PART A: INTRODUCTION i Rati

PART A: INTRODUCTION

i Rationale
Nowadays, as an effective means of international communication, English is widely used in all fields of activity throughout the world. Therefore, there has been a growing demand for the learning of this language of those who want to master English to serve their different purposes. This leads to the introduction of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in many universities in Vietnam. Being aware of the importance of ESP, Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at University of Social Sciences and Humanities (USSH) – VNU have had its own collections of teaching material on Linguistics Studies. It is aimed at providing students with background knowledge and a system of terms related to Linguistics.
In the process of acquiring English as a whole, students must learn not only language items but also four language skills among which reading plays an important part. This is also true to students of linguistics because they can broaden their professional knowledge in their major as well as get access to language inputs to develop the other language skills when reading a lot of materials on linguistics in English.
Despite the significant role of reading skills, the teaching and learning of it at the Department have not been properly carried out. There are some exiting problems such as the lack of experience in teaching ESP, no training course for teachers of ESP, uneven English level of the students. Besides, Grammar-Translation method is still in use to exploit reading texts. Reading skill is often taught separately or, in other words, there is no integration with the other language skills. The text is, in fact, exploited as a source of materials for a language lesson. As a result, most of the students become bored and passive.
This has given rise to the question, “How can ESP teachers improve the situation to bring life into the lessons and motivate the students to read in English?” And the following answer can often be heard, “To teach reading skills in integration with the other language skills.” But how can this be done? This study will try to answer this question.
ii Objectives of the study
The study is aimed at:
1. identifying and analyzing strong points and weak points of ESP teaching and learning reading skills in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU;
2. exploiting the advantages of skill-integration in the light of Communicative Language Teaching in teaching reading skills to students of linguistics; and
3. suggesting techniques that are applicable and useful for the improvement in ESP teaching and learning reading skills in integration with the development of the other language skills to students of linguistics at USSH – VNU.
iii Scope of the study
It is impossible to cover every aspect of language theory and practice in this study. Due to lack of time, experience and reference materials, the study will focus only on studying teaching reading ESP to students of linguistics in the light of the Communicative Approach to language teaching.
iv Methods of the study
To carry out this study, the following methods will be employed:
1. Collection and critical review of related literature;
2. Survey questionnaires for both ESP teachers and students of linguistics at USSH – VNU. This will be carried out in combination with classroom observation; and
3. Data analysis

