Local E-Government for Develop

Local E-Government for Development

Preliminary remarks

Adjunct Professor Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko
University of Tampere – Department of Regional Studies
FIN-33014 University of Tampere
ari-veikko.anttiroiko@uta.fi
ICTs for development

It is generally held that ICTs offer increased opportunities for economic development and plays a critical role in rapid economic change, productive capacity improvements and international competitiveness enhancement for countries of different development level. Thus, this opportunity is not the privilege of developed countries, even if they have certain undeniable advantages in the ICT utilisation. As to developing countries, ICT is believed to be a powerful enabling tool to address some of the key barriers and challenges for entering the global economy and for future growth potential. It has a potential to contribute to the transformation in governance and to the creation of conditions for sustainable economic development. What is essential here is that ICTs offer the potential not just to collect, store, process and disseminate enormous quantities of information at minimal cost, but also to network, interact and communicate across the world. It is important to keep in mind that this potential can be best utilised if public sector is included in the picture, for so many supply and demand-side aspect of ICTs for development has an inherent connection to functions and operations of public sector organisations. (Ndou 2004)

Nevertheless, as pointed out by Ndou (2004), ICTs represent a high risk for developing countries, such as the risk to deepen the digital divide and to further marginalise them with the networking revolution. Countries which fail to embrace and use ICT tools for entering the global network and for addressing development needs, will suffer pivotal disadvantages in the form of information poverty that could further widen the gap in economic status and competitiveness. This is why traditional development and humanitarian aid should be complemented by tools that help to create a connection between developing countries and global flows of capital and other values.

The promise of e-government

E-government was taken to international and national development agendas since the mid-1990s due to the benefits it was expected to bring to communities and society as a whole. One overall starting point was that as the society develops towards information society or knowledge-based society, similar kind of development should take place in the governmental sector too. So, e-government is a government that utilises the emerging opportunities of the information society. The other general aspect is that e-government refers to a transformation in which ICTs are seen as means for restructuring and reorganising government.

E-government is government’s use of information and communication technologies, particularly Web-based applications, to support responsive and cost-effective government by facilitating administrative and managerial functions, providing citizens and stakeholders with convenient access to government information and services, facilitating interaction and transactions with stakeholders, and providing better opportunities to participate in democratic institutions and processes.

There are various kinds of descriptions of the benefits or promises of e-government. To make a long story short, let us refer to two of them below.

Table 1. Two views of the promises of e-government.
Realisation of these opportunities is easier said than done. That is why all the aspects of e-government policy – from policy design to implementation and evaluation – are of vital importance. This is particularly critical in developing countries with scarce resources and lack of critical mass of users and of technological expertise.

E-government policy framework

E-government development is a broad strategic issue based on a holistic and integrative approach. This connects e-government to strategic planning, organisation structures, e-skilling, IT project management, technological design issues, and broader governance issues. This is also why e-government is not only about managing IT projects or setting up information systems, but a strategic issue of e-transformation in government.

E-government policy design and implementation are sensitive to societal context and community characteristics. Contextual factors that have been widely discussed in the communities of practitioners and academics are differences between developed vs. developing countries, rural vs. urban communities and levels of government: national, regional and local governments. In this field remote rural communities are usually for understandable reason in the most disadvantageous position.

Key aspects of e-government policy are illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1. E-government development policy framework. (Anttiroiko 2005.)

The most widely applied generic model that helps in defining appropriate e-government development measures and in assessing e-government maturity is the e-government development stage model. A conventional development stage model describes a transition from a simple Web presence via interactive and transactional phases to a totally transformed system of government. This model is applied in most of the international benchmarking studies.

There are strategic tools that can be used to identify and assess the preconditions for e-government, such as an e-readiness assessment scheme. Transition towards a higher level of e-government maturity has its preconditions, ranging from technological, to political-administrative, to socio-cultural, constituting the basic elements of e-readiness. These preconditions together with development stages are presented in Figure 2.
Figure 2. E-government development phase scheme.

A recipe for success for e-government in developing countries

Most of the studies on success factors of e-government have focussed mainly on developed countries as it has been difficult to deal with e-government in developing countries that show meager development. Furthermore, even if recent development of e-government in developing countries makes it possible to analyse its implementation and identify success and failure factors, empirical studies that examine unique requirements or conditions of e-government in developing countries are still scanty. Shin et al. (2008) have conducted a survey on success factors of e-government, targeting 109 ICT experts and public officers from 53 developing countries who participate in e-government projects of their countries. On this basis they identified six core success factors of e-government in developing countries. They are the following:
1. Changes in work process
2. Technical and human resources
3. Organisational culture and values
4. Vision, strategy and internal leadership
5. External and financial support
6. Laws, regulations and policies.

