: Analysis of hospital facilities users
Department Sample size Population percentage No returned Response Administration staff 92 32.86 85 41.46 Management staff 30 10.72 25 12.20 Medical staff 100 35.72 15 39.02 Patient 60 21.42 15 7.32 Total 280 100.72 205 100
From Table above, 35.75 of the sampled respondents are Medical staff, 32.9% are Administrative staff, 21.42 are Patient and 10.7% Management staff. Also 41.5% response was obtained from Administrative staff while the lowest response was from patient.
Table 4: Analysis of length of service hospital facilities maintenance staff
Length of service Frequency Valid percent Cumulative percent Lea than 2 years 92 44.88 44.88 2-5 years 43 20.98 65.86 5-10 years 30 14.64 80.50 11-15 tears 25 12.20 92.70 12 year an above 15 7.32 100.02 Total 205 100.02 100.02 Years of experience of the maintenance staff is necessary for sound judgment in their response to the question on this works, therefore, 44.88% of the respondent had been in the maintenance service of the institute for less than 2 years,20.98% for 2-5years, 14.64% for 5-10 years and 7% for 12 years and above.
Table 5: Users Perception of Federal Health Infrastructures (Hospital).
INFRASTRUCTURAL COMPONENT MEAN INDEX RANK Internal Paintings 90.52 1 External Paintings 90.45 2 External Paintings 89.52 3 Environmental Sanitation 79.4 4 Blockwalls 76.19 5 Clean Water Supply 75.33 6 Floor slabs 75.24 7 Roof Structures 73.52 8 Lift Services 72.65 9 Garbage Disposal 71.69 10 Beams/ Collumn 70.52 11 Electricity Supply 69.16 12 Ceiling 63.56 13 Waste water disposal 63.04 14 Window 53.93 15 Doors 53.03 16 Escalator 52.54 17 Security 49.78 18 Sanitary Fittings 48.05 19 Communication System 46.88 20 Parking Facilities 46.67 21 Fire protection Appliance 46.57 22 Road Networks 46.36 23 Human Traffic Control 45.88 24 Adequacy of Albedo 45.68 25 Drainage Systems 45.15 26 Indoor Air quality 42.91 27 Shading by Vegetation 42.17 28 Courtyard Design 42.15 29 Floor/wall Tiles 42.09 30 Nettings 40.02 31
Table 6: users Perception State Health Infrastructure (Hospital)
INFRASTRUCTURAL COMPONENT MEAN INDEX RANK Internal Paintings 89.58 1 External Paintings 89.52 2 External Paintings 89.52 2 Environmental Sanitation 79.42 3 Blockwalls 76.19 4 Clean Water Supply 75.53 5 Floor slabs 75.44 6 Roof Structures 74.52 7 Lift Services 71.65 8 Garbage Disposal 70 9 Beams/ Collumn 69.52 10 Electricity Supply 68.16 11 Ceiling 63.56 12 Waste water disposal 63.04 13 Window 53.98 14 Doors 53.03 15 Escalator 52.5 16 Security 49.72 17 Sanitary Fittings 47.05 18 Communication System 46.8 19 Parking Facilities 46.67 20 Fire protection Appliance 46.67 21 Road Networks 46.26 22 Human Traffic Control 45.88 23 Adequacy of Albedo 45.78 24 Drainage Systems 45.35 25 Indoor Air quality 43.91 26 Shading by Vegetation 43.17 27 Courtyard Design 42.79 28 Floor/wall Tiles 42.3 29 Nettings 40.72 30
Table 7 Analysis of Ranking Factor of Users Perception on Maintenance Work carried out in Hospitals.
INFRASTRUCTURAL COMPONENT RANK (Fed) RANK(Stat) RAF PRAF RANKING Internal Paintings 1 2 0.10 94.85 1 External Paintings 2 4 0.19 90.21 2 External Paintings 3 3 0.19 90.21 3 Road Networks 23 23 0.19 90.21 4 Environmental Sanitation 4 3 0.22 88.66 5 Sanitary Fittings 19 21 1.29 33.,51 6 Blockwalls 5 5 0.32 83.51 7 Clean Water Supply 6 7 0.42 78.35 8 Floor slabs 7 8 0.48 75.26 9 Roof Structures 8 9 0.55 71.65 10 Lift Services 9 9 0.58 70.10 11 Garbage Disposal 10 11 0.67 65.46 12 Electricity Supply 12 11 0.74 61.86 13 Ceiling 13 12 0.81 58.25 14 Waste water disposal 14 14 0.91 53.09 15 Beams/ Collumn 11 19 0.96 50.52 16 Window 15 17 1.03 46.91 17 Security 18 15 1.03 46.91 18 Escalator 17 16 1.07 44.85 19 Doors 16 18 1.10 43.30 20 Communication System 20 18 1.23 36.6 21 Parking Facilities 21 20 1.32 31.96 22 Fire protection Appliance 22 21 1.39 28.35 23 Human Traffic Control 24 24 1.55 20.10 24 Adequacy of Albedo 25 25 1.62 16.50 25 Drainage Systems 26 28 1.74 10.31 26 Indoor Air quality 27 29 1.81 6.70 27 Shading by Vegetation 28 29 1.84 5.16 28 Courtyard Design 29 31 1.94 0.00 29 Floor/wall Tiles 30 30 1.94 0.00 30 Nettings 31 29 1.94 0.00 31
Table 8: Users perception of Federal Road Infrastructure’s Condition in South West, Nigeria.