PART B: LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER 1: READING IN ESP TEACHING AND LEARNING
Reading itself includes numerous issues. Therefore, it is difficult to complete the coverage of such a vast topic. In this chapter, some different definitions of reading, the role of reading, reasons for reading, kinds of reading, reading skills and reading in ESP teaching and learning will be discussed.
1.1 Reading redefined
In the reading class, what the teacher understands about reading will have a great influence on what he or she teaches in the classroom. Therefore, for the teacher of reading, a careful look at definitions of reading is very important.
However, defining reading is not easy although a lot of attempts have been made to define it. Different people define the term reading in different ways and each definition reflects a different viewpoint of reading. According to Robinson and Good (1987: 9), “reading is best described as an understanding between the author and the reader…Reading is much more than just pronouncing words correctly or simply knowing that the author intends; it is the process whereby the printed page stimulates ideas, experiences and responses that are unique to an individual. Reading can simply be thought of as a personal encounter with the printed page. Basically, an important aspect of reading is the process of constructing meaning from printed materials.”
Petty and Salzer (1989: 323) held a similar point of view, that is, “reading involves the identification and recognition of printed or written symbols which serve as stimulus for the recall of meanings built up through past experience and further the construction of new meanings through the reader’s manipulation of relevant concepts already in his or her possession. The resulting meanings are organized into thought processes according to the purposes that are operating in the reader.”
Both of the above definitions indicate that reading is not only an interaction between the reader and the author but also between the reader and the text.
Gould, DiYanni, Smith and Standford (1990), on the other hand, defined this term by looking at its scope. According to them, reading is a creative act, interaction, interpretation, a social act and responding.
Although “no definition of reading can possibly include all viewpoints and features” (Robinson and Good – 1987: 9), for the sake of teaching and learning reading skills, the following definition should be emphasized: “Reading means “reading and understanding”. A foreign language learner who says, “I can read the words but don’t know what they mean” is not, therefore, reading, in this sense. He or she is merely decoding – translating written symbols into corresponding sounds.” (Ur – 1996: 138) This does not mean that the reader needs to understand every word in a text but actively work on the text and extract the required information efficiently.
So far we have had some knowledge of the definition of reading. The following section will discuss the part reading plays in a language teaching programme.
1.2 Role of reading
In reality, the ability to read is very important to personal development, academic studies, professional success, etc. Therefore, it is agreed that
1. Where there is little reading, there will be little language learning. It will be true for a few years yet that the student who wants to learn English will have to read himself into knowledge of it unless he can move into an English environment. He must substitute imaginary for actual experience;
2. Only by reading can the pupil acquire the speed and skills he will need for practical purposes when he leaves school. In our literate society, it is hard to imagine any skilled work that does not require the ability to read;
3. Further education depends on quantity and quality of reading. All the important study skills require quick, efficient and imaginative reading; and
4. General knowledge depends on reading. The “background” or cross – culture problem can only is tackled by wide reading. The more the student reads, the more background knowledge he acquires of other ways of life, behavior and thought and the more books he finds he can understand.
(Bright & McGregor – 1977: 52)
Thus, it can be said that reading is the core of the syllabus as it helps students broaden their general knowledge as well as professional one, improve other language skills and succeed in their future life. As a result, it is the teacher of reading that helps and motivates students to learn to read so that they can read to learn. To fulfill this task, he or she should give the student a reason for reading. The following section will, thus, discuss answers to the question, “Why do people read?”
1.3 Reasons for reading
Most students of English expect to be able to read the language sooner or later. Their personal desires and expectations vary from wanting to be able to read Shakespeare, Mark Twain or a scientific journal to being able to read a tourist brochure or advertisement. Accordingly, the reasons for reading will influence the way they read. For example, the quick scanning of a page in the telephone directory to find a single name is very different from the careful attention one pays to a legal document.
According to Rivers and Temperly (1978: 187), we read normally because we
1. want information for some purpose or because we are curious about some topic;
2. need instructions in order to perform some task for our work or for our daily life…;
3. want to act in a play, play a new game, do a puzzle, or carry out some other activity which is pleasant and amusing;
4. want to keep in touch with friends by corresponding or understand business letters;
5. want to know when or where something will take place or what is available…;
6. want to know what is happening or has happened…;
7. seek enjoyment or excitement…
Also concerning the reasons for reading, Nuttall (1989: 3) wrote: “You read because you wanted to get something from the writing: facts, ideas, enjoyment, even feelings of family community (from a letter).”
Sharing the same opinion, White in “Communication in Classroom” (Johnson, Morrow – 1981: 87), stated that “we read in order to obtain information which is presented in written form. By “information” I mean content which is cognitive (or intellectual), referential (or factual) or affective (or emotional).”
All of the above opinions agreed that reading is carried out for, at least, a reason other than reading the language itself. When reading, readers are not concerned with the language but with the message and its applications. In other words, they have authentic reasons for reading. Therefore, the teacher of English should combine the teaching and learning of the target language with the uses to which his or her students can put reading in their daily life outside the classroom. In addition, the teacher of reading should know how to exploit each text with each proper strategy by making students practise different types of reading.
1.4 Kinds of reading
Although there are different ways to classify reading, the most popular one is to base on manners and purposes of reading (or reasons for reading).
1.4.1 Classification according to manners of reading
Based on manners of reading, reading can be divided into reading aloud and silent reading.
1.4.1.1 Reading aloud
According to Doff (1995: 67), “obviously, reading aloud involves looking at a text, understanding it and also saying it”. What he meant is that when we read aloud, our purpose is not just to understand a text but to convey the information to someone else. In his opinion, “reading aloud can be useful at the earliest stage of reading (recognising letters and words); it can help students to make the connection between sound and spelling”.
However, Doff (1995: 58) also pointed out that “for reading a text, it is not a very useful technique” because it is not a natural activity – most people do not read aloud in real life. In addition, when reading aloud, only one student is active at a time while the others are either not listening at all or are listening to a bad model. And students only pay attention to pronunciation, not understanding the text. Besides, students usually read slowly because they find it hard to read aloud in their own language, let alone in a foreign language. Therefore, it takes up a lot of time in class.
Hedge (1991: 14) took the same view about reading aloud. He gave out points both for and against this kind of reading:
For
* Students often read out loud as an aid to making sense of sentences and finding the boundaries of sense groups.
* It gives extra practice in pronunciation, word stress and rhythm.
* It brings variety to classroom activities.
* It is appropriate to certain kinds of texts such as poetry and drama.
* Many students enjoy oral reading and are motivated by it.
* Traditionally it is the mode of reading in many educational systems. Against
* Listening to inaccurate pronunciation from classmates confuses understanding of the sound – symbol relationship.
* The reader is so intent on articulation that he loses track of the content.
* It does not allow the reader to use natural strategies for reading quickly and forces him to revert to a slow reading of every word so that overall meaning may be lost through attention to detail.
* It requires a considerable amount of classtime that might be better exploited. As a result, according to Doff (1995: 59), “if a teacher wants students to read aloud, it should be the final activity at the end of a reading lesson”. It can be suggested that to make full use of this type of reading, a reading lesson must be carefully prepared and carried out in various ways to motivate and encourage the student to learn.
1.4.1.2 Silent reading
Different from reading aloud, silent reading is the normal and natural activity that most students do in classroom as well as in real life. “Normally, reading is a silent and individual activity since the writer’s expectation was that the text would be read, not heard” (Abbott and Wingard – 1985: 81).
Doff (1995: 67) added that “it involves looking at sentences and understanding the message they convey, in other words, “making sense” of a written text.” This means that when we read, we do not merely sit as “passive receivers” of the text but we, based on our own knowledge of the world and of the language, extract the required information and relate it with real life. In addition, in silent reading, the student can read at his own speed and can go back and read whatever he wants to understand more.
1.4.2 Classification according to purposes of reading
As mentioned above, people read because of various reasons or, in other words, different purposes. Accordingly, the ways they read also vary. Most methodologists have agreed that the main kinds of reading according to purposes of reading are skimming, scanning, extensive reading and intensive reading.
1.4.2.1 Skimming
Skimming can be defined as follows: “By skimming… we mean glancing rapidly through a text to determine its gist, for example in order to decide whether a research paper is relevant to our own work…, or in order to keep ourselves superficially informed about matters that are not of great importance to us” (Nuttall – 1989: 34). Or simply speaking, when skimming, we go through the reading material quickly to get general sense or the gist of it without being concerned with the details. Therefore, skimming should be treated as a useful skill in teaching and learning reading and can be applied at the first stage of a reading lesson with the aim that the student can have an overview of what he is going to read.
1.4.2.2 Scanning
Scanning is also a necessary technique in reading efficiently. Nuttall (1989: 34) stated that “by scanning we mean glancing rapidly through a text either to search for a specific piece of information… or to get an initial impression of whether the text is suitable for a given purpose…”
Unlike skimming, scanning is a kind of reading carried out when we go through the text very fast in order to find a particular item of information, then concentrate on it. When scanning, we only try to find what we are looking for. Therefore, this kind of reading can be very useful in reading selectively.
1.4.2.3 Extensive reading
Extensive reading is also called “reading for fluency”. The student reads long texts to have general understanding, to practise his fluency in reading, or to relax. Therefore, this kind of reading is often carried out individually outside classroom. In general, the student should be encouraged to do extensive reading to improve his knowledge of the world as well as of the target language or simply to foster fluency and pleasure.
1.4.2.4 Intensive reading
In contrast with extensive reading, intensive reading requires full understanding of the text. Nuttall (1989: 23) wrote “intensive reading involves approaching the text under the close guidance of the teacher…, or under the guidance of a task which forces the student to pay great attention to the text. The aim of intensive reading is to arrive at a profound and detailed understanding of the text: not only of what it means, but also of how the meaning is produced. The “how” is as important as the “what”, for the intensive reading lesson is intended primarily to train students in reading strategies.” Accordingly, intensive reading should be a basic activity in a reading classroom.
In conclusion, the above kinds of reading are closely related. They can be used either alternatively or in combination in reading one text. The teacher of reading should vary reading strategies and make full use of each kind of reading. Furthermore, to make the teaching and learning reading better, the teacher should select activities suitable for promoting reading as a major language skill as well as its sub-skills which will be discussed below.
1.5 Reading skills
The reader employs a number of specialist skills when reading and his success in understanding the content of what he reads depends to a large extent on his expertise in these specialist skills. The following are some of the main reading skills required by a learner of English listed by Matthews, Spratt and Dangerfield (1991: 65):
1. recognising the letters of the alphabet;
2. reading groups of letters as words;
3. understanding the meaning of punctuation;
4. understanding the meaning of vocabulary items;
5. understanding the grammar of a sentence;
6. understanding the relationship between sentences and clauses in a text;
7. recognizing the effects of style;
8. recognizing the organization of a text;
9. making inferences;
10. reading longer texts (extensive reading);
11. skimming for gist;
12. scanning for specific information; and
13. reading for detail
This list concerns students of different levels of reading ability. For students of linguistics, the skills numbered (4), (5), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12) and (13) should be paid far more attention to than the rest since they are essential skills for them not only in their major but also in real life.
Reading skills are also identified as follows:
1. recognizing words and phrases in English script;
2. using one’s own knowledge of the outside world to make predictions about and interpret a text;
3. retrieving information stated in the passage;
4. distinguishing the main ideas from subsidiary information;
5. deducing the meaning and use of unknown words; ignoring unknown words/phrases that are redundant;
6. understanding the meaning and implications of grammatical structures;
7. recognizing discourse markers;
8. recognizing the function of sentences – even when not introduced by discourse markers;
9. understanding relations within the sentence and the text;
10. extracting specific information for summary or note taking;
11. skimming to obtain the gist, and recognise the organisation of ideas within the text;
12. understanding implied information and attitudes; and
13. knowing how to use an index, a table of contents, etc. Understanding layout, use of headings, etc.
(Willis – 1998: 142)
Basically, Willis took the same view on reading sub-skills as Matthews, Spratt and Dangerfield. These methodologists all emphasized that the student of foreign languages should improve his reading ability by acquiring the ways to make prediction; how to skim and scan; understanding the text by getting the main idea, the specific information; recognizing the organization as well as the discourse patterns.
Also being concerned about reading skills, Harmer (1992: 183) gave another list of six specialist skills which, to some extent, summarize all the above-mentioned skills including
1. Predictive skills;
2. Extracting specific information;
3. Getting the general picture;
4. Extracting detailed information; and
5. Recognizing function and discourse patterns
6. Deducing meaning from context
All the skills mentioned above should be paid a special attention to by both teachers and learners of English in the process of acquiring the language. The teacher of reading should encourage his or her students to predict what they are going to read, to know how to find out a fact in the fastest way, how to pick out main points or detailed information rapidly, and how to discard what is not essential or irrelevant. In addition, he or she needs to make the students aware of discourse markers, help them develop their ability to deduce the meanings of unfamiliar words from the context in which they appear. Perhaps, these skills are largely subconscious in the minds of the students when reading in their mother tongue. However, reading in a foreign language can create barriers for the students, which may make these sub-skills more difficult to use. The teacher’s job, then, is to re-activate these skills which may be less effective when the students are faced with English. If the teacher of reading can make the students feel less anxious and thus remove some of the barriers, that alone may dramatically improve their reading ability.
1.6 Reading in ESP teaching and learning
1.6.1 What is ESP?
Obviously, different human activities require different communication skills which in turn require specific linguistic items. Hutchinson and Waters (1987: 19) stressed that ESP should be seen as an approach, not a product. It means that ESP students’ goal of learning a second language might not only be to acquire general linguistics competencies but also academic and job-related skills. Widdowson, on the other hand, argued that the distinction between English for General Purposes and ESP is not the problem of specificity of purpose but “the way in which purpose is defined and the manner of its implementation” (Widdowson – 1983: 6). He also put the specification of objectives in ESP course design in a close relation with training. It can be said that ESP basically focuses on all aspects of language pertaining field of human activity while taking into account the time constraints imposed by learners.
There are two central areas in ESP: content and methodology. Content is concerned with how broad the scope of a particular course is when compared with the totality of the language. Methodology is concerned with the ways linguistic items are introduced and practiced. In general, ESP teaching and learning should take place in contexts which are as authentic as possible and content-based. This means that learning materials should use actual texts produced by people working in the ESP field and focus on specific problems that learners are likely to encounter in their everyday working lives. As a result, learning will have greater relevance to the employment situation and ESP learners will have greater motivation in the course.
1.6.2 Teaching reading ESP
There are three main factors involved in a reading lesson: the ESP teacher, the student and reading materials. But before these factors are discussed, the following question should be answered, “What is the difference between a language lesson and a reading lesson?”
1.6.2.1 Language lessons and reading lessons
As mentioned before, foreign language teachers should give students the authentic purposes of reading. This means that reading is not just a linguistic exercise but is involved with the getting of meaning out of a text for some purpose. But in fact, the most typical use of reading in an ESP class is to teach the language itself, that is the teacher tries to present or practise specific linguistic items such as vocabulary, structures, etc. Although language improvement is the central purpose of a foreign language learner, this is not an authentic use of a reading text. Furthermore, according to Nuttall (1989: 20), “We need lessons like this, of course, but we need reading lessons too, if our students require the ability to read in the foreign language.”
Therefore, it is necessary to point out the differences between a language lesson and a reading lesson. Nuttall (ibid.) argued that giving a lesson based on a text is not the same as giving a reading lesson because most of the skills practised are probably not reading skills at all. She also gave out two features that make a reading lesson different from a language one. “First, it is different because the type of text used is likely to be different. In a reading lesson we need to use texts that have been written not to teach language but for any of the authentic purposes of writing: to inform, to entertain and so on. Even if the language has been modified to suit the level of the learners, the purpose of the text must be first and foremost to convey a message. Second, the procedures have to be different, because the aim of the reading lesson is to develop the student’s ability to extract the message the text contains. So, unlike a language development lesson, we are not trying to put some thing into his head, but instead we are trying to get him to take it himself: to get him to make use of the knowledge he already has in order to acquire new messages.”
The above differences between a language lesson and a reading lesson suggest that the ESP teacher should use reading lessons to develop students’ reading proficiency and communicative competence rather than only to improve linguistic competence and the reading lessons need to make allowances for both variety of texts as well as of readers.
1.6.2.2 ESP teacher’s roles
Although it is known that reading involves the skills that the student must learn for himself, it does not mean that there is nothing for the ESP teacher to do. There is, in fact, a great deal of language work that can be done in an ESP reading lesson.
In general, a teacher of reading has two main roles as Richard and Amato (1988) described: “The first role is to facilitate communicative process between all participants in the classroom, and between these participants and the various activities and texts. The second role is to act as an interdependent participant within the learning – teaching group.”
Accordingly, the teacher is an organizer of resources and as a resource himself; a guide within the classroom procedures and activities; a researcher to improve the teaching materials, techniques, methods; and a conductor and advisor for all learners’ activities.
An ESP teacher has to fulfill these above mentioned roles. Besides, it is agreed that “The key quality needed by the ESP teacher is flexibility: the flexibility to change from being a general language to being a specific purpose teacher, and the flexibility to cope with different groups of students, often at a very short notice” (Jordon – 1997: 122).
Having a good knowledge on the subject matters of the ESP materials is also very important to the ESP teacher. It does not mean that he or she must become an expert in the major field but “an interested student of the subject matter” (Hutchinson & Waters – 1987: 163). The ESP teacher should meet three following requirements: a positive attitude towards the ESP content; a knowledge of the fundamental principles of the subject area; and a awareness of how much they probably know.
Whatever role he or she plays, the ESP teacher should be responsible for helping the students. However, the trouble is that it is easy to give too much help, or help of the wrong kind. So what sort of help should the ESP teacher give? To answer this question, Nuttall (1989: 22) stated that “Briefly, it (her book) sees the teacher’s job as providing, first, suitable texts and second, activities that will focus the student’s attention on the text. The student must develop his own skills, but we (teachers) must make him aware of what he is doing, and interested in doing better.”
In addition, to fulfill the aim of an ESP course, the ESP teacher must act as a material provider involving “choosing relevant published material, adapting material when publish material is not suitable” (Jordon – 1997: 15). He or she should also create an environment of a communicative classroom where meaningful and useful reading activities are carried out so that the students can best acquire reading skills and practise other language skills in order to communicate successfully.
1.6.2.3 Learner’s roles
As “a communicative approach is essentially learner – centered” (Sheils – 1993: 1), the roles of the learner in a reading lesson should also be discussed. Generally, although the roles of the student seen by different methodologists are not the same, it can be undeniable that they all agreed that the student in a communicative classroom must do his work on his own or with little help from the teacher. In other words, he is supposed to contribute as much as he gains and learns in an interdependent way. And, in fact, he plays an active role in every language lesson. This means that “the student’s role as a reader”, wrote Nuttall (1989: 147), “demands that he should make sense of the text for himself. In his reading lesson, he is supposed to learn how to do this: doing it for him will not teach him this”.
In summary, the ESP teacher and the students are interrelated to each other during the process of teaching and learning a foreign language in general, and reading skills in particular. The teacher’s job is to provide suitable texts, assign such tasks and activities that the student can acquire his own skills while the student is supposed to do most of these tasks and activities by himself.
1.6.2.4 Reading material’s roles
It should be noted that materials for reading ESP play an important role in reading teaching process. Firstly, they enable students to improve their fluency as well as accuracy in acquiring the target language. Through reading materials, students can enrich their vocabulary related to their major, structures, etc. They can also develop other language skills. Secondly, materials for reading provide students with more knowledge of the major field. Furthermore, they help students acquire some qualities such as creativity, imagination and so on.
To sum up, beside the course book, the ESP teacher should supply other authentic reading materials with readability, suitability of content and exploitability. It is agreed with what Boughton, Brumfit, Flavell, Hill and Pincas (1990: 102) wrote: “… the teacher needs to bear in mind that the choice of an appropriate text is very important in building up pupils’ reading competence” and “texts must be properly graded and sequenced and varied so that their linguistic content and cultural difficulty match the abilities and sophistication of the pupils, and ensure a reasonable coverage of the various kinds of reading skill they need to develop.”
1.6.2.5 Principles of teaching reading
It is essential for the ESP teacher to be aware of the principles of teaching reading. Burns, Roe and Ross (1988: 22) suggested fourteen principles of teaching reading. They are as follows:
1. Reading is a complex act with many factors that must be considered;
2. Reading is the interpretation of the meaning of printed symbols;
3. Reading involves constructing the meaning of a written passage;
4. There is no one correct way to teach reading;
5. Learning to read is a continuing process;
6. Students should be taught word recognition skills that will allow them to unlock pronunciations and meanings of unfamiliar words independently;
7. The teacher should diagnose each student’s ability and use the diagnosis as a basis for planning instruction;
8. Reading and the other language arts are closely interrelated;
9. Reading is an integral part of all content area instructions within the educational program;
10. The student needs to see why reading is important;
11. Enjoyment of reading should be considered of prime importance;
12. Readiness for reading should be considered at all levels of instruction;
13. Reading should be taught in a way that allows each child to experience success; and
14. Encouragement of self – direction and self – monitoring of reading is important.
Although the principles listed above are, of course, not all-inclusive, it is believed that they are helpful in guiding teachers in planning reading instruction.
1.6.2.6 Characteristics of an effectively organized classroom for reading instruction
Like the principles of teaching reading, an all-inclusive answer to this question is impossible. Therefore, in the following, only the most common characteristics of a classroom effectively organized for reading instruction will be presented. According to John N. Mangieri (Lapp – 1981: 11), there are six major characteristics of an effective reading classroom. They are
1. Individual differences of students are recognized and provision is made to accommodate these differences. It is obvious that no two individuals are precisely the same in every aspect. Individual differences exist in intellectual, physical, emotional and educational traits. Thus, the effectively organized classroom has to make instructional provisions for the diverse reading capabilities and abilities of each student.
2. Comprehensive, continuous diagnosis occurs in order to ascertain student reading proficiencies and deficiencies. Diagnostic test, or in other words, diagnosis, is a test to find out weaknesses and strengths of students. In an effectively organized classroom, diagnosis is conducted on an initial, a final, and above all, continuous basis. It is considered as a blueprint for instruction. Teachers of reading would do well to remember that instruction will become exemplary only when it accurately meets the reading needs of each student. Diagnosis can be the vehicle for determining these needs.
3. Both immediate and long-range planning for reading instruction take place on a regular basis. It is imperative that comprehensive planning for reading instruction occurs prior to the actual teaching act. This planning should deal with both immediate and long-range instructional concerns. The major objective of immediate planning is to answer the question, “What am I going to teach tomorrow?”, whereas long-range planning involves looking beyond tomorrow’s lesson. The process of assessing immediate versus long-range outcomes is a continual but necessary one. Effective planning is the prelude to effective reading instruction.
4. The nonteaching conditions of the educational situation are employed to their maximum usage. This means that the effective teacher of reading is not the teacher who merely has maximum conditions for instruction or works in a well-equipped reading class. Rather, he or she is the one who employs the financial and physical conditions of a teaching situation to maximum usage.
5. Instructional procedures are utilized, which will produce optimal reading achievement for every child in the classroom. Reading instruction should be learner-centered and designed to promote optimal and continuous achievement for each student. The teacher should make provision for the learning process, paying particular attention to motivation, reinforcement, and rate and type of learning.
6. Evaluation of the instructional process relative to reading is conducted in a continuous and thorough manner. Most methodologists agree that the instructional process is a three-phase task of planning, teaching and evaluating. Evaluation is ascertaining the degree to which a teacher’s immediate and long-term instructional objectives have been or are being attained. It plays a significant role in every teacher’s classroom, and if properly conducted, evaluation can provide teachers with something more than intuition to tell them whether their students are attaining optimal achievement in reading.
Based on the above list, the teacher of reading can know whether his or her classroom is effectively organized for reading instruction or not. The degree to which these characteristics exit or are absent in a classroom will determine the effectiveness of a teacher’s provision for reading instruction. However, it should be noted that all of these characteristics must be present if a language classroom is to function optimally and produce maximum student growth in reading. To do this difficult task, great efforts on the part of the teacher must be made. And the teacher should not be deterred from implementing these characteristics “since students are the bottom line of instruction and the goal of providing exemplary reading instruction is worth optimal efforts” (Lapp – 1981: 25).
In summary, what has been done in this chapter is to focus on an overall view of reading and teaching reading ESP. Some theoretical concepts have been also related to their application in teaching and learning reading ESP. The next chapter will discuss how reading skill and the other language skills are interrelated.