Shin and others (2008) summarise their findings as follows: “By the factor analysis, 6 success factors are identified: changes in work process, technical/human resources, organizational culture/values, vision/strategy/internal leadership, external/financial support, and laws/regulations/policies. The multivariate regression analysis shows that ‘changes in work process’ and ‘technical/human resources’ are the important factors. ‘External/financial support’ and ‘organizational culture/values’ are also determining factors recognized as unique challenges to developing countries. In conclusion, we found that developing countries need to satisfy certain unique requirements, while fulfilling some conditions that are similarly required for developed countries to achieve successful e-government.”

Ten questions e-government leaders should ask themselves:
1. Why are we pursuing e-government?
2. Do we have a clear vision and priorities for e-government?
3. What kind of e-government are we ready for?
4. Is there enough political will to lead the e-government effort?
5. Are we selecting e-government projects in the best way?
6. How should we plan and manage e-government projects?
7. How will we overcome resistance from within the government?
8. How will we measure and communicate progress? How will we know if we are failing?
9. What should our relationship be with the private sector?
10. How can e-government improve citizen participation in public affairs?

Source: Pacific Council on International Policy 2002.

ICTs for good governance

It is widely shared that e-government is more than just a government website on the Internet. In fact, the dominant paradigm implies a shift from “e-government” to “e-governance” due to the fact that the greatest potential of e-government is about supporting and improving governance relations and practices. In other words, the strategic objective of e-governance is to support and simplify governance for all parties: government, citizens and businesses. On this basis Basu (2004) concludes that in the very concept of e-governance electronic means support and stimulate good governance, and therefore, the objectives of e-governance are similar to the objectives of good governance.

Good governance can be seen as an exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to better manage affairs of a country at all levels. It is easy for people in developed countries to imagine a situation in which all interaction with government can be done through one counter 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, without waiting in lines. However, to achieve this same level of efficiency and flexibility for developing countries is much more difficult for various reasons. (Basu 2004) Situation may be even more challenging with other aspects of good governance, such as transparency and accountability, as they have their roots in local political-administrative culture and may be difficult to change with the help of ICTs.

Focussing on community informatics

As large part of the local e-government and e-governance projects are about information and knowledge, they are inherently connected to various aspects of community informatics. Wagner et al. (2003) have reviewed the role of virtual communities as a knowledge management mechanism to support e-government in developing countries. They have assessed the feasibility of this and other knowledge management mechanisms in light of the financial and technological limitations of developing countries. They conclude that knowledge management is needed to facilitate information exchange and transaction processing with citizens, as well as to enable inter-governmental knowledge sharing and integration. They claim that simple knowledge management solutions, and especially virtual communities, will be the most appropriate for developing countries, while enterprise solutions are not usually particularly suitable due to various factors that characterise communities in developing countries. They point out that their attempts to find illustrations of enterprise solutions for knowledge management in developing country e-governments were unsuccessful. (Wagner et al. 2003.)

Large part of the e-government applications are “community sites” in some sense of the word, highlighting the importance of many-to-many communication. The cases they analysed demonstrate as a whole that virtual communities are a viable form of e-government knowledge sharing, even for countries with low GDP and considerable resource limitations, such as India, China, or Peru. The picture is not black-and-white, though. For example, while some projects like AfriKTownCrier are based on many-to-many interaction, there was an implicit tendency to control idea sharing by filtering and centralising all the incoming information from its members. As a result, the general public tends to get less freedom of information and knowledge sharing. (Wagner et al. 2003)

Building e-government applications for developing countries

Bhatnagar (2002) has reviewed e-government applications from a large number of developing countries. According to his comparisons, service delivery through conveniently located service centres where citizens are served by operators working online seems to be emerging as a popular model in countries with low penetration of Internet.

Even if a long-term commitment to development projects is a must as well as actions that are needed to guarantee sustainability, Bhatnagar (2002) claims that trial through a few quick strike projects is important, as the benefits of ICT utilisation in administration and governance need to be demonstrated to citizens and civil servants. Such pilots also help in understanding the key step of reengineering processes and managing change in the local context.

Based on the examples of successful implementations from different countries, Bhatnagar (2002) highlights critical success factors in building e-government applications. First, departmental ownership of e-government projects is seen to be critical even when the agenda is being driven centrally. Also strong project management skills are needed within the department. Project managers need to clearly identify goals and benefits in concrete terms. Adoption of established standards and protocols can benefit the organisation by minimising a need for customisation or tailoring. As a rule, if off the shelf software is available, it should be used instead of reinventing the wheel. Systems analysis, which provides the necessary cues for reengineering, should be done internally. Design, software development, data preparation and training can be outsourced more easily. Lastly, building partnership with private sector is considered critical as the private sector has significant experience in developing IT applications. (Some examples of e-government projects are presented in Appendix 1.)