INFRASTRUCTURAL COMPONENT MEAN INDEX RANK Internal Paintings 89.52 2 External Paintings 89.52 4 External Paintings 89.52 3 Environmental Sanitation 79.42 3 Blockwalls 76.19 5 Clean Water Supply 75.53 7 Floor slabs 75.44 8 Roof Structures 74.52 9 Lift Services 71.65 9 Garbage Disposal 70 11 Beams/ Collumn 69.52 19 Electricity Supply 68.16 11 Ceiling 63.56 12 Waste water disposal 63.04 14 Window 53.98 17 Doors 53.03 18 Escalator 52.5 16 Security 49.72 15 Sanitary Fittings 47.05 21 Communication System 46.8 18 Parking Facilities 46.67 20 Fire protection Appliance 46.67 21 Road Networks 46.26 23 Human Traffic Control 45.88 24 Adequacy of Albedo 45.78 25 Drainage Systems 45.35 28 Indoor Air quality 43.91 29 Shading by Vegetation 43.17 29 Courtyard Design 42.79 31 Floor/wall Tiles 42.3 30 Nettings 40.72 29
Users perception of the extent of maintenance work carried out on the Federal infrastructure and the state of the infrastructure is presented in table7 and 8, statistical methods were used for the analysis.
The severity index is given by (11)
PRAF=RAFmax -_ RAFi
Where = Constant expressing the weight given to I; and = variable expressing the frequency of the response for I = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 and is illustrated as follows:
= frequency of “very bad factor, (V. B. F) = frequency of “Bad factor”, (B. F)
= frequency of “Average factor”, (A. F) = frequency of “Good factor” (G.F) and = frequency of “Very Good factor” (V.G.F).
RAF max= Maximum RAF, N= number of variable factor ranked, ? = sum of the order of rankings by the respondents.
The rank agreement factor can be greater than 1, with a higher factor implying greater disagreement. For the ranking of perception of users on facilities maintenance,for the 31 parameters used, the Maximum RAF is 1.94. An RAF of Zero imolies perfect agreement.
For Table 8, External paintings was regarded as most maintained with index of 89.52%, followed by good environment, the environment was well kept, with 79.42%. Well maintained internal paintings was ranked 3rd with 77.83%, Blockwall, with 76.19% ranked 4th while clean water supply to the buildings with 75.53% ranked 5th.
The most poorly maintained is courtyard, which was poorly designed, inadequate Albedo, poor human traffic control, communication system, drainage system, parking facilities and shading by vegetation.
Questionnaire was distributed to collated the response of Road infrastructure users, severity index of the response was measured as well using (11,1) approach as in the Hospital infrastructure above. The outcome of the analyses indicated that, road camp for rapid response to emergency repair on roads were not adequate, road surfaces were poorly maintained, little or no pedestrian walkway exerting unnecessary stress on the road, regular maintenance of the roads is poor and the pothole on the roads are little or not maintained.
Table 9: Strategies for sustainable infrastructure (users perspective)
Parameters Mean index Rank Total maintenance technique management 89.98 1 Proactive Maintenance Approach 89.75 5 Rainwater harvesting 60.75 17 Green building technologies 88.65 10 Using VOC volatile organic compound free material 40.25 18 Curtailing harmful emission from industrial materials 64.35 16 Material recycling 85.72 12 Using Eco friendly building materials 85.70 13 Pre-environmental auditing of building materials 65.25 15 Good social economic habit of user 89.83 3 Proper supervision of maintenance project 88.89 7 Impressing less tress on infrastructure 89.90 1 Integrated approach in infrastructural design and construction 88.77 9 Construction process management 86.66 11 Integrated project delivery system 88.78 8 Reengineering of the building and maintenance process 82.78 14 Introducing new construction and maintenance concepts 88.98 6 Improving environmental standard in construction 89.90 2
Field survey 2010
Users perception on sustainability strategy that could be adapted in infrastructures maintenance is presented in table 10 above,
Adopting system of total maintenance operation management (TMOM) is advocated, this is ranked first (1st) alongside with imposing less stress on infrastructures, this will prolong the shelf life of the infrastructures. Provision of an improved environmental standard in construction is ranked second (2nd), developing good social economic ideology among users, (3rd), proactive maintenance approach (5th) proper supervision of maintenance project (6th), adopting an integrated project delivery system (8th) and green building technologies adoption.
