Final Exam Study Guide, Spring 2014
for Cooper and Terrill, The American South
and for Stephen Tuck, Beyond Atlanta
There is no study guide for lecture material; just know everything. We watched the “Uprising of ’34” documentary, which should give you plenty of information to answer any question on the General Textile Strike of 1934. But, just as a refresher, chapter 25 of The American South has a section on the strike (pp. 708-712).
The American South, chapters 22, 23, 25-27
Chapter 22: Progressivism
Kate Barnard: first commissioner of charities and corrections in 1907 until 1915 (bad health). She embraced the souther progressivism movement as one of its first advocates. Her father was an “89er” and she went on a tour across the nation to see how many of the big cities handled the problem of poverty. She concluded that poverty was a social problem, not a problem of personal failings or other personal problems.
Page’s “Forgotten Man”: huge advocate of public education in the south. The “forgotten man” was the man who had not received an adequate education. He said that the failure to support education had cost NC dearly, lots of lost talent from the state. The south had an education problem with lots of adults being illiterate.
Southern Association of College and Secondary Schools: the South did not have adequate funding and structure of universities and colleges for people to attend, many of them didn’t receive state funding. Founded by chancelor of Vanderbilt, it was designed to distinquish colleges and secondary schools and set entrance requirements for the colleges. The endowments of these colleges also shot up. Many of the big colleges now became far more secular and less religious. It was designed to improve integrity and quality of southern colleges, new journals started being made but some colleges were still “colleges by name only.” (faking)
Hookworm Campaign: Dr Charles Wardell Stiles (NY born, German trained zoologist) discovered the hookworm disease, which was called the germ of laziness. It affected many southerners who did not work and were lazy. It is a parasite that causes malnutrition and anemia and affected people with poor diets. The effort against hookworm was funded by Rockefeller and as a result the south became defensive about it and didn’t believe it was actually a problem and thought they were just being fooled.
National Child Labor Committee: it was aimed at reducing the number of children that were employed in industrial work. Several industries grabbed their attention, such as glass making, coal mining and textiles (cotton mills). The NCLC ultimately focused on the southern textile industry because of the size of the industry and the number of children employed. Some southerners felt they were being unfairly targeted, they were to some extent right. The NCLC had achieved it mission in reducing the number of children employed.
Chapter 23: Restoration and Exile, 1912-1929
Tulsa Race Riot: a massive riot left 30+ dead and at least $1million worth of damage from destroyed property. Some whites even used airplanes to drop dynamite on black neighborhoods. The whites burned down black neighborhoods and looted them. The blacks fought back and one described it as not dying like hogs penned up. After this “interacial commissions” were formed to ease tensions and work out problems thus to avoid violence (Jim Crow still in place).
Oil and Gas Industry: the war helped to increase demand for oil (which was previously in excess because all the new field in TX, OK and CA). The increase in automobiles also helped increase demand for petroleum, that number soared, by WWI the US produced 60% of the world’s petroleum and exported nearly 1/4 of what it produced. There were new oil towns popping up wherever oil was found and new refineries were being built, often near big cities and shipping center (Houston, Baton Rouge, Tulsa). The growth of some of the big southern cities were fueled by this as well. Also, big power companies (Duke, GA Power) also popped up to fuel the growing energy needs.
Harlan County, KY: coal mining town, started in the early 1900s, population soared around the time of the world wars. Mining coal was very profitable and thus was very attractive for the people of KY. They didn’t care much for mine safety, probably 300-500 coal miners died every year in southern Appalachia. There was a decline in coal consumption in the late 1920s as other energy sources became more popular. There were labor disputes and the people sold their land for coal production and they didn’t receive legal protection. Lost land through fraud.
Huey Long: from Louisiana, “the Kingfish.” He was a brilliant energetic lawyer from N. Louisiana where populism was strong. Long attacked corporations and was eventually elected government in 1928 (35yo). He used radio to attack targets including lumber, sulfur and oil/gas companies who formed alliance with agricultural interests. The politicians formed alliances w/ the companies and kept taxes low and kept public service minimal. Long would increase oil taxes and the legislature spent lots of $$ on public service projects.
Mississippi Flood of 1927: Mississippi river flooded frequently, Joseph Davis erected a levee system about Davis Bend (Jeff Davis built large plantations there). The 1879 Miss River Commission was created to build levees to protect the city. The 1927 flood washed away the efforts of the commission. The flood killed between 250-500 and then the American Red Cross had to help with the relief effort and put people up in emergency camps. It changed the land and music culture of the area. It also prompted changes of congress, Coolidge made the flooding of the mississippi a national ordeal and apportioned money to put towards the relief and rebuilding.
Chapter 24: Religion and Culture
There is some useful material in this chapter, to be sure, but too much seems vague or out of place to me. And in the section on literature, there is too much “listing” for my tastes. This chapter will not be covered on the Final Exam.