Building Successful E-government Applications
by Subhat Bhatnagar
An excerpt from “E-government: Lessons from Implementation in Developing Countries” by Subhat Bhatnagar, published in Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 24, UNCRD, Autumn 2002 Issue. Available at http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/~subhash/pdfs/RDDAutumn2002.pdf

Significant Process Reengineering Required: For successful reforms the existing methods and procedures need to be mapped. Often, different branches of the same department do not use the same procedures as local context and conditions result in variations being introduced over time. An important aspect of initiating e-government is to document the existing procedures, simplify them in a manner that task can be completed in as few steps as possible without compromising on the basic purposes. Often, the tasks are carried out in a mechanical fashion because with time, the original purpose of carrying out these tasks has been lost or forgotten. This entire process of simplification of documents and workflow, points of approval and audit is termed as reengineering. Most of the e-government applications which have proved to be successful in reducing total processing time, and curtailing costs, have done so through a substantial reengineering of their processes. Such reengineering must precede any exercise in automation.
The end result of reengineering may be to modify processes resulting in fewer steps and fewer people to perform the tasks. It means that the way the civil servants were working earlier needs to be modified. Introduction of technology also means changes in the way work is done. All this produces a considerable resistance from the lower levels of civil servants. A great challenge in implementing e-government is to overcome this resistance through education and training. E-government projects have to consciously strive to provide benefits to civil servants at this level, as they are the ones that tend to lose power and authority over citizens when electronic delivery of service is introduced. E-government projects need to focus on making the entire process of decisions making more transparent. Because of automation, the workflow is regulated and often civil servants lose the flexibility to deal with applications in any sequence other than the one dictated by the computerized workflow. This takes away the power of patronage and inability to expedite work. On the other hand, inability to stall work can be noticed easily because both the public and the supervisors now have the capacity to track information and application as they move from work station to work station.
Successful implementation of projects requires that there is a clear focus on the purpose for which the application is being built. The intended beneficiaries of the application are identified and benefits that will accrue to the stakeholders are concretized. In fact, specific benefits like reduction in time or number of trips to an office need to be targeted and made public. It is only then that the process of reengineering can work towards an ultimate goal.
Strong Project Management skills are needed within the department. Project managers need to clearly identify goals and benefits in concrete terms. The task is often vast, not manageable within the resources that are available internally to a Government department. Adoption of established standards and protocols can minimize customization. If of-the-shelf software is available it should be used instead of reinventing the wheel. Systems analysis, which provides the necessary cues for reengineering, should be done internally. Design, software development, data preparation, training, etc. can be easily outsourced.
Training expenses should not be minimized. Successful projects typically spend about 10% of the budget on training. Awareness about benefits of E-government has to be created in senior civil servants and political executives. Training is required for Project leaders who need to define project deliverables, deal (negotiate) with consultants and vendors, and manage an outsourced development process. Clerical staff need to be trained on specific applications. Supervisors and managers need to be trained on using information. Citizens need to be made aware of on-line services and how to transact business on Portals
Partnership with private sector can be useful as the private sector has significant experience in developing IT applications. Several types of partnership arrangements can be used. For smaller countries it may be possible to find a single partner for the entire effort (not just a specific project) for developing a strategy, producing guidelines for design, reengineer processes, developing software, helping in procurement and providing training. Otherwise multiple partners may be used for different tasks. The choice of partners can vary from multi national management consultants, IT vendors, and local companies. The task for partners can be defined in many ways. Partners may be asked to build; or to build and operate; or to build operate and transfer. Whatever the partnering arrangement, it must lead to building of local capacity. If private sector partners are involved, contracts should be drawn in a way that is fair and equitable for both parties-the Government and the private sector. The private sector is entitled to reasonable profits.
Electronic government does not mean that all the steps in the delivery of a service should be handled electronically. Significant benefits can be derived by handling a few of the critical components electronically, e.g. in Chile the e-procurement system announces the requirements of the government on a web site, but handles the bids in a manual mode. However, registered suppliers for the needed product/service are sent an email to broaden the choice of suppliers. Once the bids have been processed manually, the results are announced electronically on a web site. Significant costs have been saved in Chile because of expanded supplier choice and making the whole process of selection of suppliers more transparent. Yet the core process of bidding continues to be manual13. There are many examples where some components of an electronic service delivery continue to be handled manually14. Yet, in all these examples significant benefits have been delivered to the users in terms of reduced time and less corruption.
Departmental ownership of e-government is vital because no external agency can drive the kind of change that is needed in implementing e-government. However, if the implementation of e-government is left entirely to a department, then resources get wasted, and data sharing may be hampered. This would make it difficult to deliver those services where a large amount of documents and data must be shared across departments in the delivery of a service such as licensing for a beach hotel. Also, each and every department may not have the capacity to use the correct method and latest design techniques in developing the application. E-government effort should therefore be supported by a central agency, which can provide necessary guidance in use of correct methodology. It can also build and maintain common services that are required to be used by different departments.
.
Weerakkody et al. (2007) analysed the preconditions for e-government implementation in Zambia. They have concluded that even if the importance of e-government has been recognised in Zambia, its benefits are yet to be realised. Situation is much similar in most of the developing countries. On the basis of their results Weerakkody and others have built a framework for e-government implementation, which is presented in Figure 3.

