NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY
A PROJECT REPORT
ETHICS AND PERSONAL CODE OF ETHICS
(“SUBMISSION OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES”)
SUBMITTED TO :
SUBMITTED BY :
DAZY RANI (06)
DEPARTMENT OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS
Whenever we act, our actions are evaluated; whether we are doing a right kind of action or wrong. In our family, educational institutions, business organizations and in the society (taking all in to consideration) we follow certain rule and regulations which guide our actions. Those rules, regulation and principles are popularly called as “ethics”.
Many people tend to equate ethics with their feelings. But being ethical is clearly not a matter of following one’s feelings. A person following his or her feelings may recoil from doing what is right. In fact, feelings frequently deviate from what is ethical.
One shouldn’t identify ethics with religion. Most religions advocate high ethical standards. Yet if ethics were confined to religion, then ethics would apply only to religious people. But ethics applies as much to the behavior of the atheist as to that of the saint. Religion can set high ethical standards and can provide intense motivation for ethical behavior. Ethics, however, cannot be confined to religion nor is it the same as religion.
Being Ethical is also not the same as following the law. The law often incorporates ethical standards to which most citizens subscribe. But laws, like feelings, can deviate from what is ethical.
Finally, being ethical is not the same as doing “whatever society accepts.” In any society, most people accept standards that are, in fact, ethical. But standards of behavior in society can deviate from what is ethical. An entire society can become ethically corrupt.
WHAT ETHICS STAND FOR :-
Human being is a social animal. Though rules of nature control humans as they control other living beings, man himself has derived certain principles to govern his own individual and group behaviour. These rules, in the form of behavioural standards may differ across cultures and times, but their basic objectives are always mutual existence and peace within the particular community or the social group. By ensuring security and protection of the group these standards helps in the survival of the particular community or a social group and thus its members. These standards of behaviour are called “ethics.”
The word ethics is derived from “ethos”, which means character. In literature ethics means a set of principles or morals. Ethics does not concern with knowledge or science, nor does it concern aesthetic judgment, it concerns with action. Hence, ethics can be defined as the set of principles, or values that govern our actions. These principles consist of a number of components: education, religion, ideology, instincts. Based on all these components, ethics ultimately rests upon the arbitrary choice of what we subjectively feel is right or wrong. Ethics involves learning what is right or wrong, and then doing the right thing but “the right thing” is not nearly as straightforward as conveyed.
Ethics is a standard of conduct which indicates how someone should behave based on moral duties and virtues. Basically, it consists of two aspects, the first involves the ability to distinguish right from wrong and good from evil; the second involves the commitment to do what is right, good and proper. Ethics is actually an action concept; it is not simply an idea to think and argue about.
VARIOUS TYPES OF ETHICS ARE :
Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, and ethical statements, attitudes, and judgments.
The semantics of ethics divides naturally into descriptivism and non-descriptivism. Descriptivism holds that ethical language (including ethical commands and duties) is a subdivision of descriptive language and has meaning in virtue of the same kind of properties as descriptive propositions. Non-descriptivism contends that ethical propositions are irreducible in the sense that their meaning cannot be explicated sufficiently in terms of descriptive truth-conditions.
The ontology of ethics is concerned with the idea of value-bearing properties, i.e. the kind of things or stuffs that would correspond to or be referred to by ethical propositions. Realists on the other hand are left with having to explain what kind of entities, properties or states are relevant for ethics, and why they have the normative status characteristic of ethics.
Traditionally, normative ethics was the study of what makes actions right and wrong. These theories offered an overarching moral principle one could appeal to in resolving difficult moral decisions.
During the middle of the century, the study of normative ethics declined as meta-ethics grew in prominence.
Deontological ethics or deontology is an approach to ethics that determines goodness or rightness from examining acts, rather than third-party consequences of the act as in consequentialism, or the intentions of the person doing the act as in virtue ethics. Deontologists look at rules and duties. According to deontology, we have a duty of act in a way that does those things that are inherently good as acts), or follow an objectively obligatory rule.
Relational ethics are related to an ethics of care. They are used in qualitative research. Researchers who employ relational ethics value and respect the connection between themselves and the people they study, and “between researchers and the communities in which they live and work. Relational ethics also help researchers understand difficult issues such as conducting research on intimate others that have died and developing friendships with their participants.
Evolutionary ethics concerns approaches to ethics (morality) based on the role of evolution in shaping human psychology and behavior.
