FACTORS RELATED TO CONSUMERS’

FACTORS RELATED TO CONSUMERS’ PREFERENCES OF FAST FOOD PRODUCTS IN BANGLADESH: A CASE STUDY
Dr. Nazrul Islam
Professor, Department of Business Administration
East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Fax: 880-2-8812336
Email: nazrulislam@ewubd.edu
G. M. Shafayet Ullah
MBA Student
East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Email: shafayet_ewu@yahoo.com

&

Syed Tufikul Bary Abu Nasim
MBA Student
East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Email: syed.nasim.bd@gmail.com

Correspondence:

Dr. Nazrul Islam, Professor
Department of Business Administration
East West University
43 Mohakhali C/A
Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
Fax: 880-2-8812336
Email: nazrulislam@ewubd.edu
FACTORS RELATED TO CONSUMERS’ PREFERENCES OF FAST FOOD PRODUCTS IN BANGLADESH: A CASE STUDY
Abstract
Fast food is a high growing industrial sector of Bangladesh as it is concerned with the tastes and habits of the people. The food-taking habit has been changing very fast among the people of Dhaka – the capital city of Bangladesh over last decade. The reasons could be attributed by the increase of awareness, growth of education, development of information technology, and expansion of television and print media in Bangladesh. This paper aims at identifying the preference factors of fast food consumers living in Dhaka city. This study was conducted among the university students who are used to take fast food at their leisure time. To conduct the study, a total of 250 respondents were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing the data. Multivariate analysis like factor analysis was performed to identify the preference factors of the fast food consumer. Multiple regressions were conducted to identify the relationship between the factors identified through factor analysis and the overall measure of preference of the consumers. Results show that the consumers give most importance on brand reputation of the fast food followed by closeness and accessibility, similar taste of fast food, cost and quality relationship, discount & taste, clean and hygiene, salesmanship and decoration, fat & cholesterol, and self-service. This study suggests that the brand reputation, closeness and accessibility, similar taste of fast food, and cost and quality relationship might be emphasized to improve the attraction of the university students towards fast food at Dhaka city.
1. Introduction
Food can fulfill one of the most important physiological needs of human being. Human beings can not live without air for a single minute, but without food, they also cannot survive. Food provides us with the necessary nutrition for our body. Its importance is indispensable. Due to the differences in human cultures, geographic locations, environment, climate etc. food items tend to change. Some might change in terms of ingredients (soybean oil in Asia/Palm oil in other continents), some might change in terms of presentation (food spread over banana leaves in India/on ceramic plates in other places), whereas some food items may change in terms of cooking (ovens in the west, gas/wood stove in the east) and eating methods (using spoons & forks in the west as opposed to using chopsticks or hand in the east). Sometimes, entirely new branch of food types are also found in some places of the world. One such type of food is fast food.
Now a days, fast food is an important food item of the people of the world. In Bangladesh, The habit of taking fast food is also growing day by day. Those who are living in the cities the tendency to consume fast food is more in them compared to the people living in the rural areas of Bangladesh. This habit has been changed because of the urgency of the people. As a society develops, the economic activities are also increased and, therefore, people become busier in that society. This busyness of the people discourages them to prepare food at their houses. Thus, the only alternative is to consume food that is already prepared by others and preferably light food. A number of factors are considered by the people when they select fast food. Hence, this study was designed to identify the factors related to the preferences of the consumers of fast food in Bangladesh.
The prime objective of this study is to develop a consumer behavioral profile for the fast-food industry in Bangladesh by identifying the preference factors. The specific factors are as follows.
i. To describe the fast food industry of Dhaka city, Bangladesh.
ii. To identify the consumer preferences of the fast food products in Dhaka city.
iii. To identify the factors related to consumer preferences of the fast food products in Dhaka.
iv. The group influence regarding fast food choices.
v. To find the situational influences that affects the fast food buyers.
vi. To identify the evaluative criteria that the consumers use for selecting fast food products.
vii. To provide suggestions to improve the existing situation of the fast food industry in Dhaka city.