Figure 3. A framework for e-government implementation (applied from Weerakkody et al. 2007).

This model together with e-government development stage model imply that it is best to start e-government projects from Web presence, emphasis being on information sharing, and then to proceed towards value adding (“low risk – high value”) e-services with a strong focus on citizen and community involvement.

E-government challenges to developing countries include the following (Ndou 2004; Weerakkody et al. 2007):
1. Technological infrastructure: e-readiness, computer literacy, equipment
2. Leadership role: motivation, involvement, influence, support
3. Strategy and vision
4. Change management
5. Institutional environment and legal framework
6. Human capital development and life long learning: skills, capabilities, education, learning
7. Partnership and collaboration: public-private partnership, community governance and networking.

Limits to e-government

It goes without saying that e-government is not a panacea. It has been emphasised in many occasions by experts that ICTs does not change organisation culture and hierarchical institutions overnight, and it does not make any organisation “smarter” as such, as there may be significant barriers to harnessing the potential of ICTs. Even if increased use of ICTs by institutions and citizens increases overall plurality in society and thus tends to increase pressure to democratisation, this process is much too slow when assessed against the potential of ICTs.

It is a generally applied rule that in any e-government project the “social” objectives should be given priority over “technological” ones. This is also why in e-readiness assessments it is important to assess various non-technological constraints and preconditions, as they are key to the successful implementation of e-government projects. Indeed, the focus on e-government has shifted from the technical and infrastructure aspects to strategy, process change, organisational adaptability, leadership and the ability for citizens to access government services and businesses to interact with government (Weerakkody et al. 2007).

McNamara (2003) has emphasised that ICTs as such do not change organizational cultures and practices. The social organisation of work, particularly in tradition-bound and highly hierarchical institutions such as government ministries, can significantly impede the takeup and effective use of ICTs. In many bureaucratic cultures using a computer is viewed as a clerical function, “typing,” to be done by secretaries and clerks. Similarly, the ability of ICTs to make governments smarter both in the formation and implementation of policy is limited by the fact that policy making and implementation are complex and often highly political processes. Here again, introduction of ICTs should be based on political objectives that aim at improving policy, governance and democratic processes.

One of the areas that is important in this respect is to rely on citizen-centric solutions whenever possible. This is how e-government relates to the ideas of good governance as well as new forms of democracy, including e-democracy. It is particularly useful to focus on projects that increase the transparency and accountability of government officials by increasing public information and voice. As explained my McNamara (2003), “[t]he ability of government officials at all levels to exercise undue discretion or profit personally in the making and implementation of policies and the provision of government services can be diminished if more citizens know what services they are entitled to, what procedures are normal, and what resources government has committed to spend on public services in their community. It can also enable citizens to band together to seek redress of grievances, push for the removal of corrupt or incompetent officials, and work for equal rights for minorities and disadvantaged groups.”

Here again ICTs by themselves do not create change. If broader structures of power and privilege are resistant, and if community social capital and trust among citizens are weak, the empowering potential of ICTs is not likely to be realised. It is also important to recognise that those who most urgently need government services and who are most likely to be discriminated against in the provision of those services – the poor and minority groups – are also those least likely to be able to use ICTs effectively unless the ICTs are specifically designed for their needs or unless there are strong intermediary organisations helping to press their interests. (McNamara 2003.)

Lastly, there is need to remember that even if there is widespread commitment to bureaucratic reform, the task can be very challenging and expensive. Converting handwritten records, reskilling staff, installing computers and networks, and retooling procedures can require enormous commitments of money and manpower. And since the costs are more immediate and visible than the benefits, resistance can easily mount given other pressures and priorities. (McNamara 2003.)