Descriptive ethics is a value-free approach to ethics, which defines it as a social science rather than a humanity. It examines ethics not from a top-down perspective but rather observations of actual choices made by moral agents in practice.
We can summarise the above ethics as:
* Meta-ethics, about the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions and how their truth-values.
* Normative ethics, about the practical means of determining a moral course of action;
* Applied ethics, about how moral outcomes can be achieved in specific situations;
* Moral psychology, about how moral capacity or moral agency develops and what its nature is.
CODES OF ETHICS
A code generally describes the highest values to which the company aspires to operate.
Sometimes, employees react to codes with suspicion, believing the values are just for the sake of it and do not have any implication in the real world. However, when managing a complex issue, especially in a crisis, having a code is critical.
Developing Codes of Ethics
In the case of a large organization e.g., includes several large programs or departments, we have to develop an overall corporate code of ethics and then a separate code to guide each of departments.
Codes should not be developed out of the Human Resource or Legal departments alone, as it is sometimes done in organizations. Codes are insufficient if intended only to ensure that policies are legal. All staff must see the ethics program being driven by top management.
One of the essential variables in the development of codes is the organizational culture.
Objectives of code of ethics
A code of ethics aims at the following:
Guidance: It provides direction to the most important element of an organization namely the “People”, so that they know how to conduct themselves in terms of ethical behavior and give them a sense of common identity.
Confidence: It inspires public confidence besides enhancing the reputation of the organization.
Initiative: it provides initiative and stimulation to the suppliers and customers for proper conduct by creating a sense of moral obligation
Ethical culture: It promotes a culture of excellence by not just formally teaching ethics, but by demonstrating through leaders the commitment of the organization to ethical behavior.
IMPORTANCE OF ETHICS:
Ethics is a requirement for human life. It is our means of deciding a course of action. Without it, our actions would be random and aimless. There would be no way to work towards a goal because there would be no way to pick between a limitless numbers of goals. Even with an ethical standard, we may be unable to pursue our goals with the possibility of success. To the degree which a rational ethical standard is taken, we are able to correctly organize our goals and actions to accomplish our most important values. Any flaw in our ethics will reduce our ability to be successful in our endeavours
KEY ELEMENTS OF ETHICS:
A proper foundation of ethics requires a standard of value to which all goals and actions can be compared to. This standard is our own lives, and the happiness which makes them liveable. This is our ultimate standard of value, the goal in which an ethical man must always aim. It is arrived at by an examination of man’s nature, and recognizing his peculiar needs. A system of ethics must further consist of not only emergency situations, but the day to day choices we make constantly. It must include our relations to others, and recognize their importance not only to our physical survival, but to our well-being and happiness. It must recognize that our lives are an end in themselves, and that sacrifice is not only not necessary, but destructive.
PERSONAL CODE OF ETHICS:
A personal code of ethics is the essence of who a person is and his beliefs. It’s based on the rules and guidelines an individual uses to govern his life, as well as the manner in which he interacts with others. A personal code of ethics is a necessary ingredient to achieve success or overcome adversity. In the absence of rules, it’s difficult to hold oneself accountable for poor decision-making or bad behaviour.
My personal code of ethics is:
For me Integrity is the adherence to a personal code of ethics, qualities of wholeness, purity and truthfulness. We have integrity when we are the good person we appear to be. When we commit to integrity we empower and free ourselves. Unencumbered by the fear of ridicule and rejection by others, we do what we believe is right. The rewards for doing so are many and include a growth in self-confidence and courage. The exhilaration of doing the right thing is like experiencing the joy of reaching the other shore by victoriously swimming against the current. We mustn’t be afraid to be different.
In my opinion an ethic of care is that it forces us to focus on the moral value of being partial toward those concrete persons with whom we have special and valuable relationships, and the moral importance of responding to such persons as particular individuals with characteristics that demand a response to them we does not extend to others. In these respects, an ethic of care provides an important corrective to the other approaches to ethics that emphasize impartiality and universality. An ethic of care, with its focus on partiality and particularity, is an important reminder of an aspect of morality that cannot be ignored .For example we love our mom and daddy and care a lot about them because they are those people who have cared us when we really needed them. So we care for them .
Excellence stands for quality in excels is unlike the quantity of the commercial and the material morass though excellence in no way represents the antithesis of the mass commercial ventures. It basically is an attitude reinforced with focused and dedicated strivings for perfection. It is the katabasis of this attitude and passion in everyday life. Excellence gives value to life. Excellence is a measure of the height scaled in achievement. Only the bests can reach that height. Excellence signifies a superior human worth. In other words “Excellence is to do a common thing in an uncommon way”. It is the positive outcome of persistent and relentless focus of talent over time to rise above the mediocrity and make a rare break in standards. Hence excellence is an outcome of superior spirit.