Chapter 25: Emergence of the Modern South, 1930-1945
Tennessee Valley Authority: created as a part of the New Deal Legislation, constructed 16 dams and related facilities in Tenn. River basin, produced fertilizer for farmers, worked regional planning and reduced malaria in the area. The bureaucratic nature of the TVA angered some residents near where it was and endangered its existence and reduced popularity. The dams covered land and sometimes ruined farms.
Fair Labor Standards Act: passed in 1938, set maximum hours and minimum wages, and forbade child labor. Domestic workers and farm laborers were excluded from these protections. The Fair Labor Standards Act was one of the most influential in the southern democrats believing that their party was being northernized, urbanized and non-protestant. The began to think the New Deal and FDR were too liberal and some started not supporting it.
The “Conservative Manifesto”: signed in 1938 by conservative members of the Senate. The manifesto called for tax reductions to encourage investment, balanced budget, and end to sit down stries and right of workers to work and defense of states rights and home rule and local self-government. FDR campaigned against these senators, but many of them won handidly.
The Gaines case: first case to hint that the separate but equal clause might not be legal, and the court could decide whether spearate but equal was obtainable.
Cotton Production in World War II: cotton demand soared during the war, all of the cotton that was being produced was being used in the textile industry, prices of cotton more than doubled. Farm income soared, however, still lagged behind the income of other American households. Some thought south would return to glory days, others realized the demand increase would be short lived.
Chapter 26: End of Jim Crow
Jo Ann Robinson: she was the head of the Women’s Political Council (WPC). When she heard about Rosa Park’s case she had the idea of a one-day bus boycott. Her and one other person had printed 52,500 pamphlets explaining the boycotts to blacks. The bus boycott continued for 13 long, suspenseful months, MLK became their leader.
To Secure These Rights: created by the Civil Rights Committee in 1947, which was created by the Truman Administration. The 15 members included corporate, labor and academic leaders. This was the final report from the committee which called for elimination of segregation based no race, color, creed or national origin. Urged passing of elimination of lynching, toll tax, and end of segregation in army, interstate transportation and in public services like voting and education. The report initially didn’t have much affect b/c the southern dems didn’t like it and Truman was scared of this. Truman eventually used his executive power to end discrimination in the government programs and stuff.
The Sweatt decision: Sweatt (black war veteran) applied to the University of Texas Law School and was rejected b/c he was black. The state tried creating black law schools so they could say separate but equal. The NAACP argued that they were obviously not equal and they should say separate but equal was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court ended up ruling that they had to admit Sweatt, but the separate but equal clause was not commented on.
Selma campaign: March 7 1965 was the bloody sunday march. The state troopers and whites attacked blacks that tried to march to Montgomery. They beat them severely and even followed back to houses. This attracted national attention and ultimately encouraged the passing of the voting rights act of 65.
Black Power movement: many of the younger blacks felt that blacks should be in control of the civil rights movement and they openly challenged intentions of old black leaders. They supported radical change and said whites shouldn’t be trusted. It was a radical movement and called for a revolution within the US. Said they had to fight back and use violence if necessary. This movement ultimately did not affect the image of black. It was a short movement but important because it showed the need for change in the US and the problem present.
Chapter 27: The Modern South
George Wallace: served 2 nonconsecutive terms and 2 consecutive terms as Alabama governor also ran for president 4 times. At first he was endorsed by NAACP and lost the race for governor in 1958, lost in the primary, said he was “outniggered.” After this he turned into a hard segregationist. He tried to stop kids from going to segregated schools and said JFK wanted them to surrender state to MLK and communists.
“New Guard” Republicans: they formed around the time Goldwater ran in 1964 and were mostly idealogical conservatives, opposed rapid desegregation and some were segregationists. They grew rapidly in the south because all of the events that were happening, such as desegregation of schools.
Busing: Nixon campaigned against busing as a means of desegregation in 1968. Busing was often needed if they wanted segregated schools because the neighborhoods were often segregated. Many blacks and whites opposed busing because it defeated the idea of neighborhood schools and a community, they felt bureaucrats were moving kids and didn’t see what they were doing.
Christian Coalition: a religious right also emerged, the Christian Coalition was founded by televangelist Pat Robertson of Virginia. The movement was well financed and was aimed at restoring the moral values of America and opposed abortion and homosexuality. They also wanted to display Christian scenes in public places and encourage prayer sessions or breaks in public schools, offer school choice (private schools) and ended programs tainted with liberalism.
The tourist industry: as mobility and transportation improved the tourism in the south also improved because tourists could now get to places in the south, like mountains and beaches. They started to embrace this in many places in the Carolinas and Florida. The tourism industry is huge and provides lots of income in states like South Carolina.
Tuck, Beyond Atlanta
The exam may contain Identification items from Tuck’s book.
Possible ID items:
There WILL be a mandatory essay question based on Tuck’s book.
For the essay question, focus on chapters 4 and 5. Be able to compare/contrast the civil rights campaigns in the cities and rural areas. Gather concrete evidence on organizations, goals, opposition, and results.
Good Luck to One and All.