Differentia specifica of local e-government

What is said about e-government in developing countries in general is to a large extent applicable to “local” e-government in the developing country context as well. What is specific in “local” aspect in this regard is the context-specificity of local e-government: every local community has its own characteristics in socio-economic and political terms, implying that the application of local e-government must be sensitive to these community characteristics.

As we are talking about local communities in developing countries, these contexts are often characterised by low income level, inadequate housing, poor health conditions, high illiteracy rate, low life expectancy, and in many cases, a general sense of hopelessness. Whether we are talking about urban or rural context makes also a big difference, as preconditions for local e-government vary significantly depending on population density and the size of the community.

There is need to assess carefully how to bring tangible benefits and added value to citizens and local communities by the introduction of ICTs in local government or in local governance processes.

Future trends

As to the trends in the public sector, there is a continuous tendency towards streamlining administrative machinery. Public organisations are becoming nodal points and coordinators in the multi-sectoral governance field. ICTs can be used in making the transition towards more competitive and contractual models of public governance and service delivery. Yet at the same time there is constant pressure to increase transparency, inclusiveness and responsiveness in government, which, together with civic movements and community-oriented governance strategies, constitute a counterforce to neo-liberal or NPM-oriented e-government trend.

Trends apparently affecting e-government include the increased importance of knowledge sharing and interoperability, service transformation and integration, flexible organisation, and ubiquity. These trends are likely to affect the major application areas of e-government, i.e. e-administration, e-services, e-democracy and e-governance (cf. Centeno et al. 2005).

A trend that may profoundly affect e-government in the long run is open source revolution. At the heart of this change is the availability of source code of software subject to General Public License (GPL) or other license agreements. Freely available open source software (OSS) is sometimes referred to as Free/Libre/Open-Source Software (FLOSS). The idea is to allow users to create user-generated software content through incremental individual effort or through collaboration, contributing to cost savings, standards compliance, and transparency to validation. An increasing number of national and local governments are adopting open source solutions – notably uptake of the Linux operating system by governments – in different parts of the world as an affordable alternative to proprietary or “closed” software. (See e.g. Berry, 2007.) This is not a black and white issue, though, for in many cases the lack of expertise increases a temptation to use proprietary software.

From a technological point of view the most radical change to be experienced in the public sector in the foreseeable future is likely to be a gradual transition towards ubiquitous society. A simplified evolutionary view of this transition is presented in Figure 4, which depicts the big picture of the transition from separate walk-in offices towards integrated ubiquity.

Figure 4. Evolution of technology-assisted government model.

The ubiquity of network access and connections has become one of the key drivers of change in e-government (Sharma & Gupta, 2004). This relates to a paradigm shift usually associated with the third-generation Internet and with a critical mass of users having always-on high-speed Internet access. This trend is currently most apparent in the strategies of East Asian developmentalist governments such as South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan, but in some forms also in such leading e-governments as the US, Singapore, and the UK, and in Nordic countries like Finland and Sweden. Similar developments are also taking place in developing countries on all continents (eGovernment for Development 2008). It is assumed that developed countries are in some cases able to leapfrog technology by the cost-effective use of innovative technology without necessarily having experience of the previous generations of technologies. Especially mobile technology has attracted a lot of attention due to the quick penetration of mobile phones in many developing countries.