2. Consumers’ Preferences and Consumption of Fast Food
The term “Fast food” was recognized in a dictionary by Merriam-Webster in 1951. According to Merriam-Webster, “Fast food” is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly1. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with low preparation time and served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away. Fast foods are mostly designed for ready availability, use, or consumption and with little consideration given to quality or significance1. Fast foods are different from convenient ready-to-eat-on-the-go confectionary/bakery items i.e. cakes, biscuits, breads etc., snack items i.e. potato chips, candies, peas etc. and fruit items. Examples of most prominent fast food items include burger, pizza, fried chicken, hamburger and sandwich as indicated in our exploratory research among the minds of our sample- the university students. Fast food restaurants are also known as quick service restaurants (QSR’s), and fast foods are often termed as “Food Away from Home” or FAFH.
The dual forces of globalization and modernization are causing rapid worldwide changes in food supplies, food consumption behavior and population health. One of the major changes over the last 50 years has been the development and marketing of Western-style fast foods. Today we live in a fast paced world and globalization has made the whole world a big global village. Information technology has made communication a matter of ease. The world has become more competitive. Developing and underdeveloped countries are no longer facing competitions from local arena, but also from the global coliseum. In order to keep pace with this competitive world, we ourselves must also pace ourselves up. In order to do that, we must adopt to some of the practices of the world that allows us to save time and to get any job done in an efficient and effective way. In terms of food habits, fast food is the western culture’s gift to us through globalization.
Parallel to changes in working and social life, habits of dining out have become central everyday concerns. In social context, gradually the numbers of families where both parents are working are increasing worldwide (Stamoulis, Kostas G. et al., 2004). This allows the families less time to cook & eat at home. Now we need to socialize with people around us, colleagues and friends, neighbors more than before, for business or social purposes. And the trends of today influence to do this socialization over some food items away from home, as people tend to keep business separate from family. Due to shortage of time, many modern nuclear families tend to prefer convenient, quick meals to rather traditional long meals. Today families prefer to have dinner in front of TV, watching a program with the family members than to have dinner in the dining table. Moreover, more and more families tend to hold gathering programs i.e. birthdays, anniversaries, other special occasions etc. out of home, in a restaurant or any other places instead of home due to convenience and privacy. Influences on the choice to dine out thus include insufficient time to cook at home, opportunities to socialize or conduct business, convenience or the need for a quick meal, enjoyment and family outings or celebrations (birthdays, anniversaries and other special occasions). Such changes in dining habits have led restaurants and other dining-out units to offer a greater variety of foods and beverages, providing customers with many more choices.
Urbanization can also be significantly attributed to the consumption of fast foods. A significant proportion of the addition to the world population between 2000 and 2030 will be located in urban areas. Projections show that urbanization rates will increase between 2000 and 2030 relative to that of the past 30 years. The urban population, estimated at about 2.9 billion in 2000, is projected to reach 4.9 billion by 2030. Most of the increase will be in the cities of developing countries, the population of which is expected to increase from 1.9 billion people in 2000 to about 3.9 billion people by 2030 (UNFPA 2001). This change will account for almost the entire increment in developing countries’ population growth. At the beginning of the 1960s, only about 20 percent of the population of the developing countries lived in urban areas. By 2000 the share had risen to nearly 40 percent and is expected to rise to 56 percent by 2030. The aggregate picture of a rapidly urbanizing world masks large regional differences. Urbanization will proceed slowly in many developed and transition countries, where the vast majority of the population is already living in urban areas. At the other end of the scale are sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, where urban populations will be growing at an astounding rate of nearly 5 percent per year (Stamoulis, Kostas G. et al., 2004).