CHAPTER 2: SKILL – INTEGRATION
2.1 Productive and receptive skills
In daily life, people who use language employ a number of different abilities. They are able to speak on the telephone, write letters, listen to the radio or read books, newspapers, etc. In other words, they possess the four basic skills of speaking, writing, listening and reading.
According to Harmer (1992: 16), “speaking and writing involve language production and are therefore often referred to as productive skills. Listening and reading, on the other hand, involve receiving messages and are therefore often referred to as receptive skills.”
The following table designed by Harmer (ibid.: 17) represents a very general picture of language skills.
MEDIUM
SKILL SPEECH WRITTEN WORD Receptive Listening and understanding Reading and understanding Productive Speaking Writing Table 2.1 The four language skills
Naturally, language users very often employ a combination of skill. Speaking and listening usually happen simultaneously, and people can read and write at the same time when they take notes or write something based on what they are reading. Thus, the teacher of reading should develop not only reading skills for the student but also other language skills through reading.
2.2 Skill-integration
2.2.1 Definition
As previously mentioned, it seems clear that, in a language class, it is the teacher’s responsibility to see to it that all the skills are practiced. This means that he or she is supposed to apply skill-integration approach. So what is meant by integrating the skills? Carol Read (Matthews, Spratt and Dangerfield- 1991:72) stated that “the integration of skills in the language classroom can be defined quite simply as a series of activities or tasks which use any combination of the four skills – Listening (L), Speaking (S), Reading (R), Writing (W) – in a continuous and related sequence.” In other words, the four language skills are closely intertwined and can be integrated through a series of activities within a context naturally built in a real life situation. The activities in the sequence may be related through the topic or through the language or both of these. It can be said that an important feature of the sequence is the interlocking nature of the activities. It is a whole chain of activities involving the exercise of different skills or “each task develops from those that have come before and prepares for those that are to follow” (by Carol Read, quoted in Matthews, Spratt and Dangerfield – 1991: 73). The skills are, therefore, not practised in isolation but in a closely interwoven way.
2.2.2 Reasons for skill-integration
When discussing skill-integration, many methodologists emphasize its importance by giving some reasons for it. According to Carol Read, there are two main reasons for devising activity sequences which integrate the skills. “The first is to practise and extend the students’ use of a particular language structure or function and the second is to develop the students’ ability in two or more of the four skills within a constant language.” (ibid.: 73).
Harmer (1992) also explained the reason why skill-integration is needed by giving two reasons. “Firstly, it is very often true that one skill cannot be performed without another… Secondly, people use different skills when dealing with the same subject for all sorts of reasons.”
It is absolutely agreed that it is impossible to speak in a conversation if one does not listen at the same time and people seldom write without reading. Another reason is that when someone listens to a lecture, he often takes notes and then writes a report on the lecture or describes it to his friends.
Furthermore, Carol Read (ibid.: 73) offered a number of important advantages in providing students with the kind of integrated skills practice including:
* Continuity: Task and activities are not performed in isolation but are closely related and dependent on each other.
* Input before output: In an integrated skills approach, learners can be provided with a suitable input which may be in the form of a direct model or a much freer stimulus. This input will then form the basis for the learners’ own output – or productive use of the language – in a subsequent task.
* Realism: It allows for the development of all four skills within a realistic, communicative framework.
* Appropriateness: This helps the learners to recognize the appropriateness of a particular language form and mode in different contexts and with different participants.
* Variety: Activities involving all four skills provide variety and can be invaluable in maintaining motivation.
* Recycling: It allows the learners to use the familiar language in a variety of new and different ways.
* Confidence: It may be helpful for the learner who is weaker or less confident in one particular skill.
Being aware of the significance of skill-integration, the teacher of reading in his or her teaching will try to reflect the fact that the same experience or topic can lead to the use of many different skills. For instance, when the student practises reading, the teacher will use that reading as the basis for practising other language skills. Of course, all activities will have to focus on reading skill. But the focus can later shift to one or more of the other skills.
2.3 Relationship between reading skills and other language skills
One of the principles of teaching reading is that “reading and the other language arts are closely interrelated” (Burns, Roe and Ross – 1988: 24). This point of view is similar to what Rivers and Temperly (1978: 241) suggested: “Reading is not an isolated activity. In a language class it should lead to something, and thus be integrated with the improvement of all skills.” In other words, reading should not be taught separately from the other skills. The following will discuss the relation between reading skill and the other language skills.
2.3.1 Reading and listening
As mentioned above, reading and listening are receptive skills. According to Durkin (1989: 383), “the major similarity between listening and reading is very apparent: The listener and reader both attend to language for the purpose of getting or constructing a message. The two, thus, display language-processing behavior.”
Therefore, the two skills are closely related. Reading makes the student familiar with the vocabulary, structures, grammar as well as provides him with background knowledge of the topic, which is very helpful for the student when listening. On the other hand, listening makes great contribution to interpretation of the reading unit because the aural elements can add vividness and daily life to it. For this close relationship, Rivers and Temperly (1978: 259) suggested that “students may listen to a story, play, poem, or speech by a famous person and then read it, or they may read first and then listen to a worthwhile reading or dramatic presentation of what they have read… Before listening to an English play, students may read a synopsis of the action. In this way they are better prepared to comprehend because they have some expectations to help them project meaning.” This integration will surely make language lessons more interesting.
2.3.2 Reading and speaking
Obviously, reading broadens readers’ knowledge of both of the target language and the world which can enhance speaking. In addition, reading aloud itself “gives extra practice in pronunciation, word stress and rhythm” (Hedge – ibid.: 14). Thus, Rivers and Temperly (1978: 259) suggested that “students should be provided with frequent opportunities to give in English the gist of what they have been reading.”
They also offered some ways to exploit the reading material for speaking: “Some of the material read will serve as a basis for oral presentation of projects; some will be dramatized in the original form or through extempore role-playing; and some will provide ammunition for discussions and debates.” (Rivers and Temperly – ibid.: 260)
The teacher can do this in post-reading activities in various ways. For example, he or she can ask the student to discuss the topic of the text, give his opinions and feelings about the content of the text, summarize the text orally, etc.
Speaking, in its turns, can serve as input for reading. At pre-reading stage, the teacher can encourage the student to form certain expectations about the text by saying what he can guess from pictures, photographs, headings; the student can be asked to say what he knows about the topic, whether he agrees or disagrees with some given statements concerning the topic and gives reasons, etc.
2.3.3 Reading and writing
There is no doubt that both reading and writing are active, thinking processes. When a teacher teaches the two skills to the students, he or she is virtually teaching them to think. According to Howie (1989: 5), “What students learn can only be more solidly reinforced if the two processes are taught together, not separately. Teaching reading and writing together integrates the processes, interrelates them, and enhances the amount and strength of what is being learned.”
He also added: “The processes of reading and writing are so intertwined that not to teach them together, across the curriculum, is to shortchange students. Teaching the two processes together allows students to learn better how to acquire and use information.” (Howie – ibid.: 7)
Smith (1990: 137) took the same view when stating “To keep the two activities separately does more than deprive them of their basic sense, it impoverishes any learning that might take place.”
Both of them are right in saying that reading and writing are basically constructive processes. The connection between them is particularly strong. The teacher, therefore, is responsible for building a scaffold (Robinson and Good – 1987: 282) that aids the student in getting information from the reading text and helps him to organize the information in an appropriate form for writing about it. Accordingly, a scaffold should
1. make the students aware of the structure of the text that they read and thereby increase their access to relevant information in the text;
2. help students to supplement this information by adding relevant background knowledge from their own understanding of particular topic or event;
3. give students a way to organize the information, and
4. make students aware of the structure that they can use to write about the information in order to convey it to someone else.
(Robison and Good – 1987: 282)
However, what should the teacher actually do to integrate reading with writing? We can divide the activities that the student is asked to do in a reading lesson to tie his reading with his writing into two broad categories: with the text and from the text. The student works with the text when he copies and examines the writer’s choices of specific linguistic and logical features such as cohesive links, punctuation, grammar, sentence arrangement and organization. He works from the text when he uses it to create a text on his own by summarizing, completing, reacting, etc.
Durkin (1989) suggested some classroom activities that the teacher can use to combine reading and writing. In his opinion, before reading, the teacher can “elect to have students write what they know about a topic before they start to read what an author has to say about it” (Durkin – ibid.: 473). This means that he or she provides a genuine purpose for the reading. He also believed that writing can take place during reading. With stories, for example, the teacher can ask the students to read to a certain point, then they try to predict what is likely to happen next and write their own ending. Besides, they may be required to write a summary of what they have learned up to a certain point. Last but not least, once a reading text has been read, many opportunities are available to use writing in ways that can be fruitful for the reading. For instance, the students can mimic someone else’s writing after reading it because they have been provided with a model to understand language use; or they can rewrite a story told from a first-person perspective from the point of view of another character, etc.
Also concerning the integration of these two skills, Rivers and Temperly (1978: 258) gave out the following activities: “Students may be asked a series of questions which, when answered in sequence, develop a summary or resume of the material read. They may write an ending to a story or play of which they have read part, or develop a different ending from the one in the book. They may write letters which one character in the story might have written to others… Students may create their own stories on similar themes to those they have been reading.” From these suggested activities, the teacher of reading can make the reading lesson more interesting and motivate the students to learn better.
To conclude, it must be kept in mind that reading is closely related to listening, reading and writing. By integrating this skill with the other language skills, the teacher of reading can improve not only students’ reading ability but also their knowledge and ability for language use. Therefore, to make full use of the interrelation between these skills, the teacher is required to interweave them creatively and flexibly in order to give the students great motivation for acquiring the target language.

PART C: THE STUDY
CHAPTER 3: INVESTIGATION OF CURRENT SITUATION OF TEACHING AND LEARNING READING ESP IN DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS AND VIETNAMESE STUDIES AT USSH – VNU
3.1 The teaching and learning reading ESP in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU
It cannot be denied that there have been positive changes in teaching English in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU in recent years: language classrooms are better equipped, ESP materials are designed, teachers of English are more qualified, etc. However, the teaching and learning of this subject in general and of reading ESP in particular have not been properly carried out yet. This section will have a general look at the teaching and learning of reading skills by “A collection of teaching materials on linguistics studies” (T?p bài gi?ng ti?ng Anh chuyên ngành ngôn ng? h?c) in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU.
First of all, at USSH – VNU, the main duty is to train students in various fields such as Literature, History, Philosophy, Social Work, etc. As a result, English is not considered as the main subject. Students learn the language as a means to do their future job or future training. Therefore, the teaching reading ESP in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU is aimed at not only improving the students’ reading skills but also making them familiar with English for Linguistics.
For the students of linguistics, they learn English because of many reasons. They want to get high marks in their exams. Besides, a lot of books on linguistics are written in English. Therefore, if they want to broaden the knowledge related to their major, they should master this language. Furthermore, being aware of the demand of the society today, they need to use this international language in their future jobs. The students in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies learn ESP in their fifth semester. In the first and the second year, they learn general English in Lifelines – Elementary and Pre-intermediate level – by Tom Hutchinson. Therefore, they are supposed to have the most basic skills before getting access to ESP.
About the ESP material, “A collection of teaching materials on linguistics studies” (T?p bài gi?ng ti?ng Anh chuyên ngành ngôn ng? h?c), it is designed for the third year students of linguistics. It is a collection from different books on linguistics by different authors and adaption from some softwares including Encyclopeadia Britainica and The Microsoft Encarta Encyclopeadia. It is adapted and written in such an attempt to simplify the texts with the basic ESP terms in order to fit the language level of the students. As stated in its syllabus, the material aims at helping the students have opportunity to read more effectively, making sentences grammatically by using linguistics terms and translating. It continues to train the students in the three language skills: speaking, reading and writing but mainly focuses on developing their reading skills. For that purpose, the material aims at introducing the students to fundamental issues related to linguistics such as Authors in Linguistics, Subfields of Linguistics, Kinds of Grammar, Language Changes and these are organized into 12 units. There are four parts in each unit. The first and also the most important one is the reading text which includes three stages namely pre-reading, while reading and post-reading. The second part is speaking. Grammar is dealt with in the third part. And the last part gives the students a chance to practice writing and translation.
However, it seems that there are still some problems. Firstly, listening skill is neglected in the material. Secondly, although the material tries to provide the students with many types of reading comprehension exercises, there are still more exercises which need designing by the teacher so that the students can improve their reading ability.
Yet, we cannot blame the material completely. We all know that the teacher himself plays an important role in fulfilling the aim of the reading programme. Nevertheless, many ESP teachers find it difficult to exploit reading texts in the light of Communicative Language Teaching. They also have troubles in using techniques to motivate students to learn. Few of them have experience in teaching ESP for Linguistics. As a result, students become bored and passive in learning.
It must be admitted that although the students in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies have learnt ESP for 4 years, only 5 units have been taught. The rest has not been put in pratice. Furthermore, despite the fact that each language classroom is equipped with one cassette player, there is lack of modern equipment like OHP and proper guide on choosing appropriate supplementary reading materials. Besides, the students’ uneven levels of English and background knowledge are also another disadvantage that affects the quality of teaching and learning.
In short, the teaching and learning of reading ESP in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU have both strong points and weak points. But all the above-mentioned is, to some extent, superficial and subjective. The following is an attempt to provide a more truthful picture of the matter.
3.2 Survey questionnaires and observation
3.2.1 Survey questionnaires
3.2.1.1 Aims
The aims of the surveys are:
– To see if the teaching and learning of reading ESP in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU are carried out in integration with other skills;
– To identify the actual strong points and weak points of teaching and learning reading skills in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU.
The results of the surveys are expected to serve as the basis for the suggestions of some techniques that are useful in teaching and learning reading ESP in integration with the other language skills.
3.2.1.2 Description
In order to achieve the above aims, two survey questionnaires, one for teachers and one for students of linguistics are designed (see Appendix 1 and 2). Each questionnaire consists of 12 questions with some ready-designed choices. For every question, informants are asked to tick their choice. Besides, they are also expected to give their own choices if those provided do not match their opinions.
Twelve questions of the surveys focus on six parts in which part A and C consists of three questions, part B includes two questions, part D, E and F have only one question each.
– Part A attempts to find out the attitudes of teachers and students toward reading comprehension (the importance of reading skills, their purposes of teaching and learning ESP and their opinions of teaching and learning reading skills in integration with other language skills)
– Part B aims at the attitudes of the informants’ attitudes toward reading texts in the present ESP material and other supplementary ones.
– Part C is designed to see what techniques are often used in reading lessons in practice.
– Part D concerns which types of classroom interaction that are usually carried out during reading lessons.
– Part E focuses on difficulties in teaching and learning reading skills.
– Part F is designed with a hope that informants will make some suggestions for the improvement in ESP reading lessons in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU.
3.2.1.3 Procedures
The survey questionnaires were distributed to 7 ESP teachers of Linguistics in Department of Foreign Languages and 100 students in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU. However, only 95 questionnaires for students and 6 for teachers were completed and returned.
Before having a deeper look at how the real situation of the teaching and learning reading ESP in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU, some personal information about the informants will be presented as follows. For the teachers, two-thirds of them have been teaching English for less than 10 years and one-third for more than 10 years. All of them have been teaching ESP for students of linguistics for less than 5 years. As for the students, most of them have been learning English for six years and over.
The following section is about the data and data analysis which will be given and discussed in the order the six parts mentioned above.
3.2.1.4 Data and data analysis
3.2.1.4.1 What are the attitudes of teachers and students toward reading comprehension?
In order to find out the attitudes of the teachers and the students toward reading comprehension, three questions were designed. The following column charts represent the results.