Literature

Anttiroiko, A.-V. (2005). Towards Ubiquitous Government: The Case of Finland. e-Service Journal, 4(1), 65-99.
Basu, Subhajit (2004) E-government and developing countries: an overview. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, Volume 18, Issue 1 March 2004 , pages 109 – 132
Batchelor, Simon & Evangelista, Soc & Hearn, Simon & Peirce, Malcolm & Sugden, Susan & Webb, Mike (2003) ICT for Development: Contributing to the Millennium Development Goals. Lessons Learned from Seventeen infoDev Projects. Available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.19.html
Benchmarking E-government: A Global Perspective. Assessing the Progress of the UN Member States (2002). United Nations Divison for Public Economics and Public Administration (UNDPEPA) & American Society for Public Administration (ASPA).
Bhatnagar, Subhash (2002) E-government: Lessons from Implementation in Developing Countries. Published in Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 24, UNCRD, Autumn 2002 Issue. Available at http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/~subhash/pdfs/RDDAutumn2002.pdf
bridges.org (2005) E-Ready for What? E-Readiness in Developing Countries: Current Status and Prospects toward the Millennium Development Goals. Available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.3.html
Cambridge Education (2006) Rethinking Education Management Information Systems: Lessons from and Options for Less Developed Countries. infoDev Working Paper #6. Available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.504.html
Centeno C., van Bavel R., & Burgelman J. C. (2005). A Prospective View of e-Government in the European Union. The Electronic Journal of e-Government, 3(2), 59-66. Retrieved November 20, 2007, from www.ejeg.com
Chan, Ai-Mei (1999) E-Communities Can Play an Important Role in Supporting an E-Government. June 4, 1999. URL: http://www.e-gov.com/egovjournal/news/index.pl?article=6&dept=feature
Dexter, A. & Parr, V. (2003) Government Online. An International Perspective 2003. Global Summary. Taylor Nelson Sofres plc, TNS. 21451 : November 2003. PDF-tiedosto. Käytetty 29.8.2004. URL: http://www.legermarketing.com/documents/TenInt/031219ENG.pdf
Digital Governance. Building and Sustaining Democratic and Accountable Governance Structures using ICT. URL: http://www.cddc.vt.edu/digitalgov/gov-menu.html
dot-GOV (2008) Enabling E-Government For Developing Countries. Retrieved 7 Sept 2008. Available at http://www.dot-com-alliance.org/resourceptrdb/uploads/partnerfile/upload/216/e-gov_Jan27_05FINAL.pdf
Dymond, Andrew & Oestmann, Sonja (2004) Rural ICT Toolkit For Africa. Available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.23.html
The e-Government Handbook For Developing Countries. A Project of InfoDev and the Center for Democracy & Technology. November 2002. Available at: http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.16.html
eGovernment for Development (2008). Page Author: Richard Heeks. Last updated on 8 May, 2008. Retrieved September 2008, from http://www.egov4dev.org/index.shtml
European Commission (2002) Information Society and Development. Directorate General External Relations. Web site. Consulted in 11 Feb 2002. URL: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/info_soc_dev/index. htm
Garson, G. David (ed.) (2003) Public Information Technology: Policy and Management Issues. Hershey: Idea Group Publishing.
Grönlund, Åke (ed.) (2002) Electronic Government: Design, Applications & Management. London: Idea Group Publishing.
Heeks, Richard (2001) Reinventing Government in the Information Age. International Practice in IT-Enabled Public Sector Reform. London and New York: Routledge. URL: http://idpm.man.ac.uk/idpm/rgia.htm
Hietanen, Olli (ed.) University Partnerships for International Development. Finnish Development Knowledge. FFRC Publications 6/2005, pp. 268-281. Turku: Finland Futures Research Centre.
infoDev (2003) The Wireless Internet Opportunity For Developing Countries. infoDev, Wireless Internet Institute, United Nations Information And Communication Technology Task Force joint publication. November 2003. Available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.24.html
infoDev (2008) Building Local Capacity for ICT Policy and Regulation: A Needs Assessment and Gap Analysis for Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific – Supply Analysis. infoDev Working Paper # 16. Available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.508.html
infoDev, Healthlink, AfriAfya, ISHED (2006) Improving Health, Connecting People: The Role of ICT in the Health Sector in Developing Countries. infoDev Working Paper # 7. Available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.84.html
Korpela M, Mursu A, Tiihonen T. Informatics development for health in Africa – INDEHELA. In: Hietanen O, ed. University Partnerships for International Development. Finnish Development Knowledge, p. 102-114. Turku: Finland Futures Research Centre, 2005. FFRC-publications 6.
Marshall, Stewart & Taylor, Wal & Yu, Xinghuo (2004) Using Community Informatics to Transform Regions. Hershey: Idea Group Publishing.
McNamara, Kerry S. (2003) Information And Communication Technologies, Poverty And Development. Learning From Experience. Available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.17.html
Misuraca, Gianluca (2007) E-Governance in Africa, from Theory to Action. A handbook of ICTs for local governance. IDRC. Africa World Press inc. Available at http://books.google.fi/books?id=5De07xHL5IEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=limits+to+e-government&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0
Ndou, Valentina (Dardha) (2004) E-government for developing countries: opportunities and challenges. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries (http://www.ejisdc.org), EJISDC (2004) 18, 1, 1-24. Available at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/untc/unpan018634.pdf
Norris, Donald F. & Fletcher, Patricia D. & Holden, Stephen H. (2001) Is Your Local Government Plugged In? Highlights of the 2000 Electronic Government Survey. Prepared for ICMA and PTI. University of Maryland, Baltimore County. June 2001. URL: http://www.westerncity.com/June01Plugedin.htm
Norris, Pippa (2001) Digital Divide? Civic Engagement, Information Poverty & the Internet in Democratic Societies. URL: http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~.pnorris.shorenstein.ksg/book1.htm
OECD (2003c) The e-Government Imperative: Main Findings. OECD Policy Brief. PDF. March 2003. URL: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/60/60/2502539.pdf
Pacific Council on International Policy (2002) Roadmap for e-Government in the Developing World. 10 Questions E-Government Leaders Should Ask Themselves. The Working Group on E-Government in the Developing World, April 2002. Available at http://www.pacificcouncil.org/pdfs/e-gov.paper.f.pdf
Pavlichev, Alexei & Garson, G. David (2004) Digital Government: Principles and Best Practices. Hershey: Idea Group Publishing.
Sharma, S. K., & Gupta, J. N. D. (2004). Web services architecture for m-government: issues and challenges. Electronic Government, an International Journal, 1(4), 462-474.
Shin, S. & Song, H. & Kang, M. (2008) Implementing E-Government in Developing Countries: Its Unique and Common Success Factors Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA 2008 Annual Meeting, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts Online <PDF> Retrieved 2008-09-03 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p280176_index.html
Socitm & IDEA (2002) Local e-government now: a worldwide view. Society of Information Technology Management (Socitm) & Improvement and Development Agency (I&DeA).
Sutinen, Erkki; Duveskog, Marcus; Eronen, Pasi J.; Tedre, Matti; Vesisenaho, Mikko (2005) ICT Education for Local Development. In University Partneships for International Development: Finnish Development Knowledge, pp. 235-253 (ed. Olli Hietanen), FFRC-Publications 6/2005, Turku School of Economics and Business Administration.
United Nations (2003) E-government at the Crossroads. World Public Sector Report 2003: A United Nations Publication. Publication No.: ST/ESA/PAD/SER.E/49. New York: United Nations. PDF-tiedosto. Käytetty 30.8.2004. URL:
http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan012733.pdf
Wagner, Christian & Cheung, Karen & Lee, Fion & Ip, Rachael (2003) Enhancing E-government in Developing Countries: Managing Knowledge through Virtual Communities. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries (http://www.ejisdc.org), EJISDC (2003) 14, 4, 1-20. Available at http://topics.developmentgateway.org/egovernment/rc/filedownload.do?itemId=1069488
Weerakkody, V. & Dwivedi, Y.K. & Brooks, L. & Williams, M. & Mwange, A. (2007) E-Government Implementation in Zambia: Contributing Factors, Electronic Government: An International Journal 5 (4), 484-508.
Wescott, Clay G. (2003) E-government to combat corruption1 in the Asia Pacific Region. Prepared for 11th International Anti-Corruption Conference, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 25 to 28 May 2003. Available at http://publications.ksu.edu.sa/IT%20Papers/eGov/egovernment_corruption.pdf
World Economic Forum (2002) Southern African Development Community – World Economic Forum Consultion Report on e-Readiness. Global Digital Divide Intitiative Streering Committee on Policies and Strategies 2001/2002. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
World Economic Forum (2004) Global Information Technology Report. Verkkosivusto. Viimeksi päivitetty 9.7.2004. Käytetty 29.8.2004. URL: http://www.weforum.org/site/homepublic.nsf/Content/Global+Competitiveness+Programme%5CGlobal+Information+Technology+Report
Appendix: Examples of e-government cases in developing countries