Attitude is the tendency of an individual to evaluate certain things which can be favourable or of unfavourable manner. Attitude is always influenced by family , friends, society and peer groups. An attitude increases confidence level, helps in better performance, there is no failure in life
Hence success = 85%Attitude + 15%Skil
Positive attitude strongly influences the mentality and motivates to set a goal to live , while Negative attitude pulls our character down,
poisons your quality & seizes good relationship. We should always set a positive attitude towards life which leads to success. It polishes ones standard of living & improves the level of confidence.
Courage, like compassion, is one of the great ingredients of the success instinct in man. I cannot imagine anyone being a successful human being without courage, without the capacity to overcome obstacles and reach a constructive goal. Courage is the outward expression of the three worlds in which man lives – his physical world, his mental world, and his spiritual world.
Courage that demands that we must stand up for our rights and the rights of others, the kind of glorious courage that built our nation, courage to live with compassion not aggression, courage to live in belief not doubt ,courage to in hope not despair, courage to surmount crises instead of being overwhelmed by them, courage to build self-reliance, courage to accept a mistake instead of rebuking for not being perfect.
I do have courage after all, and being reminded of it helps me to recognize it in myself. Maybe no one tells us that we’re courageous, and we ignore it in ourselves in favour of our other demeaning stories. But actually, we all manage to live in this crazy, uncontrollable world, and this mere act of survival takes all the courage in the world.
LYING OR DECEPTION:
Telling lies to children:
According to me it is correct to tell a lie to children sometimes because stripping away details but preserving the core truth of something is good enough for a younger child and easier for them to absorb.
And there is the part where we may need to preserve own privacy and that of others. Sometimes they just want to know such things which are not correct at that age so telling a lie that time is not an offence because it can save their mental balance and are beneficial for them too.
Telling lies to save someone’s feelings:
Telling lies to save someone’s feelings is not a fault because we just help them to improve their skills by helping them that time. For example- our mother prepares a pie that is disappointing, we should not feel a moral compulsion to tell her exactly what we feel. In these cases we can use our wisdom and avoid telling an unnecessary truth. We don’t have to lie, but, nor do we have to make her aware of shortcomings and thus hurt her feelings. If somebody gets joy from cooking, why do we have to spoil that by zealously stating the truth? This does not mean we have to give false praise and flattery. But, it is good to take a diplomatic approach.
Stealing to help someone:
In my opinion stealing things to help someone is ethically right because if we steal something for someone means that he is desperately in need of that thing. By helping that poor guy that time is not an offence because we are stealing something for the benefit of someone who really needed it. For example Robin Hood used to steal from the greedy and rich merchants.He distributed those money among the needy and poor people .So his stealing is ethically right in my view because he was helping the people who were in need of money.
Harming to defend other:
Harming to defend other is not an offence if we are doing it in a real sense.If harming to anybody can save somebody else then it is not a crime. For example if we harm a thief by beating them, then it’s not a crime because he can be dangerous to somebody else. So in that case harming is not an offence and it is ethically right.
Ethical behavior is not an act but a habit. Just as good health requires cultivating the habits of getting enough sleep and eating wholesome food, Aristotle believed that right action was the result of developing good moral habits. Ethic is largely about managing the risk to one reputation. Ethics is a code of values which guide our choices and actions and determine thepurpose and course of our lives.” It means, ethics is a standard of conduct which indicates how someone should behave based on moral duties and virtues. It is a golden rule.
Human beings have a natural ethical sense that encourages them to make predictable choices. Although most people believed that their actions are guided by logic and reason, reason often acts only as a mechanism to justify these choices. People always finding rationales of doing their action even though it contradict to ethical behaviour. Thus, ethics education is helping people recognizing the real power of one’s natural ethical sense and how it influences our behaviour. Inthis way we can free reason to become a tool to truly guide our actions.
Therefore, it is important to teach and introduce ethical learning in every level of education; primary school, s secondary school, and university level as well as in work field.
Children have to be exposed earlier with ethical way of life. Youngster should be encouraged with some program related to ethical behavior.Last but not least, adult will be prepared professionally ethical before jumping into work field in order to create a healthy work life especially in big organization.