Chart 3.1 The teachers’ attitudes toward reading comprehension

Chart 3.2 The students’ attitudes toward reading comprehension
The first question of the questionnaires deals with the importance of reading skills to students of Linguistics. As can be seen from the two charts, 67% of the teachers and 58% of the students considered reading very important. The same proportion of the teachers and the students, about one-third, agreed that this skill was as important as the other language skills. None of them thought that reading was not important. The figures indicate that the majority of the informants are aware of the importance of reading skill to the students’ future jobs.
Responding to the second question concerning the purpose of teaching and learning reading ESP, all of the informants put vocabulary, especially ESP terms in Linguistics to their foremost priority. This suggests that in reading lessons, the teachers usually spent most of the time presenting new words. In other words, reading lessons have been used as a means to exploit linguistics terms. As a result, a large number of the students paid attention to only vocabulary. 83% of the teachers answered that they taught reading to the students of linguistics in order to develop their reading skills and the other language skills (listening, speaking and writing). Meanwhile, one-third of their students ticked this choice. It can be refered that although many teachers wanted to improve the students’ other language skills via reading texts few students were aware of that. This raises a question: Are the surveyed ESP teachers’ methods of teaching reading skills appropriate? Whereas, two-thirds of the students compared with one-third of the teachers thought that reading the ESP texts could improve their knowledge related to Linguistics. Just a few informants chose grammar. Obviously, the surveyed teachers and students paid much attention to ESP terms and ignored the purposes of reading activities, i.e to get information from the text and adopt appropriate reading strategies.
The third columns of the two charts show the teachers and the students’ opinion of teaching and learning reading in integration with other language skills. None of them held that it was ineffective. The majority found it interesting. 67% of the teachers and 58% of the students thought the integration in reading lessons was helpful. To some extent, these charts seem to reflect the fact that a few teachers and students have recognized the advantages of interweaving reading skills with the other language skills. Besides, approximately four-fifths of the informants found it difficult to apply this way of teaching and learning reading. This implies the need of more suitable techniques.
3.2.1.4.2 What are the attitudes of teachers and students toward reading materials?

Chart 3.3 The teachers’ attitudes toward the ESP materials

Chart 3.4 The students’ attitudes toward the ESP materials
As can be seen from the two above charts, when asked about their attitudes toward the texts in “A collection of teaching materials on linguistics studies” (T?p bài gi?ng ti?ng Anh chuyên ngành ngôn ng? h?c), the teachers and the students shared the same point of view of the difficulty of the texts (67% and 72% perspectively). However, one-third of the teachers claimed that the texts were not difficult; whereas, only 5% of their students thought so. No teachers compared with 23% of the students suppose them to be difficult. Half of the teachers and nearly two-thirds of the students found the texts not interesting. None of the informants agreed that the texts were very interesting. There is also a difference between the teachers and the students in the attitude toward the length of the texts. Half of the students said that they were too long meanwhile none of the surveyed teacher shared the same point of view. According to two-thirds of the teachers and 43% of the students, the texts were long. From the data above, it can be refered that there should be some adjustment in the present ESP materials and the teacher should be aware of the attitude of their students toward the reading texts so that they can choose appropriate methods of teaching. This also leads to the next question: “How often do the informants use supplementary materials in teaching and learning reading ESP?”

Chart 3.5 Supplementary materials to the teachers and students
Obviously, all the surveyed ESP teachers saw the importance of supplementary materials in teaching reading ESP. Two-thirds often used them and one-third sometimes gave their students extra reading. However, how to use these kinds of materials should be put into consideration. They should go in accordance with the purposes of teaching and learning reading ESP. Besides, ESP teachers should make full use of them, not just to interest the students.
From the students’ viewpoints, 79% of them sometimes read other materials. The number of the students often and never used supplementary materials is the same (11% and 10% respectively). There are some possible reasons for this. Firstly, they do not know how to find other ESP materials. Therefore, it is necessary for the teachers to suggest their students some source of extra reading texts such as newspapers, magazines, books, the Internet. Secondly, as mentioned above, most the students found the course material was difficult. As a result, they may think that it is enough for them to master all in the material. It’s the teachers’ duty to motivate them to learn by assigning more interesting but less demanding reading activities in supplementary materials. Last but not least, English is not considered as their major. They want to spend their time on major subjects.
In short, all the figures above are statistically significant for understanding the teacher and the students’ attitudes toward reading comprehension and reading materials. Nevertheless, to know more about the real situation of teaching and learning reading skills to students of linguistics, questions 6, 7 and 8 were designed. They are all about activities being carried out in a reading lesson at each stage. The below section will discuss this.
3.2.1.4.3 What techniques are often used in reading lessons in practice?
3.2.1.4.3.1 Pre-reading stage

Chart 3.6 Techniques used at pre-reading stage
The data shown in Chart 3.6 present more details about the techniques being applied in teaching reading comprehension texts at the pre-reading stage. As can be seen, the two activities of giving a brief introduction to the text and doing as required in the material are the most frequently used with majority of the informants ticking these options. Perhaps these activities do not take much time and effort. They are quite easy to carry out since there are guiding questions for discussion at pre-reading stage in the material. Giving students some more guiding questions was also another common activity claimed by the informants (67% and 55% respectively). About one-third of the surveyed teachers and students ticked the choice of guessing what the text might be about. It is noticeable that none of the informants voted for the two techniques of presenting a listening text on the same topic and asking students to fill in the blanks of a summary of the text with some important words taken from the text. It can be concluded that there is little skill-integration at the beginning of the reading lessons.
3.2.1.4.3.2 While-reading stage

Chart 3.7 Techniques used at while-reading stage
The chart illustrates that the number of teachers and students claimed that they dealt with explanation of new words and structures is 33% and 48% respectively. It is advisable that the teachers should explain meaning of only some key ESP terms that cause much difficulty for their students before reading. The rest should be done after they read the text to improve one of the most important reading skills, i.e the students’ ability to guess meanings of new words. Then the students can base on their background knowledge of the major and English language to interpret the text.
As can be seen clearly from the chart, all of the informants agreed that they did the exercises below the text. However, two-thirds of the teachers designed more exercises for their students to understand more about the text. On the contrary, this was confirmed by only 29% of their students. Surprisingly, the surveyed teachers and students did not share the same point of view in this option.
3.2.1.4.3.3 Post-reading stage

Chart 3.8 Techniques used at post-reading stage
Responding to the question concerning what techniques are often used at the post-reading stage, like at the former stages, all of the informants claimed that they often did as required in the material. The majority voted for translation, (83% of the teachers and 76% of the students). This reveals that the Grammar-Translation method is still preferred. Discussion and practice of newly learnt vocabulary and grammar rank third. About two-thirds of the informants chose these options. Writing a summary of the text was chosen by half of the surveyed teachers. This choice was shared by 39% of their students. The activity of reading aloud the whole text for several times was chosen by 17% of the students but none of their teachers ticked it. As can also be seen from the chart, games and plays are rarely organized. This activity was chosen by only 17% of the teachers and 13% of the students. Listening and writing on similar theme were not applied at this stage. Once more, there is little skill-integration after reading the texts.
3.2.1.4.4 Which type of classroom interaction is often used during reading lessons?

Chart 3.9 Types of classroom interaction used during reading lessons according to the teachers

Chart 3.10 Types of classroom interaction used during reading lessons according to the students
The above charts show that among the four types of classroom interaction chosen by the informants (individual, pairwork, groupwork and the whole class), individual and activity and pair work are predominant in a reading lesson. All of the informants agreed that group work and class activity were not used at while-reading stage. However, while none of the teachers said they did not often ask the students to work individually before and after reading lessons, there were still some of their students disagreeing with this.
3.2.1.4.5 What are the difficulties in teaching and learning reading skills?
It is undeniable that there are some difficulties in teaching and learning reading skills to students of linguistics at USSH – VNU. Thus, the eleventh question was designed to identify these. The below charts present the results.

Chart 3.11 The teachers and students’ difficulties in teaching and learning reading ESP
For the teachers, half of them thought that students’ limited vocabulary and background knowledge were their difficulties. One third claimed that their students had grammar problems which decreased their reading ability. 17% said that finding supplementary reading materials in ESP was not easy. The same percentage can be found in the fifth choice in which the informants admitted that they did not have enough time for developing their students’ reading ability.
It seems that the students have more difficulties than their teachers. Many claimed that it was difficult to find other reading materials in ESP (81%). That is why few of them said that they did extra reading when being asked about the frequency of using supplementary materials in reading ESP (see 3.2.1.4.2). More than two-thirds thought that their limited vocabulary hindered their reading ability. The lack of background knowledge and grammar problems were also chosen by about half of the surveyed students. A quarter said that they did not have enough time in reading comprehension.
In short, it is possible that the lack of interesting materials and uneven students’ ability of reading and level of background knowledge as well as English make the quality of teaching and learning reading ESP ineffective as expected. Therefore, the last question of the two surveys was designed with a hope that the teachers and the students would make useful suggestions for the improvement of the quality in teaching and learning reading ESP in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies (USSH – VNU).
3.2.1.4.6 What are the suggestions made by the teachers and the students?