For further information see:
The e-Government Handbook For Developing Countries. A Project of InfoDev and the Center for Democracy & Technology. November 2002. Available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.16.html
Case Studies on the Use of ICTs for Good Governance, available at http://www.gdrc.org/icts/gug-ict.html
iConnect Online – Sharing knowledge for ICT4D, available at http://www.iconnect-online.org/home/

Ghana: Environmental Information Network Project. A web-based system containing environmental data for government ministries and citizens.
Web site: http://www.epa.gov.gh/

Ghana: Ghana Dot Gov – Researching the potential for e-Government services in Ghana. Co-financed with the Ghana Ministry of Information and Presidential Affairs, this research project examined and tested concrete e-government systems and applications in Ghana. It resulted in a demonstration portal for the Ministry, applications and content research in Akuapem South District, and a framework for further actions.
Case study: http://www.iicd.org/projects/articles/IICDprojects.import85/view

Uganda: Information Flow Management and Networking (IFMN). The poor flow of information within Uganda’s Tourism, Trade and Industry sector is hampering its growth. The Ministry for Tourism, Trade and Industry therefore developed the Information Flow Management and Networking (IFMN) project in 2004 to address this issue. The project’s three main goals are: to train ministry staff to use ICTs; to set up an intranet at the ministry; and to help the ministry create its own website. These initiatives will improve the flow of information internally (between the ministry’s five departments) and externally (between the ministry and its affiliated institutions). In the long term, the ability to provide timely and accurate information, particularly to businesses at home and abroad, could mean the difference between an opportunity gained and an opportunity lost for this sector.
Web site: http://www.mtti.go.ug/
Case study: http://www.iicd.org/projects/articles/IICDprojects.import117/view