7.0 Total Maintenance Operation Management (T.M.O.M.)
However, total maintenance technique management is advocated. This is system that will make managing quality at fdifferent phases of development project or construction of infrastructure possible. The system incorporates the aspect of construction, design and maintenance to be able to provide an insight into ingredients for sustainable development. The detail of the aspects involved in Total Maintenance Technique Management (T.M.O.M.) from infrastructural user perspective is presented in the table (10) below.
Table 10: Analysis of Response on Total Maintenance Operation Management (T.M.O.M.) structure.
Total Maintenance Operation Management S/N T.M.O.M Principle Total M.I.S Val RK A Quality Policy
1.Policy of maintenance method to be used should be clearly defined
2. Employee should be involved in decision making.
3. Standard of works and operational quality should be clearly communicated.
4. Quality assurance team should be formulated.
5. Period retrospective check on successful implementation essential.
7 B Communication, Authority and Responsibility.
1. There should be effective communication of information on work quality standard to the maintenance personnel.
2. Management should convey meeting on quality in maintenance issue periodically.
3. Policy implementation committee need to be established
4. Delegation of responsibility is essential for over operation success
5. Establishing line of command is essential.
14 C Work Environment
1. Work environment should conform to international standard.
2. Adequate ventilation, first aid and personal protective items should be available
3. Work schedule should be flexible to minimize error and accident.
4. Man-machine convenience should be given consideration
5. Provision of incentive to enhance productivity.
7 D Manpower Training and Development
1. Skill workers should be sufficient in companies/ organizations maintenance operations.
2. Workshop, Conference should be organized for workers.
3. Refreshers courses is essential for on-job development.
4. Rotational of job-bits for workers job-experience universality
5. Mechanization of production processes operation
4 E Measurement and Precision
1. Emphasis is usually on getting the work done correctly once and always
2. Periodic measurement of maintenance quality management.
3. Item repaired last long before developing faults.
4. Fault developing period on maintained items are as follows:
Below 5 months.
10 months and above
28 F Performance Monitoring
1. Conventional method of detecting faults should be in place.
2. Human-based inspection method should give way to conventional method
3. Personnel should be taught fault recognition techniques.
4. Personnel should be taught ways of assessing maintenance works done.
5. Frequency of corrective operation (rework) should be noted as performance index
16 G RESOURCE ALLOCATION BUDGETING
1 Resource should be allocated for works in every fiscal years.
2 Financial allocation should exist for emergencies.
3 There should be budget for routine maintenances.
4 Progressive auditioning of operations.
23 H QUALITY COST OBJECTIVE.
1 Minimizing Expenditure to maximize profit.
2 Having maintenance expenditure base on machine/equipment age/utilization
3 Allowing contingencies for tools and incidental: internals and external failure
SOURCE: 2005 SURVEY
8.0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS/FINDING
The cumulative figure of respondents’ opinion as regards issues on application of Total Maintenance Operation Management principle in maintenance operation is presented in Table 5, the Mean item score is also calculated of the Data generated therefrom. However it was discovered from table 5 that:Sensitization of personnel i.e communication on the issue of quality as regards various maintenance operations top the list, with mean item score 1.00 that Management of organization should convey periodic meeting of the employee, which will provide a forum of discussion on quality issues; this will enable issues of bottlenecks in operation to be discussed and solved.
Manpower base of the organization needs be consolidated, through driving qualitative personnel development programme, this was ranked second (2nd ) with mean item score 0.96, that qualitative knowledge and skill could be acquired through workshop, seminar, vocational skill acquisition programme and organization of refresher courses was ranked third (3rd) with mean item score ).93, this is essential to keep personnel abreast current technological development in their area of discipline since organization at all facet in life has been the order of the day since the inception of concept of globalization .So also communication of main tenancy policy to all and sundry, mechanization of production processes operation and formulation of quality assurance team, were ranked fourth (4th) with mean item sore 0.92. Hand/manual work tends to be monotonous and tedious, is slow and retards efficiency. Certain operation could be carried out more rapidly and efficiently if machine were used in carrying them out. The nature of maintenance policy in place should be well defined and communicated to personnel, this will enable them to share the vision burden, clear communication of the policy gives an organization focus and direction and results in a well structure that favours productivity.