Chart 3.12 Suggestions made by the teachers and the students
As can be seen, when being asked what should be done to make the reading lesson more interesting, most of the informants suggested reading suitable materials in English frequently, improving teachers’ methodology and knowledge related to Linguistics and classifying students’ level of English. They also thought that developing the present ESP material would improve reading ability. 67% of the teachers and 71% of the students ticked this choice.
With the other choices, the teachers and the students did not share the same opinion. The number of the surveyed students choosing the activities of doing more reading exercises and learning more vocabulary and grammar is 90% and 65% respectively. On the contrary, these were confirmed by only 50% and 33% of their teachers. This implies that the students still pay much attention to grammar and vocabulary. However, 17% of the surveyed students suggested using more songs, more role plays, more games and spending more time on discussion while little feedback was given from the teachers. None of them made other suggestions. Therefore, it can be said that the students have desire for improving communication competence though they may be unconscious of communicative approach.
3.2.1.5 Findings and comments
The results of the survey questionnaires have revealed both good points and bad points in teaching and learning reading skills to students of linguistics at USSH – VNU. The following section will identify and analyze positive factors.
3.2.1.5.1 Strong points
Firstly, concerning the attitudes of the teachers and the students toward reading comprehension, the data show that most of them were aware of the important role of reading in teaching and learning English. This creates good chances for the ESP teachers to motivate their students to read and if they find appropriate techniques to teach this skill to their students, they will be certainly more successful. Besides, the purpose of teaching and learning reading to develop the four language skills was chosen by some teachers and students. Although the figures are not big, they show that the students of linguistics and their teachers begin to recognize the use of reading texts to improve the four skills of the target language. In addition, the teaching and learning this skill in integration with the other language skills is highly appreciated by the teachers and the students.
Another good point is that some teachers have exploited the reading texts in the light of Communicative Language Teaching in one way or another. This means that when teaching reading they not only teach their students how to read but also encourage them to speak and write although the proportion of the teachers often do this is not very high. This can help students to get a deeper understanding of the text and develop their other language skills. There is also good news that what the students suggested in the survey questionnaires indicates their need of improving communication skills.
The surveyed teachers were also aware of the importance of supplementary materials in teaching reading ESP. This results in their frequency of using extra reading in reading lessons.
However, there are some weak points remaining in teaching and learning reading skills to students of linguistics at USSH – VNU which will be identified and analyzed in the following section.
3.2.1.5.2 Weak points
According to the statistics of the data, many teachers and students found the reading texts in “A collection of teaching materials on linguistics studies” (T?p bài gi?ng ti?ng Anh chuyên ngành ngôn ng? h?c) difficult and uninteresting. This suggests that the concerned parties in editing the material should do some adjustment to make the texts more appropriate. Besides, although the majority of the informants were interested in the teaching reading in integration with other language skills, a few of them found it difficult to apply this in reading lessons. They do not know how to apply this way of teaching and learning.
The data also reveal that many teachers and students teach and learn reading in order to widen their ESP terms. They are likely to consider a reading text as a means of improving only language items. The majority voted for translation at post-reading stage. As a result, grammatical competence and linguistic competence are the main focus in a reading lesson although they are only two dimensions of communicative competence. The Grammar-Translation method is still preferred. Therefore, it can be said that skill-integration seems to be infrequently carried out in reading lessons. There is little chance for the students to practise listening and writing during reading lessons.
In addition to this, there is also substantial disagreement between the teachers and the students on some aspects. For instance, at while-reading stage, as many as 67% of the teachers claimed that they designed more exercises for their students to understand more about the text but only a few students (29%) agreed with this.
Another bad point is that there is little interaction between the students in the classroom at while-reading stage. Students often work individually, not in pairs or in groups. Therefore, the reading lessons are not communicative.
Last but not least, many students tended to depend largely on the present ESP material. Besides, the fact that the students come from different towns and provinces in Vietnam results in their differences in learning styles, attitudes, motivation, background knowledge and level of English. Their reading ability are not even, which may cause potential problems in teaching and learning English in linguistics.
In short, the data show that there are both strong points and weak point in the teaching and learning of reading skills to students of linguistics. But in order to have a more reliable picture of the situation, classroom observation is needed.
3.2.2 Classroom observation
Like the results of the two survey questionnaires, the observation reveals that current teaching reading of ESP to students of linguistics at USSH – VNU is not as good as it should be. During reading lessons, the teachers spent most of the time on vocabulary and structures. Comprehension was paid very little attention to. It was the teacher who did most of the activities without guiding the students the most effective ways to successfully exploit the reading text by themselves. In fact, the teacher, not the students, was considered as the center of the class. The students were given few chances to practise language skills. Sometimes they were asked to work in pairs or in groups but the amount of time for practising was quite limited. There was little help from the teachers during these activities. The students only listened to the teacher’s explanation and did what they were asked to do. As a result, they became passive and dependent on their teachers.
Furthermore, the way the teacher explained new words in the text was not appropriate. They preferred giving direct meaning of the new word in Vietnamese. Then they either asked the students to make a sentence or made a sentence with that word themselves by asking students to translate the sentence using the word. Next, the teacher asked the students to repeat the words to practise pronunciation. However, not all linguistics terms have equivalent in Vietnamese and there are some major subjects the students have not learnt yet. Consequently, when being interviewed, many students were not satisfactory with the teachers’ technique. In their opinion, they prefer giving examples.
In short, the classroom observation confirms the fact that most of the reading lessons are based mainly on the Grammar – Translation and “teacher-centered” methods. As a result, it can be said that the teaching and learning reading ESP to students of linguistics at USSH – VNU are not properly carried out.
3.3 Conclusions
Based on the above analysis, it is possible to conclude that the teaching and learning reading ESP to students of linguistics at USSH – VNU are far from being satisfactory although both of the teachers and the students have positive attitudes toward reading and have taken Communicative Approach in one way or another. Reading lessons are not carried out properly. The reading texts are still exploited as a source of materials for language lessons in which too much time is spent on vocabulary and grammatical structures. The traditional methods being applied in the teaching process neither improve students’ reading skills nor develop other language skills as well as the necessary knowledge of the target language.
In short, the information from the surveys and classroom observation provides useful clues for the following chapter where some suggested techniques for teaching and learning reading skills in integration with the other language skills to the students of linguistics will be presented. These techniques are critically selected based on the principle of suitability to the actual situation in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU.
CHAPTER 4: SOME SUGGESTIONS TO IMPROVE THE TEACHING READING ESP TO STUDENTS IN DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS AND VIETNAMESE STUDIES AT USSH – VNU
Before the suggestion of suitable techniques for teaching reading skills communicatively to students in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU is made, it is worthwhile redefining the term technique.
4.1 What is a technique?
According to Edward Anthony (Nguyen Bang and Nguyen Ba Ngoc – 2002: 24), “technique is the specific activities manifested in the classroom that are consistent with a method and therefore in harmony with an approach as well.”
Or simply speaking, a technique is any of a wide variety of exercises, activities or devices used in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives. Therefore, it can be said that what technique the teacher of reading uses in a reading lesson is no less important factor deciding the success of that lesson. A good lesson requires the teacher’s ability, creativeness and flexibility in refining techniques based on the selected approach.
4.2 Suggested techniques for teaching reading skills communicatively to students of linguistics
As analyzed in the previous chapter, in teaching and learning reading ESP in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU, a reading text tends to be used to present language items rather than to develop reading skills. But there is no doubt that a reading text can be exploited in different ways and the aim of a reading programme is not just to practise language but to enable students to understand unfamiliar authentic texts without help. So what should be done to improve the student’s reading comprehension skills? The possible activities will be presented at each reading stage with the hope that they will be helpful to the teaching of reading skills by “A collection of teaching materials on linguistics studies” (T?p bài gi?ng ti?ng Anh chuyên ngành ngôn ng? h?c) in Linguistics in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies. The key principle here is that there should be a flexible combination in using these techniques so that the students not only understand and enjoy the reading texts but also improve the other language skills.
4.2.1 Pre-reading stage
At this stage, the ESP teacher may be supposed to give some background information about the topic and show sign of what the students are expected to read. The teacher should avoid giving too much information about the content of the reading text. Otherwise, the students may get bored and no longer want to read. The activities presented below are to motivate the students to read and understand the text well.
4.2.1.1 Introducing the topic
The first thing the teacher should do to start a reading lesson is to make a brief introduction to the topic. This can be done by saying an introductory sentence like “Today, you are going to read a text about …” However, this way seems to be boring and monotonous. Therefore, instead of using such a simple sentence, the teacher can use other techniques as suggested below.
4.2.1.1.1 Using visual aids
This is a good way to attract the students’ attention, to arouse their curiosity about the topic and to create a comfortable atmosphere. It makes the language used in the class more realistic and alive, and the class more interesting. Good visual aids are not just used once, but again and again, and can be shared by different teachers.
For example, with the text in Unit 1 Authors in Linguistics, teaching aids can be photos of some famous linguists, which can be easily cut from newspapers, magazines, or downloaded from the internet, etc. The teacher shows them to the whole class and asks the students to guess what these people’s job is and what the text they are going to read is about. It is advisable that the pictures be colourful and large enough for the whole class to see. They should be about the linguists that all the students know. Besides, some important publications by Chomsky can be shown to the students or just their titles can be written on the board. These clues will help to increase the students’ curiosity and their prediction ability.
4.2.1.1.2 Presenting a listening text on the same topic
It cannot be denied that the aural element adds vividness and life to the reading unit. Therefore, the ESP teacher should take advantage of listening in teaching reading skills. It makes the students more interested in the topic and they can improve both skills. The teacher can ask the students to listen to a dialogue, news or a text of the same topic as the reading text. These listening materials should be taken from an English-speaking source (United States, Great Britain, Australia, etc.) so that the students can have opportunity to listen to native speakers. Another way is that the teacher can find a reading material and then record it by himself or by asking other teachers or Anglicist friends to make a tape. It should be noted that the language in the tape must be simple and this presentation lasts for short time because the aim is only to motivate the students to read the text.
Take the reading text The English Language (Unit 5) as an example. The teacher can let the students listen to a text on English which can be easily taken from the internet in order to introduce the topic. But here the teacher should not present the origin or the characteristics of English because the students will find these when reading the text. It will be more interesting if the subject/object “it” instead of “English” is used and then the students will guess what language has been mentioned.
4.2.1.1.3 Providing students with a list of key words or phrases
To motivate the students to think about the topic before reading, the ESP teacher can give them a list of key words or phrases and ask them to imagine what the text might be about. The list should be short so that the students can guess the topic they are going to learn. In addition, it must consist of key words or phrases; otherwise, it may result in the students’ confusion and distraction. This technique requires the teacher’s ability of deciding what words or phrases should be chosen. Besides, he or she has to know whether these words or phrases are within the students’ vocabulary or not and how many of them are enough. To be on the safe side, the teacher should select the words or phrases from the text but it is advisable to list the important and familiar with his or her students’ knowledge.
The following is an example to show how this technique can be put into reality. It is designed for Unit 3 Kinds of Grammar. The teacher can give the following list:
parts of speech tense clause word order simple sentence complex sentence passive voice indirect speech conditionals
When using this technique, the teacher can write the key words on the board or read them aloud sometimes to get the students involved in the prediction of what the topic is.
What should be noted is that there may be one or two key words/phrases which appear in the text but is/are unfamiliar to some students. In this case, the teacher can still choose them because whether those students understand the meanings or not they are able to guess. The question here is that if the teacher should present the new words or phrases. The key principle is that he or she should make a decision based on the importance of the words and the level of students. However, the good point of these new words’ appearance in the list is to motivate the students to read the text and find out the meanings in context by themselves. This usually makes the reading lesson more interesting.
It should also be emphasized that this technique can be used after introducing the topic of the text in the way that the teacher asks the students to imagine what the text will tell them about. They can do their work in pairs or in groups, discuss what the topic is or what they expect to read, report what they have done, and then compare the text with their predictions. Therefore, the students at the same time can improve their speaking skills.
In short, no matter what type of activities is used, making introduction to the topic should last only a couple of minutes. After that, the teacher gets the students involved in the text by asking them to do some other activities that will be discussed below.
4.2.1.2 Giving students some statements referring to the text
The students can be given a number of statements about the theme and are asked to say whether they agree or disagree with them and give reasons. This activity is mainly based on the students’ background knowledge about the topic of the reading text. Its advantage is that the students have to think about the topic by making a decision themselves and practising speaking skills as well. They are usually curious to find out whether what they have guessed before is right or wrong and this encourages them to read the text eagerly at while-reading stage to check. The aim is to give the students a reason to read and to motivate them to make some predictions before reading, not checking their reading ability. Therefore, statements should be presented in a simple way.
If the text is followed by a True/False exercise, it is better to ask the students to read the exercise and guess whether the provided sentences are true or false. But if there is no exercise of this kind, the teacher can supply some statements referring to the text so that the students can express their own point of view on these sentences. He or she can take some sentences from the text and make small changes to some of them. As a result, it will not take time for preparation.
Concerning the question, “How can this technique be used?”, at least three ways can be suggested. First, the teacher can say the first sentence twice and let the students think about it in a few seconds before telling their choice and expressing the reason(s) why. The same thing can be done with the rest. This way seems to be good since the teacher can keep the students’ attention and practise their listening skills as well but it is time-consuming. Therefore, depending on each reading text, he or she must be flexible in applying this technique. Another way is that the teacher writes the sentences on the board. This also takes time. Therefore, in my opinion, the best way is to write all of the sentences in the handouts so that the teacher can save time and the students can compare what they have done before and after reading the whole text.
If well-prepared, this technique will be helpful and applicable to the teaching and learning of reading ESP.
4.2.1.3 Asking students to have a short discussion
This technique is very effective because it helps the students relate their own experience, background knowledge as well as ability of using the target language to the topic by speaking. It also increases the students’ interest in reading since they can compare their point of view with the writer’s.
After introducing the topic, the teacher asks the students to discuss the topic in pairs or in groups for a couple of minutes. However, it will be difficult for the students to discuss broad topics. Therefore, it is the teacher’s duty to narrow them by giving students sub-topic(s) to talk about. This may result in a question, “How are these sub-topics designed?” It is not necessary that they are the same as the main content of the text. In fact, it is better to relate them to the students’ knowledge and interest. Besides, these sub-topics can be in various forms such as a question, a statement, etc. This type of pre-reading activity is available in the given material so that the ESP teacher can take advantage of it.
After discussing, some students will report on what they have done and share their point of view with the others’. The teacher may write the answers on the board if the sub-topics are directly related to the content of the reading text. Although it seems to be time-consuming, the students will be more eager to find out whether the text contains what they have discussed before. Therefore, the teacher had better write only the main ideas, not all, to save time. On the contrary, if sub-topics are not of the content of the text and the teacher’s aim is to lead the students into the text, he or she should not write.
4.2.1.4 Encouraging students to form certain expectations about the text
When the students know the topic of the reading text, the teacher can ask them to have some expectations about the reading text. This aims at making the students think about the topic before reading, have much desire to read the text and develop other language skills (speaking and writing). It helps them identify what they are looking for. Even if the information in the text does not correspond to their expectations, the students can still stimulate their imagination and interest. The teacher, thus, gives the students a reason to read and creates motivation for reading.
The students can be asked to think about some questions that they hope the text will answer for several minutes. This activity requires their study on a few general questions about the text, which activates what they already know about the subject and suggests the kind of information they expect to be presented in the text. When applying it, the teacher can ask the students to speak out or to write down their own questions and/or possible answers. As a result, it also contributes to the students’ speaking and writing skills.
If the teacher wants to give the students far more chances to speak English, he or she can ask them to raise questions individually. The questions should not be repeated. In case they are the same, the answers must be different because each student has his own answer(s). However, this activity is not quite suitable since the majority of the classes are quite large with about 30 students. As a result, it takes time. To save the situation, the teacher can call some students to speak out their questions and/or possible answers at random. On the other hand, he or she can divide the class into groups to encourage the students to share their ideas and knowledge and practise more language. Then each group will have one student to present what the members of the group expect to read.
If the teacher wants to develop the students’ writing skills, he or she can ask them to write down. It may not be good writings but the students have an opportunity to express their thought in words. Moreover, since it is free writing, they can express what they think and want to look for it in the text. Nevertheless, this activity is rather time-consuming and some students might be too lazy to write down. The teacher can avoid these problems by limiting either time spent on writing or the minimum number of questions and/or possible answers to write.
4.2.1.5 Asking students to write a list of things they know and things they want to know about the topic
The teacher can ask the students to write down what they know and want to know about the topic to warm up their thinking on the text. Obviously, there must be something that the students know and do not know whatever the topic is. The class can be divided into groups of four or five. Each group is given a large sheet of paper to write. After some minutes for discussion, these sheets of paper will be stuck on the board. With the teacher’s help, the whole class may go through the list and check mistakes if necessary. Leave the list here until the students finish reading the text so that they can add more ideas to the list.
To some extent, this technique is similar to the technique mentioned in the above section (see V.2.1.4) but it is less demanding. The students only write a list of things, e.g. words, phrases, not full sentences. Whether the list is short or long depends on the level of the students. However, writing down whatever coming to their mind about the topic can make them more interested in reading the text. It stimulates their curiosity. If the students know much about what they are going to read, they will find it easier to read the text. If the students know little about the topic, they will be more eager and ready to explore the text and find out the answers. It should be noted that what the students write is not important. The aim is that they must make their mind work at pre-reading stage.
4.2.1.6 Asking students to fill in the blanks of a summary of the text
The ESP teacher can also get the students involved in the topic by giving them a summary of the text and asking them to try to guess what words should go in the blanks. This is a very good preparation for the students before reading since they can know clearly what they are going to read. Therefore, to make the best exploitation of the text, the teacher should spend much time reading, writing and choosing suitable words to fill in before class to have a good summary. At first, it may take time to prepare but in exchange, the teacher can use it many times. However, it must be admitted that this kind of task is not easy if the topic is not familiar to the students. The teacher can avoid by giving the students a summary which is easy to read and guess the missing words. Some words may be key words or related to the vocabulary and the grammar of that unit while the others have been already learnt before.
For example, with the text The English Language (Unit 5), the teacher can summarize it and design the task as follows:
Fill in each blank of the following paragraph with one suitable word:
English is now widely used all over the world. It belongs to the Indo-European family of (1)………. . Therefore, it is (2)……… to most other languages spoken in Europe and western Asia from Iceland to India. However, (3)…….. from most of the modern European languages, Modern English is (4)……… or relatively uninflected. English words have been slowly (5)……… from the inflected variable forms toward invariable ones. In addition, English has two other basic (6)……… . Firstly, English word function is (7)……… . For example, nouns and verbs can be identical. Secondly, in English, (8)……… is open. This means that English adopts or adapts any words from other languages.
Answer:
1. languages 2. related 3. different 4. analytic 5. simplified 6. inflected 7. flexible 8. vocabulary In short, what is important here is that the students must have some ideas before reading the text. Therefore, they may not do the task well but they will be motivated to find out the missing information later. It should also be noted that the teacher just asks the students to check how many correct answers they get after reading the text instead of correcting them immediately. This technique is very useful at pre-reading stage as it brings students the clearest view of the main content of the reading text.
4.2.1.7 Presenting some of the new words
It cannot be denied that terminology plays an important part in ESP. Being aware of the importance of ESP terms in a reading lesson, the teacher will know what to do to help the students enrich their vocabulary.
The technique presenting new language items before reading depends on the level of the reading text and the students. If the language in the text is not too difficult for the students to read, there is no need to do this. In contrast, the students will soon loose motivation if they find the vocabulary too difficult even if they are interested in the subject matter of the reading text. The teacher, thus, has to explain unfamiliar words to make it easier for the students to understand the text.
However, not all new words are necessary to be presented because the students can always guess the meanings of many unknown words from the context. The teacher’s duty is to help the students be aware of which words can be ignored during a reading programme. There are three categories of known words. The first one is an active vocabulary of words students know well enough to use themselves. The second is a receptive vocabulary of words students can recognize and respond to, but cannot confidently use. The third category is throwaway vocabulary that students can ignore in order to simplify the reading text. This can make the students’ attitude to new words more relaxed. Only the key words, whose meanings are crucial to the understanding of the text, need to be explained.