Kenya: AfriAfya. A public-private consortium using the web to share medical informaton.
Web site: http://www.afriafya.org/
Case-study: http://www.comminit.com/en/node/121480/36

Tansania: Development of a Management System for Health Facility. The Health Management Information System (HMIS) was set up in 2006 to use in hospitals of the Evangelical Lutheran Church Tanzania (ELCT). By using the HMIS software, hospitals can easily collect, store and analyse data on patient registration, billing, laboratory, pharmacy, stock/inventory, x-ray and ward management.
Case study: http://www.iicd.org/projects/articles/tanzania-development-of-a-management-system-for-health-facility

Namibia: Parliamentary web site. Allows citizens to access and comment on pending legislation.
Web site: http://www.parliament.gov.na/

India: The Central Vigilance Commission. Allows citizens to file online complaints about corruption. In an effort to propagate the idea of zero tolerance for corruption, the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) in India has begun to share with citizens a large amount of information related to corruption. The CVC website has published the names of officers from the elite administrative and revenue services against whom investigations have been ordered or penalties imposed for corruption. Newsweek magazine carried an article about this effort, calling it E-shame.
Web site: http://www.cvc.nic.in/
Case study: http://go.worldbank.org/E4GD9GP6O0

India: Gyandoot community-based Internet access. Entrepreneurs funded by the state use portable computers with wireless Internet connections to provide rural villages access to government services.
Web site: http://gyandoot.nic.in/
Case study: http://go.worldbank.org/7DK0J4AZG0

India: Warana “Wired Village. The stated goal of the Warana “Wired Village” project is not only to increase the efficiency and productivity of the sugar cane cooperative, but also to provide a wide range of information and services to 70 villages around Warana. The project aims at giving villagers access to information, in their local language, about crops and agricultural market prices, employment schemes from the government of Maharashtra, and educational opportunities.
Case study: http://go.worldbank.org/M0TD409DT0

India: VOICE (the Vijaywada Online Information Center). Making records of the Vijaywada Municipal Corporation accessible to the public via the Internet. Accessible information and services include property details, land records, birth and death data, and
applications for certificates.
Case study: http://go.worldbank.org/2TBE9U9GQ0

India: Drishtee. Mobile, kiosk-based e-government for rural India.
Web site: http://www.drishtee.com

India: Land and Property Registration in Andhra Pradesh. Internet-based system for registration and issuing of land records, eliminating the need for middlemen who often demanded high fees or bribes to access government services.
Case study: http://go.worldbank.org/OLZ7DPNUH0

India: The Bhoomi Project. Delivery of land titles online.
Web site: http://www.revdept-01.kar.nic.in/Bhoomi/Home.htm
Case study: http://go.worldbank.org/H9D1IKGX20

Vietnam: Tale of Two Cities. Publishing information on licensing and investment, including necessary application forms. Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City each launched Web development projects for business service agencies in 2000. The two websites (Hanoi Ministry of Planning and Investment and Ho Chi Minh Department of Planning & Investment) are designed to serve as the first point of contact for potential investors, especially foreign investors. The sites are now interactive, content rich, and have the potential to set standards for related agencies elsewhere in the country. The implementation challeges in these two cities varied, but were mostly of a non-technical nature, including an over-reliance on outside consultants.
Case study: http://go.worldbank.org/TPOKNF9T20

Phillipines: Establishment of E-Procurement System.
Web site: http://www.procurementservice.org/
Case-study: http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/egov/philippines_eproc.htm

Malaysia: Tani-Net. Utilizes ICTs to bring vital agricultural information (such as prices and biotechnological information) and services to farmers in rural Malaysia and across the South Pacific.
Case study: http://www.iconnect-online.org/Stories/Story.import4363

Mexico: E-Government Procurement Portal (Compranet). Putting government procurement procedures online.
Web site: http://www.compranet.gob.mx (In Spanish)

Brazil: Citizen Service Centers in Bahia Province. Providing service kiosks in convenient locations like shopping centers, allowing the public to transact government business.
Case study: http://go.worldbank.org/R0CMELMCI0

Chile: Government E-Procurement System known as ChileCompra (the Public Procurement Bureau) facilitates access to the public sector in Chile. Reforms to Chile’s public procurement system, carried out by ChileCompra from 2003 on, have increased the standards of transparency and efficiency of almost all public tendering processes in Chile by introducing advanced contracting tools, rules, institutions and systems.
Web site: http://www.chilecompra.cl/
Case study: http://go.worldbank.org/0QQ3Z9HT61
2