As well important is the formulation of quality assurance team, this teams major preoccupation is check and control of the quality in production system. This culminates in a concept of self-driven team, they generate/originate ideas, formulates quality policy and set up framework for its implementation.
So also, an organization that desires enhance output will hold in high esteem the upholding of standard work among its workers, thus from table 5, clear communication of standard of work and operational quality, periodic retrospective check on adherence to quality in maintenance operations, provision of incentives to enhance productivity and teaching of personnel the art and skill of fault recognition in maintenance operations, were ranked seventh (7th), with mean item score value 0.91.
The personnel needs taught skill and techniques useful in recognizing fault during maintenance works; this lessens the burden on supervisors, and would held forestall delay and unnecessary re-work.
Incentive provision is also essential in encouraging workers on to higher productivity, the incentive induces higher productivity, when well managed and administered. The incentives could be Financial incentive, Non-financial incentive or combination of both. The incentive nullifies dissatisfaction among workers and enables them to put in their best. An incentived maintenance workers will be effective at work, efficiency is high, waste is reduce and productivity per head is enormous. However, the incentive mentioned above alongside with provision of first aid and personal protective items are all means of eliciting higher productivity from workers. Periodic retrospective evaluation of result achieved as regards policy implementation is necessary; this should be observed, in order to determine the extent of success attained, in order to call for policy reformation or re-programming.
From the Table (5), Establishing line of command, Job-bits rotation, were ranked fourteen (14th) with mean item score 0.89; Establishing line of command is necessary for effective instruction and information dissemination as well as job-bits rotation, this prevent exhaustion, job burnt-out, and work monotony, it also allows for experience universality.
In line with the above is establishing flexible work schedule, delegation of responsibility, effective communication work/operations quality, and using conventional methods in fault detection for purpose of maintenance work, were ranked sixteen 916th) with mean item score 0.88. Work schedule should be flexible, this prevents overwork, work fatigue and dissatisfaction that could lead to work accident or exhaustion, which is counter-productive, authority, needs be delegated for effective administration, and overall success. So also conventional method should give way to primitive fault detection method that are ancient and outdated, computerized fault detecting gadget should be employed e.g. calibrated electronic fault detecting devices.
Minimizing Expenditure to maximize profit is ranked thirty-third (33rd) with mean item score 0.59, maintenance operation incurs expenditure by its nature, thus it is not profit oriented, thus adequate expenditure programme should be in place. Emphasis here should be getting the operation carried out correctly once and always, with periodic measurement of maintenance quality management to ensure consistency, this will enable items maintained to last before developing fault, to this end however, the suggested window fault detection period that could be abstracted is benchmarked at period of 10 month and above, this will tend to lesson expenditure.
With reference to the discussion above sustainable approach to maintenance of engineering infrastructures could be achieved using the following benchmarked parameters:
(a) Introduction of new construction and maintenance concepts.
(b) Integrated approach in infrastructural design and construction.
(c) Empowering workers through knowledge base consolidation approaches such as: Seminars Workshop, Vocational acquisition course, and Refresher course
(d) Clear communication of maintenance policy to all stakeholders.
(e) Incorporating eco-friendly construction material into building at building stage
(f) Formulation of quality assurance team to oversee various maintenance operations.
(g) Mechanization of production processes where necessary.
(h) Periodic retrospective check on process/success achieved at various policy and operations.
(i) Provision of good environment, well ventilated workspace, first aid and protective items.
(j) Site work environment
(k) Reengineering of building and maintenance process.
(l) Improvement of environmental standard in infrastructures construction and maintenance
(m) Provision of incentives (financial and Non-financial).
(n) Adoption of
(o) Teaching of maintenance personnel/crew the art and technique of fault recognition for purpose of maintenance.
(p) Provision of contingencies for tools and incidentals: internal and external failures.
(q) Provision of budget for routine maintenance.
(r) Teaching personnel ways/method of assessing quality of work married out.
(s) There should be effective communication of information on work quality-standard to personnel
(t) Delegation of responsibility
(u) Work schedule should be flexible to minimize error and accident.
(v) Using conventional method in fault detection during maintenance operation.
(w) Financial allocation should be put in place for emergency.
(x) Maintenance allocation should be ranged based on frequency of equipment utilization, and period of purchase.
If the above could be observed, productivity will increase among maintenance workers, accident will be reduced, incidence of rework and waste will be eliminated and there will be quality job output.
 Solomon, N (2005) ”The Pick of the Sustainable Crop”, Architectural Record Pp 160.
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