The teacher can present new vocabulary items visually (by using objects, pictures, drawings, charts, maps, diagrams, mime, actions, performance, etc.), situationally (by using real situations or created situations), and verbally (by using definition, language context, semantic systems, synonyms, antonyms, translation, etc.)
4.2.1.8 Giving guiding questions
Before the students read the text, the ESP teacher can give them guiding questions or signpost questions. The aim of these questions is, in fact, to give the students a reason to read and lead them toward the main ideas of the text so that they can read more purposefully and can have a good general idea after the first reading. Guiding questions are particularly useful when the reading lesson is based mainly on silent reading. They should focus on the most important points of the text, not on minor details. They should also be in a correct sequence. In addition, they should not be too many, too long and too difficult because they act as a guidance. Two or three questions are enough. They can be either given orally or written before students read the text. But it is preferable that guiding questions should be written on the board so that the students can know exactly what they are looking for while reading.
However, there is an obvious danger that the students may look for the answers to the guiding questions and not read the rest of the text carefully. This results in a lack of understanding the gist of the text. To avoid this, the teacher should make sure that the students know they will always be asked a lot of questions after they have finished reading. As a result, the students will have to read the whole text even when they have found the answers at the beginning of the text. The teacher also makes sure that the guiding questions do not merely focus on the location of information but involve more conscious consideration of the meaning of the text.
In fact, the present ESP material does quite well since almost every unit has some guiding questions at pre-reading stage. What should be paid attention here is the way the teacher let student discuss the questions before reading. They can do in pairs or in groups. It is not necessary that their answers are correct because the students will find them out when reading. The aim here is motivate the students by giving them a chance to speak English and a reason to read.
In summary, the techniques suggested above are used not only to motivate the students to read but also to integrate reading skills with other language skills at the beginning of a reading lesson. It must be emphasized once again that the teacher should be creative and flexible when applying these techniques in order to achieve the objectives of the lesson.
4.2.2 While-reading stage
Although each text in the ESP material is followed by two or three exercises, the ESP teacher needs to design more reading exercises and reading activities at while-reading stage in order to help the students better understand the text. However, the fact shows that few teachers do this. They only ask the students to do the exercises in the material. Therefore, with the aim of improving the quality of teaching and learning reading ESP, the following tasks are chosen. Furthermore, they are expected to develop the students’ communicative competence. As a result, the students will play an active and center-role in reading lessons.
Before designing more reading exercises, the teacher should bear in mind some considerations. Firstly, when constructing reading comprehension exercises on a text, he or she should pay attention to the overall meaning of the text, the function and the aim of the text rather than its vocabulary or specific ideas. Secondly, when introducing exercises, the teacher should extend the range of the exercises to develop reading skills as well as other language skills. The exercises must be meaningful and varied. Thirdly, the exercises should be suitable to the reading text and contain the writer’s idea and attention for the text. Moreover, the purpose of the exercises must be clearly defined. Last but not least, the students should be asked to read in silence and do the given exercises themselves individually, in pairs or in groups.
The following are some suggested techniques at while-reading stage that the teacher can use to help the students fully exploit the reading text.
4.2.2.1 Focusing on gist
This task aims at developing the students’ skimming skill. It requires the students to move their eyes quickly over the text to get its gist. It also strengthens their ability to discard irrelevant and over-detailed information when reading. Normally, the teacher should ask the students to look at the important parts of the text such as the title, the beginning, the end and the first or the last sentence of each paragraph (the topic sentence) to get the general picture. Besides, he or she has to involve all the students in the activities by limiting the reading time, encouraging them to read and offering help when necessary, etc. There are some techniques that the teacher can apply to help the students focus on gist.
4.2.2.1.1 Checking text against predictions made beforehand
This technique requires the students to check what they have predicted in the pre-reading stage. After reading the text silently for the first time, the students will be asked whether their predictions match up to the text, and how many correct answers they get. They can also be asked to compare what they know and do not know about the topic with the content of the reading text. However, because there is limited time for each period of the reading lesson and the class is over crowded, the teacher should let the students work in pairs or in groups first and then calls some of them to present what they found after skimming the text and compare their point of view with others’. Therefore, the teacher, at the same time, can develop the students’ speaking and listening skills.
4.2.2.1.2 Checking answers to the guiding questions
Another way to improve the students’ skimming skill is to check their answers to the guiding questions. During their first reading, the students thought about the guiding questions individually and found the answers themselves. Now the teacher can spend some minutes getting students involved in working in pairs or in groups to compare and find out the answers. Each pair or group should have a presenter to report their answers. Then the whole class choose the best ones. The advantage of this activity is that the teacher can save time because not all of the students in the class can find the correct answer at once. Therefore, by working in pairs or in groups, they not only help each other, exchange their ideas but also have more chances to speak English. This technique is also very useful since the teacher can know whether the students understand the text or not and the students can make some progress in reading skills as well as other language skills (speaking and listening) in a competitive and enthusiastic atmosphere.
4.2.2.1.3 Identifying the main ideas
Normally, the text is divided into many paragraphs. To understand the whole text, the students have to understand the main idea of each paragraph. Usually, the topic of a paragraph lies in the sentence at the beginning of the paragraph, sometimes at the end or even in the middle. Sometimes the paragraph has no topic sentence. Yet, it still contains a topic. Therefore, the teacher’s duty is to help students to find out what the topic is. The teacher can organize pairwork or groupwork so that the students can discuss and find out the main ideas. After that, some students will be called to report what they have done and compare their own ideas with other students. Then, with the teacher’s help, the whole class will choose the best answers. As a result, at the same time, the teacher can save time and students can actively involve in the process of acquiring the target language by practising the four language skills. To make it easier, the teacher can ask the students to find out the main idea of each paragraph individually by designing a multiple-choice exercise. The students have to choose the best answer that they think the topic of each paragraph lies in it.
In short, the techniques above attempt to help the students get a general understanding of the text and to develop their other language skills. But in order to gain text comprehension and to better their reading ability, the students must read the text again more slowly and carefully. As a result, task focusing on specific details is needed to design.
4.2.2.2 Focusing on specific details
This task is sometimes called “extracting specific information” or scanning for details. The students will move to smaller units (sentences and words), go into details of the text (names, years, etc.) and so on. There are many kinds of reading exercises that the students can perform with reading texts. In this section, using questions, note-taking, summarizing and/or predicting will be recommended.
4.2.2.2.1 Using questions
The ESP teacher can ask his or her students to answer questions about specific items of information. In fact, questions used in reading comprehension are indispensable. They are widely used as an effective classroom technique in the process of teaching and learning reading skills. They aim at checking comprehension and helping the students read the text. Therefore, when designing questions, the teacher must make sure that all the students in the class involve in answering the questions and the questions should not be used simply to test the students but to show how well they have understood the text and what need to be more fully explained. Besides, questions should be devised following the organization of the text and in various types. With each type, the teacher should pay attention to its level of difficulty. For example, Yes/No questions are easy to answer and they do not require the students to produce new language; the answers to alternative questions are simply structural manipulation of the grammar of the text and they are useful only for intensive language practice; Wh-questions are used not only for checking comprehension but also for drawing the students’ attention to relationships that may have been missed. With the first two types, the answers are often short. In contrast, with Wh-questions, if the teacher wants to serve the purpose of the production of complete sentences, long answers may be asked for. As a result, the teacher can encourage the students to use the language by themselves. Besides the three types of questions above, the teacher can also use True/False questions, multiple-choice questions to check the students’ comprehension.
In the present ESP material, many reading texts are followed by questions. The teacher can make use of them or design more questions to better the students’ understanding of the text. Nevertheless, no matter whether the questions are already made below the text or designed by the teacher, he or she should ask the students to read the questions first, then read the text to answer them. Moreover, the students should know that they do not have to understand every word since the objective is only to find the answers to the questions, and they should do it as quickly as possible. When the students finish doing the exercise individually, they can compare and discuss their answers with each other in pairs or in groups. This will enhance interaction between the students. The teacher then conducts feedback, finding out how well they did and explaining any misunderstandings. The students, thus, can practise the other language skills as well.
In short, using questions is an art itself. The teacher, therefore, must be active and creative to think of those which are suitable to the levels of the students in order to improve their reading skills and the other language skills.
4.2.2.2.2 Note-taking
For this technique, the ESP teacher asks the students to make use of information in the text to do such things as making a sketch, filling in a form, etc. This technique also requires the students to grasp the overall organization of the text and its main ideas. They should be let to read the text, then transfer information to a table or a chart or write down the important ideas of it. Moreover, this involves the students in understanding the structural paraphrase, relationship between sentences, logical deduction and precise reference of individual items. As a result, the students’ writing skills can be improved. Besides, when using this technique, the teacher, in fact, gives his or her students a reason to read. That is because in real life the students usually take notes of the important and interesting ideas while reading, which is a significant and useful skill.
After the students have finished their own work, to develop their speaking skills, the teacher can encourage them to compare each others’ writings to see if they share the same information before he or she gets involved.
The reading text Authors in Linguistics (Unit 1) can be taken as an example.
Fill in the following form about Avram Noam Chomsky:
Surname:
First name:
Date of birth: ….
Place of birth: ….
Sex: ….
Nationality: ….
Occupation: ….
Experience:
+ 1976-present: ………………………………………………………………………………….
+ 1955-1976: …………………………………………………………………………………….
+ 1951-1955: …………………………………………………………………………………….
Important publications: …………………………………………………………………………
4.2.2.2.3 Summarizing and/or predicting
For some teachers, writing can be integrated at while-reading stage only in the form of gap-filling exercises, using prompts to make sentences or note-taking (as mentioned in the previous section). There are, however, other writing activities taking place at this stage. But it should be noted that the decision to have the students stop reading in order to write must be made with care since this is just as likely to result in interference with comprehension as it is to facilitate it. This requires the teacher’s knowledge and experience. If the text is too long and consists of many parts dealing with different contents, he or she should divide it into parts and ask the students to summarize each part before moving to others. They can work in pairs or in groups but it is advisable for the teacher to organize groupwork because this kind of task seems to be quite demanding. When the students work in groups of five or six, they can help each other and share their viewpoints. After the discussion, the teacher can call some students to present the summaries of their groups, let them compare their summaries with each other, then remark and explain. As a result of this, the students can practise listening and speaking the target language.
In deed, this technique aims at an authentic purpose. The students often read long texts in real life. They have to summarize, guess and read, then summarize, guess and so on. The teacher’s duty, thus, to enhance this skill so that the students can become good readers.
4.2.2.2.4 Focusing on recognizing cohesion and coherence
This kind of task requires the students to concentrate on the features of the text. They have to recognize the function and discourse patterns, or in other words, the organization of the text in order to better understand the text, interact with it and model it if necessary. This is very helpful for their writing skills.
A suggestion for this task is that after asking the students to find the discourse markers in the text, the teacher can encourage his or her students to use those discourse markers in a new context. Another way to focus the students’ attention on coherence is asking them to put sentences in the correct order. With this technique, the students are provided with a set of scrambled sentences. Their duty is to rearrange them while reading the text based on the time, the connectives, etc. This can be applied for many reading texts in the ESP material for students of linguistics.
To make the reading lesson more interesting, the teacher should ask the students to do these above tasks individually first, then in pairs or in groups before checking their reading comprehension.
In summary, there are many techniques that the teacher can apply at the while-reading stage. In this section, some of them have been suggested with a hope that when using them, the teacher not only helps his or her students understand more about the reading text but also improve their other language skills (listening, speaking and writing). The students will, thus, see reading as more than just answering questions and doing exercises.
4.2.3 Post-reading stage
It is agreed that one of the important goals of Communicative Language Teaching is to help students do something after the lesson. Therefore, the teacher must ask the students to do some post-reading activities, which not only gives chances to relate what they have learnt to their own knowledge, experience or interests but also provide them with ground to practise other language skills. Like the previous stages, the close relationship between reading and listening, speaking and writing can be seen clearly at this stage. However, although in the ESP material for students of linguistics post-reading stage has its own part, there are few kinds of activities. Besides, few teachers and students make use of them seriously. The teacher, thus, should be responsible for varying the techniques and giving more activities to help the students fully exploit the reading text in order to acquire the target language successfully. The following are some suggested techniques that can be used in this stage.
4.2.3.1 Discussing
This kind of activity can be seen after most of the reading texts in the ESP material for students of linguistics. Despite the fact that it has or has not been held at the beginning of the lesson, it cannot be denied that discussion be done at this stage. If at the pre-reading stage the students had a chance to discuss the topic of the text, the teacher now can ask them to express their points of view and feelings, then compare these ones with the author’s, etc. If not, there are also a lot of activities to do because now the reading text will serve as a basis for oral presentation. Students’ speaking can be enhanced when the teacher asks the students to discuss the topic, express their own reactions to the text based on their experience and knowledge by evaluating commenting, reflecting and so on. Moreover, the students can be asked to discuss the topic in a different aspect.
It should be noted that the best way to stimulate speaking is to ask the students to work in pairs or in groups as speaking involves at least two participants. That is because in small groups, the students will have more chances to practise English and help each other. They are also more involved and less anxiety when they are working “privately” than when they are “on show” in front of the whole class. They are free to give their opinions, make arguments and share ideas. The students should be advised to write down the ideas while discussing so that they can have better presentations afterwards and easily compare themselves with other pairs or groups. Provided that the teacher makes good preparation, this kind of technique is very useful in a way that it not only consolidate the students’ reading comprehension but also their speaking skills as well as writing skills if the discussion leads to a home-writing task.
4.2.3.2 Writing task
The reading text can also be a source for writing. There are various kinds of activities that the teacher can use to develop the students writing ability. The teacher can ask the students to write a summary of the text. Although summarizing is a difficult exercise which is rarely done satisfactorily, even by advanced students, it is undeniable that it is an important skill for students in the future when they deal with reading materials not only in English but also in their mother tongue. Therefore, to make it easier, it is advisable for the teacher to help the students by asking them a number of questions which when answered in a sequence, a summary will be outlined. Besides, to train the students to write a summary, the teacher can prepare them through practice in underlining important words, phrases, or structures, in finding the topic sentence and main ideas and in perceiving the organization of the text. It is a good idea that he or she limits the words in the summary. This is a useful technique to help the students improve their reading ability of generalization since they have to recall the main ideas and express them in their own words.
One more point should be paid attention to is that the teacher limits the time and the words for writing. However, this task is quite difficult. To save the situation and, therefore, encourage the students’ willingness, the teacher can divide the class into small groups. Each group has its own outline for the writing task. Then the students do their task individually based on that outline. Or after the whole class choose the best one from all of the groups and make some adjustments if necessary with the teacher’s help, the students begin to write. Besides, the teacher can give the students an outline of what should be included in their writing if the students are not very good at English in general and at writing skills in particular.
The following is an example to show how this technique can be put into reality. It is designed for Unit 1 Authors in Linguistics.
Example: After finishing the text about Chomsky, the teacher can ask the students to summarize the biography of this famous American linguist. To make the task more interesting, the students can imagine they have read a book or an article about Mark Twain’s life. Now they write a letter to a friend to tell him or her about what they have known about Chomsky. The letter must be informative but short.
In short, to develop students’ writing skills, the teacher has many ways at this stage. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that the techniques for improving writing mentioned above will be more effective if the teacher organizes group work activity, let the students compare and correct themselves before giving remarks and correcting the students’ writings. As a result, the students can have a chance to read each other’s versions, to have more ideas and to help each other.
4.2.3.3 Listening and correcting information
This technique aims at developing students’ listening skills by identifying wrong information and correcting them. It can be applied to all of the texts in the ESP material. The procedure is as follows. The students are asked to close the book. The teacher reads out the text which has some changes of information such as the events, dates or names. The students follow their teacher’s reading and immediately stop him or her when they notice one of the changes and correct it. It should be noted that the teacher reads the text at normal speed and has good pronunciation.
4.2.3.4 Playing games
In the light of Communicative Language Teaching, games are very useful in giving students valuable communicative practice. Students themselves also like playing games very much. Therefore, after a reading lesson, if the teacher organizes games frequently, the students will be more motivated. The teacher, as a result, should provide lively activities to cheer up the class.
There are various ways to use games as a means to revise what has been learned in the lesson, to exploit students’ knowledge and experience as well as to develop their communicative competence. Depending on the type of the text and its topic, the teacher can take games from game-books or design his or her own games. It should be noted that the game must be truly communicative and have something relating to the lesson the students have just learned. Besides, it is a good idea for the teacher to stand aside and let the students take over the activity.
Take Unit 1 Authors in Linguistics as an example. This unit is about famous linguists such as Noam Chomsky, Ferdinand de Saussure. The teacher can take advantage of this to design a guessing game or an exchanging information game. In the former case, the teacher can ask one student to go to the board standing face to face to the class. The teacher then writes one of the linguists’ name on the board so that this student does not know who he is. In this case, all of the other students know the answer. The student who does not know must use Yes/No questions to find out this person. The rest of the class respond in chorus. This activity is more highly organized and keeps the whole class involved in spite of the fact that most students do not have to say much, only “Yes” or “No”. To make the game more interesting and competitive, the teacher can divide the class into small groups. Each group has one representative. These representatives all know who the linguist is. They go to other groups, not their group, to work. For example, representative A works with group B, representative B works with group C and so on. The others in the group try to guess the picture by asking the representative. The group finding out who the famous person is will be the winner.
In the case of an exchanging information game, to create a need to communicate, the teacher can organize pairwork activity. In deed, this kind of activity is used in Speaking part of the unit. The teacher can make use of it.
4.2.3.5 Role play
Beside organizing a game, the teacher can set up a role play at the post-reading stage. This increases motivation and adds interest to the reading lesson. Role play also gives a chance to use language in new contexts and for new topics. It encourages the students to use natural expressions and intonation as well as gestures. In the communicative point of view, role play enhances students’ communicative competence since they can practise the target language in different social contexts and in different social roles.
However, it is not easy to apply this kind of activity for the present ESP material as the texts are written in scientific style. However, the teacher can design a role play by asking the students to make an interview between a reporter and a linguist. During their conversation, the linguist will talk about matters of his major by answering the reporter’s questions. Students will work in small groups, discuss together what they might say and, if possible, “try out” the role play privately before being called to act it out in front of the class. Then the whole class will decide which group acts the best. In fact, interviewing is a way of bringing the text to life and making it seem real to students as well as giving language practice. The students cannot act well if they do not understand the text. The deeper their comprehension of the text is, the better they act.
In summary, the above-mentioned techniques have been suggested in order to better teaching reading skills in integration with other language skills to students of linguistics in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU. It is hoped that this will help not only to improve current teaching methodology of ESP teachers but also to train students of linguistics to become efficient readers. An example of how these can be applied to the actual teaching reading ESP to this group of students is presented in Appendix 3.
However, what is more important is that the ESP teacher should be creative, critical and flexible in deciding which technique is best for each reading lesson and for each class so that the students will enjoy lessons more and improve four language skills in the process of acquiring English as well as their major and future career. In addition, it is necessary for ESP teachers to work in groups and exchange their experience in teaching reading ESP. They can share their lesson plans, teaching aids and work together to find the best activities and choose appropriate supplementary materials that are suitable for their students’ level of English. It is also a good idea for ESP teachers to attend and observe their colleagues’ lectures so that they can help and learn a lot from each other. Furthermore, an effort should be made to conduct some further in-service training for ESP teachers in the form of individual self-study or attendance at workshops or lectures.
Last but not least, some adjustment should be done to the present ESP material for students of linguistics. It can be said that the material, in general, is quite well-designed with three stages in every reading lesson including pre-reading, while-reading and post-reading. Nevertheless, the reading texts and the activities should be varied so that the students can have lots of chances to be familiar with various types of texts and reading comprehension exercises. Listening skill should also be added to help the students improve their listening skills. To achieve these objectives, the material designer should take into account the linguistic needs, learners’ perceptions and learners’ needs identified during the needs analysis. Apart from these, there should be a test at the beginning of the course to classify students’ level of English according to their scores. Students of the same level will have a chance to learn together. This will help not only the students learn ESP more effectively but also the ESP teacher design suitable activities and choose appropriate materials in the process of teaching and learning ESP for linguistics studies.

