Principles in the Social Sciences

Principles in the Social Sciences
Spring 2014

Exam 2 Study Guide

From the lectures, please know the following:

Know the major characteristics of the seven models of society reviewed in lecture.

a) The Civic Model (Aristotle)
b) Instrumental Individualism (Thomas Hobbes)
c) The Social System (Adam Smith)
d) A Conflict Model (Karl Marx)
e) A Consensus Theory (Emile Durkheim)
g) An Action Theory (Max Weber)
h) Phenomenonological Theory (Alfred Schutz)

Be sure to know the characteristics of human nature according to Aristotle, Hobbes, Smith and Marx.
What is virtue for Aristotle, Hobbes, and Smith?
Why do people need both intellectual and moral virtues according to Aristotle?
What did Hobbes think of Aristotle’s views regarding society?
How can you tell the nature of a society according to Max Weber?
According to Smith, what does capitalism allow individuals to do that no other economic system allows?
Durkheim introduced the idea of anomie. Does anomie exist in contemporary American society? We cannot ask that last question on the exam, but it is a good thought-experiment.

Psychology:

What is the definition of the science of psychology?
What are the contributions of Freud, Piaget, Watson, Skinner and George Miller to the development of psychology?
What is the mind-body problem?
What is the “problem of other minds”?
What is the issue raised with the mind-body problem about empirical research?

Anthropology

What is the definition of anthropology?
What research methods are used in anthropology?
What are the contributions of Bronislaw Malinowski to anthropology?

Who was Franz Boas?
What is his theory of Historical Particularism?
Who was Margaret Mead?
How did her work support Boas’ theories?
Was Boas a cultural or physical anthropologist?

Who were the Neanderthals?
Why did Homo Sapiens become the exclusive hominid?
Why did Homo Sapiens become dominant over Neanderthals?
What happened to the Neanderthals?
Did the two groups co-exist?
What is the “out of Africa” hypothesis?

Cultural anthropology is concerned with what area of study?
Physical anthropology is concerned with what area of study?

From the chapter readings, please know the following:

Chapter 4:

What is the definition of the science of psychology?
What are the five areas of research and theory within psychology?

Know the behaviorist approach to the study of psychology.
The behaviorists concentrated on what area of research?
Know the cognitive approach to the study of psychology.
The cognitive psychologists have concentrated on what areas of research?

What research problems are studied within developmental psychology?
How did Piaget view human development?

What do social psychologists do?
How does the research of the social psychologists differ from the research of the sociologist?

What is self-actualization according to Carl Rogers? What is necessary to achieve self-actualization?

What do clinical psychologists do?
Regardless of the type of therapy, what is the most important requirement of the person seeking therapy? (See Box 4.1)

Chapter 10:

What is the ancient Greek definition of geography? What is the modern definition? Are the two definitions close?
What are the most powerful tools in geography?
How do geographers look for causal factors of patterns?
When geographers find a pattern in a specific location, what their next step, typically?
What is GIS? Check out this website: what industries use GIS? http://www.esri.com/industries.html
What is the meaning of the “cultural landscape”?

Chapter 11:

When did the social sciences begin?
Why are Plato and Aristotle important for the development of the social sciences?
What did Plato’s book The Republic address?
Why were the work of Hobbes and Locke important for the development of the social sciences?
The chapter cites the contrasting views of Karl Marx and Herbert Spencer as important for the beginning of the social sciences.
Why did Marx despise the bourgeoisie (capitalists)?
For Marx, how was communism supposed to improve society?
According to Marx, how will class conflict end (see Box 11.2)?
According to Spencer, what is Social Darwinism? (see Box 11.3)?
Did Spencer support government programs for the poor? Why or why not?

Chapter 37:

What did Freud emphasize as the causes for human behavior?
What did Skinner emphasize as the causes for human behavior?

What are Freud’s id, ego and superego constructs for personality?
What is the function of each construct?

What is the message of Freud’s book, Civilization and Its Discontents?

Did Skinner believe that behavior in a society should be controlled by reward or by punishment?

What reasons did Skinner give for his position on this issue?

Chapter 38 :

What is Erikson’s attitude toward Freud’s work?
Focus on the conflicts of the different ages according to Erikson. Know the exact terms and what the terms mean that express the conflicts of these age periods.
What is the purpose of psycho-historical investigation developed by Erikson?
According to Erikson, how can a crisis or an episode in a person’s life then give purpose or meaning to the future life of that individual? Know the example of Martin Luther given in the text (pp 432-433).

Chapter 40:

Please know the case of Anna reviewed in the chapter.
What happened to Anna in the first six years of her life?
Describe her physical condition at age 6.
After age 6, when she was given proper care, how did Anna develop mentally?
Did she learn to talk after her rescue?

Compare Anna’s case to the similar case of Isabelle.
What was the prognosis for Isabelle’s future mental development when she was evaluated at age 6.5 years old?
What was Isabelle’s actual progress regarding her mental development up to age 14?

According to Box 40.1, is there are critical period for language development?
If so, when does this critical period end?

According to Box 40.2 who was Genie and what happened to her?
What hypothesis was offered as to why Genie never attained the normal use of language?

According to Box 40.3 who was the “Wild Boy of Aveyron”. According to Itard, what prevented this boy from acquiring the use of language?

Chapter 6:

What is the definition of anthropology?
What makes humans different from all other animals?
Why is culture important?

What are the two sub fields of anthropology?

What is ethnocentrism? What is cultural relativism?
What is culture shock? Is ethnocentrism always wrong?

Chapter 22:

What is non-verbal communication? Why is this form of communication important? What is our conclusion when there is a lack of agreement between a verbal and a non-verbal message from the same person?

What is meant by territoriality (personal space)? What controls the amount of territoriality between people? What are the four zones (main distances) most white middle-class Americans use in business and social relations? What is the distance of each of these zones? What is the importance of these distances in dating other persons?

Chapter 42:

What is the difference between sex and gender?
What is homophobia? Is homophobia more common among men or women? Does it differ by racial/ethnic group?

Do you think our society currently has a third gender? Would you expect in the next 50 years that we might develop one?

Chapter 18:

What was the “great advancement” in the time course of human evolution? What did Yohannes Haile-Selassie discover that appears to confirm the existence of this advancement? Where were these discoveries made?

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