PART D: CONCLUSIONS
The study has had a general look at reading and the advantages of skill-integration in the light of Communicative Language Teaching in teaching reading skills to students of linguistics. It has also pointed out that reading ESP plays an important part in learning English as well as in real life.
Through the survey questionnaires and the observation, strong points and weak points of teaching and learning reading skills to students of linguistics in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at USSH – VNU have been identified and analyzed. Due to a number of both objective and subjective reasons, Communicative Approach is not being properly applied in the reading lessons. Texts are not exploited appropriately. Consequently, the teachers, to a large extent, fail to help the students improve their reading skills as well as other language skills.
Based on all of the theoretical and practical knowledge above, a number of techniques have been suggested with a hope that they are applicable and useful for the improvement of teaching and learning reading skills in integration with the development of the other language skills to students of linguistics. With a variety of activities for the three reading stages offered by the Communicative Approach, the exiting problems can be overcome and each reading lesson will result in students’ ability to read better.
Nevertheless, the thesis has just introduced and presented some possible techniques for teaching and learning reading texts in “A collection of teaching materials on linguistics studies” (T?p bài gi?ng ti?ng Anh chuyên ngành ngôn ng? h?c) in integration with the other language skills. It still leaves room for further research on other skills.
Finally, due to the limitation of time, experience and materials, short-comings and mistakes are unavoidable. Further comments and remarks on this study would be welcomed and highly appreciated.
REFERENCES
1. Abbott G., Wingard P. (1985), The Teaching of English as an International Language, Collins, London.
2. Boughton G., Brumfit C., Flavell R., Hill P., Pincas A. (1990), Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ud, London.
3. Bright J. A., McGregor G. P. (1977), Teaching English as a second language, Longman.
4. Burns P. C., Roe B. D., Ross E. P. (1988), Teaching Reading in Today’s Elementary School, Houghton Mifflin Company, New York.
5. Doff A. (1995), Teach English, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
6. Durkin D. (1989), Teaching them to Read, Allyn and Bacon, London.
7. Gould E., DiYanni R., Smith W., Standford J. (1990), The Art of Reading, McGraw – Hill Publishing Company, New York.
8. Harmer J. (1992), The Practice of English Language Teaching, Longman.
9. Hedge T. (1991), Using Readers in Language Teaching, McMillan Publishers Ltd.
10. Howie H. S. (1989), Reading, Writing and Computers, Allyn and Bacon, London.
11. Hutchinson T., Waters A. (1987), English for Specific Purposes, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
12. Johnson K., Morrow K. (1981), Communication in the Classroom, Longman.
13. Jordon R. R. (1997), English for Academic Purposes: A Guide and Resource Book for Teachers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
14. Lapp D. (1981), Making Reading Possible Through Effect Teaching Classroom Management, International Reading Association, London.
15. Matthews A., Spratt M., Dangerfield L. (1991), At the Chalkface, Edward Arnold, Oxford.
16. Nuttall C. (1989), Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language, Heinemann, London.
17. Petty W. T., Petty D. C., Salzer R. T. (1989), Experiences in Language, Allyn and Bacon, London.
18. Richard P. A. (1988), Making It Happen, Longman.
19. Rivers W. M., Temperly M.S. (1978), A Practical Guide to the Teaching of English, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
20. Robinson R., Good T. L. (1987), Becoming an Effective Reading Teacher, Harper & Row Publishers, London.
21. Sheils J. (1993), Communicative in the Modern Language Classroom, Council of Europe Press, London.
22. Smith F. (1990), Reading, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
23. Ur P. (1996), A Course in Language Teaching, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
24. Widdowson H. G. (1978), Teaching Languages Communication, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
25. Willis J. (1998), Teaching English through English, Longman.

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS
This survey questionnaire is designed for my study on “Teaching reading ESP to students in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University, Hanoi”. The findings will make great contribution to my study. Your assistance in completing following items is highly appreciated. This is for study purpose only. You can be confident that you will not be identified in any data analysis.
Thank you very much!

Personal information:
How long have you been teaching
+ English? …………year(s)
+ reading ESP to students of linguistics? …………….. year(s)

Now please put a tick (?) where you think your choice is.
Note: You may have more than one choice.

PART A:
1. How important do you think reading skills is to students of Linguistics?
a. Very important
b. As important as other language skills
c. Not as important as other language skills
d. Not important at all
2. What is your purpose of teaching reading ESP to students of Linguistics?
a. To develop their reading skills and other language skills
b. To widen their vocabulary, especially ESP terms in Linguistics
c. To improve their grammar
d. To improve their knowledge related to Linguistics
e. Others (please specify): ………………………………………………………………………………………….
3. What do you think about teaching reading ESP in integration with other language skills to students of Linguistics?
a. interesting b. helpful c. difficult d. normal e. ineffective

PART B:
4. In your opinion, the reading texts in “A collection of teaching materials on linguistics studies” (T?p bài gi?ng ti?ng Anh chuyên ngành ngôn ng? h?c) are:
The reading texts 1 2 3 a. difficult b. interesting c. long Note: 1: not difficult 2: difficult 3: very difficult
Do the same for interesting and long
5. How often do you use supplementary materials in teaching reading ESP?
a. always b. often c. sometimes d. never

PART C:
6. What do you usually do at pre-reading stage?
a. Give a brief introduction to the text
b. Present new words and revise grammatical structures
c. Give students some guiding questions
d. Present a listening text on the same topic
e. Ask students to say whether they agree or disagree on a number of statements about the theme and give reasons why
f. Supply key words and ask students to guess what the text might be about
g. Encourage students to form certain expectations about the text by discussing or writing based on the given clues (e.g. headings).
h. Ask students to fill in the blanks of a summary of the text with some important words taken from the text
i. Do as required in the material
j. Others (please specify): …………………………………………………………………………………………..
k. No activities at this stage
7. What do you usually do at while-reading stage?
a. Explain new words and structures
b. Ask students to do the exercises below the text
c. Design more exercises for students to do
d. Others (please specify): ………………………………………………………………………………………….
8. What do you usually do at post-reading stage?
a. Ask students to read aloud the whole text for several times
b. Ask students to translate the text into Vietnamese
c. Ask students to listen to a taped model reading
d. Ask students to discuss the topic of the text with their classmates
e. Ask students to practise using the newly learnt vocabulary and grammar in new situations or contexts by writing or speaking
f. Ask students to write a summary of the text
g. Ask students to do their own writing on similar topic
h. Play games / role play
i. Do as required in the material
j. Others (please specify): …………………………………………………………………………………………..
k. No activities at this stage

PART D:
9. Which type of classroom interaction do you often use during reading lessons?
Stages
Types Pre-reading stage While-reading stage Post-reading stage Individual Pair work Group work The whole class
PART E:
10. What is your difficulty in teaching reading skills to students of Linguistics?
a. Students’ limited vocabulary
b. Students’ grammar problems
c. Uneven students’ background knowledge in Linguistics
d. Finding other materials used in teaching reading ESP
e. Limited time
f. Others (please specify): …………………………………………………………………………………………..

PART F:
11. What do you think should be done in order to make the quality of teaching reading ESP to students of Linguistics better?
a. Encouraging students to read suitable materials in English frequently
b. Asking students to do reading exercises as many as possible
c. Teaching students a lot of grammar and linguistics terms
d. Improving teachers’ methodology and knowledge related to Linguistics
e. Developing the reading material
f. Classifying students’ level of English
g. Others (please specify): …………………………………………………………………………………………

Thank you very much for your cooperation!
APPENDIX 2: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS
This survey questionnaire is designed for my study on “Teaching reading ESP to students in Department of Linguistics and Vietnamese Studies at University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University, Hanoi”. The findings will make great contribution to my study. Your assistance in completing following items is highly appreciated. This is for study purpose only. You can be confident that you will not be identified in any data analysis.
Thank you very much!

Personal information:
How long have you been learning English? …………….. year(s)

Now please put a tick (?) where you think your choice is.
Note: You may have more than one choice.

PART A:
1. How important do you think reading skills is?
a. Very important
b. As important as other language skills
c. Not as important as other language skills
d. Not important at all
2. What is your purpose of learning reading ESP?
a. To develop my reading skills and other language skills
b. To widen my vocabulary, especially ESP terms in Linguistics
c. To improve my grammar
d. To improve my knowledge related to Linguistics
e. Others (please specify): ……………………………………………………………………….
3. What do you think about learning reading ESP in integration with other language skills?
a. interesting b. helpful c. difficult d. normal e. ineffective

PART B:
4. In your opinion, the reading texts in “A collection of teaching materials on linguistics studies” (T?p bài gi?ng ti?ng Anh chuyên ngành ngôn ng? h?c) are:
The reading texts 1 2 3 a. difficult b. interesting c. long Note:
1: not difficult 2: difficult 3: very difficult
Do the same for interesting and long
5. How often do you use supplementary materials in learning reading ESP?
a. always b. often c. sometimes d. never

PART C:
6. What are you usually asked to do at pre-reading stage?
a. Listen to a brief introduction to the text
b. Learn new words and revise grammatical structures
c. Answer my teacher’s guiding questions
d. Listen to a listening text on the same topic
e. Say whether I agree or disagree on a number of statements about the theme provided by my teacher and give reasons why
f. Listen or read some key words given by my teacher and guess what the text might be about
g. Form certain expectations about the text by discussing or writing based on the given clues (e.g. headings).
h. Fill in the blanks of a summary of the text with some important words taken from the text by my teacher
i. Do as required in the material
j. Others (please specify): ………………………………………………………………………..
k. No activities at this stage
7. What are you usually asked to do at while-reading stage?
a. Listen to my teacher’s explanation of new words and structures
b. Do the exercises below the text
c. Do more exercises designed by my teacher
d. Others (please specify): ……………………………………………………………………….
8. What are you usually asked to do at post-reading stage?
a. Read aloud the whole text for several times
b. Translate the text into Vietnamese
c. Listen to a taped model reading
d. Discuss the topic of the text with my classmates
e. Practise using the newly learnt vocabulary and grammar in new situations or contexts by writing or speaking
f. Write a summary of the text
g. Do my own writing on similar theme
h. Play games / role play
i. Do as required in the material
j. Others (please specify): ………………………………………………………………………..
k. No activities at this stage

PART D:
9. Which type of classroom interaction are you often asked to do during reading lessons?
Stages
Types Pre-reading stage While-reading stage Post-reading stage Individual Pair work Group work The whole class
PART E:
10. What is your difficulty in learning reading ESP?
a. Limited vocabulary
b. Grammar problems
c. Lack of background knowledge in Linguistics
d. Finding other materials used in learning reading ESP
e. Limited time
f. Others (please specify): ……………………………………………………………………….

PART F:
11. What do you think should be done in order to make the quality of learning reading to students of Linguistic better?
a. Reading suitable materials in English frequently
b. Doing reading exercises as many as possible
c. Learning a lot of grammar and linguistics terms
d. Improving teachers’ methodology and knowledge related to Linguistics
e. Developing the reading material
f. Classifying students’ level of English
g. Others (please specify): ………………………………………………………………………..
Thank you very much for your cooperation!
APPENDIX 3: SAMPLE LESSON PLAN
In order to illustrate what have been presented in the study, the following lesson plan is designed based on the application of some of the suggested techniques. This is only one of the ways to exploit the reading text but it is expected that this will be helpful for readers in that it serves as a reference material. The reading text chosen as a sample for application is the text about Noam Chomsky in Unit 1 Authors of Linguistics in the material “A collection of teaching materials on linguistics studies” (T?p bài gi?ng ti?ng Anh chuyên ngành ngôn ng? h?c).
3.1 Reading text
Pre-reading: Work in pairs and discuss the following questions:
1. Have you heard the name ‘Noam Chomsky’?
2. Who’s he? What nationality is he?
3. Which field of linguistics is he famous for?
4. What achievements did he gain in his field?
While-reading: Read the following passage and do the exercises that follow.
Activity 1: The following sentences are missing from the reading passage below. Scan the passage quickly and put them in the right place.
01. The latter, which he called performance, is the transformation of this competence into everyday speech. (line……)
02. In 1957 he published this theory, called transformational-generative grammar, in his book Syntactic Structures. ( line ……)
03. Avram Noam Chomsky was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (line ……)
04. Chomsky also addressed the effects of the U.S foreign policy. (line……)
05. Chomsky placed linguistics at the core of studies of the mind. ( line……)
01

05
10
15
20
25
30
Chomsky, Noam (1928 – ), American linguist, educator, and political activist. Chomsky is the founder of transformational-generative grammar, a system that revolutionized modern linguistics.
He was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, where he earned a Ph.D. degree in linguistics in 1955 under the direction of American linguist Zellig Harris. While still a graduate student, Chomsky held an appointment from 1951 to 1955 as a junior fellow at Harvard University. He joined the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1955 to teach French and German. In 1976 he became Institute Professor of linguistics at MIT.
Chomsky created and established a new field of linguistics, generative grammar, based on a theory he worked on during the 1950s. Chomsky made a distinction between the innate, often unconscious knowledge people have of their own language and the way in which they use the language in reality. The former, which he termed competence, enables people to generate all possible grammatical sentences. Prior to Chomsky, most theories about the structure of language described performance; they were transformational grammars. Chomsky proposed that linguistic theory also should explain the mental processes that underlie the use of language – in other words, the nature of language itself, or generative grammar.
He claimed that linguistic theory must account for universal similarities between all languages and for the fact that children are able to learn language fluently at an early age in spite of insufficient data that has no systematic logic. His contribution to cognitive sciences – fields that seek to understand how we think, learn, and perceive – emerges from this claim. Of equal importance were Chomsky’s arguments that a serious theory of mental processes should replace empiricism, the belief that experience is the source of knowledge, as the dominant model in American science.
Chomsky wrote on politics early in his life but began to publish more on the subject during the 1960s in response to the United States policies in Southeast Asia. He deliberately scaled back his work on linguistics to dedicate more time to writing about the role of the media and academic communities in ‘manufacturing’ the consent of the general public for the US policies. He felt that intellectuals have a responsibility to use scientific methods in criticizing government policies that they find immoral and to develop practical strategies to combat these policies.
Chomsky’s more important publications , in addition to Syntactic Structures include Aspects of the theory of Syntax (1965), American power and the New Mandarins (1967), Peace in the Middle East (1974), Lectures on Government and Binding (1981), The Fateful Triangle (1983), Deterring Democracy (1991), and The Minimalist Program (1995). (Source: Adapted from Encyclopaedia Britainica 2005)
Activity 2: Read the passage carefully again and answer the following questions by circling A, B, C or D.
06. Chomsky earned a Ph.D. degree in linguistics at ……
A. University of Pennsylvania. B. Harvard University
C. Massachusetts Institute of Technology D.RMIT
07. The word ‘ which’ in line 13 refers to ……
A. the innate, often unconscious knowledge B. language
C. the way D. reality
08. Paragraph 03 mainly discussed ……
A. generative grammar B. people’s competence
C. possible grammatical sentences D. transformational grammars
09. According to the passage, transformational grammars mostly concerns ………
A. the performance of the structure of language B. the nature of language itself
C. mental processes D. all of the above
Activity 3: Based on the information from the passage, decide whether these statements are True (T), or False (F).
10. According to Chomsky, children are capable of learning language fluently at an early age. T / F
11. Cognitive sciences are fields that seek to understand how we think only. T / F
12. Chomsky argues that belief that the experience is the source of knowledge should be replaced by a theory of mental processes. T / F
13. According to Chomsky, cognitive sciences should play a dominant role in American science. T / F
14. Chomsky had nothing to do with politics. T / F
15. He only published his books on linguistics. T / F
Post-reading:
? Work with your partner and check the answers to the questions you’ve discussed at the beginning.
? Can you name some other linguists you know (both in Vietnam and in the world)? What information do you know about them ?
3.2 Lesson plan

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