Figure 1: Trends in urbanization

Urbanization is accompanied by changes in habitual dietary practices and food consumption patterns. Important forces driving the differences between rural and urban diets are the higher average wages and opportunity cost of time in urban areas and the higher participation of women in the labor force. Other determinants of the structure of diets in urban areas include demographic factors, the organization of food markets and the lower relative prices of processed foods relative to staples in urban relative to rural areas.
All factors above induce a move away from traditional time-intensive food preparation towards precooked, convenience food at home but also fast food, snacks and street foods for outside meals. Urbanization is now recognized to contribute to an increase in the consumption of food cooked outside the house and an increase in purchase and consumption of precooked and processed meals. Evidence shows that, following internal migration from rural to urban areas, the shift in the dietary pattern that leads to marked changes in the intakes of sugar, salt and fat by urban populations is related to the length of stay in urban areas and influenced very strongly by the access to mass media such as television ownership. Urban diets are higher in fat content, higher in sugar and salt content and contain higher amounts of meat and dairy products than rural ones and contain lower amounts of fiber and higher intakes of alcohol (Popkin 2002). IFPRI calculations have shown that countries with an urban population share of 75 percent or more consume about 4 percentage points more calories from vegetable and animal fat and 12 percentage points more energy from sweeteners than countries with an urban population share of 25 percent. The trend towards food away from home is also strong among the poorest segments of urban populations. Empirical evidence shows that smaller and poorer households have higher expenditure shares on prepared street foods. Data from an Accra-wide survey show that households in the lowest income quartile consumed 31.4 percent of their caloric intake away from home, more than any other income group (Maxwell et al. 1998). Particularly for the urban poor, the shift towards fast and convenience foods is also a shift away from fresh fruits and vegetables, pulses, potatoes and other roots and tubers towards a diet with increasing consumption of sugar, salt and fat in the diet (Smil 2000). It is also often a shift from a diet rich in fiber, minerals and vitamins towards one rich in energy, saturated fats and cholesterol.
There is considerable evidence that meals eaten in restaurants are generally of lower nutritional quality than meals eaten at home, mainly due to higher fat and calorie content (Lin, Guthrie, and Frazao). Fast foods are frequently linked to the epidemic of obesity, but there has been very little scientific appraisal of a possible causal role (Prentice, 2003). But later, Consumption of fast food among children in the United States seems to have an adverse effect on dietary quality in ways that plausibly could increase risk for obesity (Bowman, et. al., 2004). Claims that promotion strategies by fast food companies are at least partly responsible for rising obesity rates are now common (Kuchler, et. al., 2005). A logical response would be to lower the energy density of foods and reduce portion sizes; the precise opposite of fast food marketing practices. The introduction of low fat, low-energy foods is a trend being pursued successfully and profitably by some parts of the food industry. Fast food companies should be encouraged to adopt a similar strategy focusing in particular on reducing energy density which can be achieved by reducing fat and added sugars and increasing the fruit and vegetable content of meals. There are many companies with their new “healthy” food options proving that this is not incompatible with commercial success. A few other outlets are starting to introduce a limited range of ‘lighter’ options with lower energy density but the core menus remain unaltered. However, a much more radical approach is urgently needed worldwide and across the remainder of the fast food industry. Particular attention should be focused on products targeted at children and adolescents. Fast food retailers have a global impact and one that targets the most vulnerable members of society in terms of obesity. By accepting their share of global responsibility and by taking constructive steps to address the issue, they could greatly assist in international efforts to combat the obesity pandemic (Prentice, 2003).
Consumption of fast food, which have high energy densities and glycemic loads, and expose customers to excessive portion sizes, may be greatly contributing to and escalating the rates of overweight and obesity in the USA. Whether an association exists between fast food consumption and weight gain is unclear. Sixteen studies (six cross sectional, seven prospective cohort, three experimental) meeting methodological and relevance criteria were selected for inclusion in this systematic review. While more research needs to be conducted specifically in regard to effects of fast food consumption among subpopulations such as children and adolescents, sufficient evidence exists for public health recommendations to limit fast food consumption and facilitate healthier menu selection. As the fast food industry continues to increase both domestically and abroad, the scientific findings and corresponding public health implications of the association between fast food consumption and weight are critical (Rosenheck, 2008).
3. Fast Food Industry in the World
The first fast food restaurants were originated in the United States with White Castle in 19162. Today, American-founded fast food chains such as McDonald’s, KFC and Pizza Hut are multinational corporations with outlets across the globe3. Fast food restaurants represent one of the largest segments of the food industry with over 200,000 restaurants and $120B in sales in the U.S. alone4. QSR’s are noted for their short food preparation time. Some of the largest players in this category include international giants like McDonald’s and Yum! Brands (Pizza Hut, KFC). International chains maintain a sizable presence outside of the United States, typically relying on a franchise system to do so. Large, international players have performed much more strongly than their domestic and regional peers in the past few years as double digit same store sales gains in emerging markets such as China, India and Eastern Europe have propelled growth. International chains include McDonald’s (65% of sales overseas) & Yum! Brands (50% of sales overseas)5. A comparison of the major fast food competitors in the US market is shown below in Exhibit 1.

[Source: QSR Magazine. 2007, http://www.qsrmagazine.com/reports/qsr50/2007/charts/qsr50-1.phtml].
A survey of American schoolchildren found that ninety-six percent could identify Ronald McDonald. The only fictional character with a higher degree of recognition was Santa Claus. The impact of McDonald’s on the nation’s culture, economy and diet is hard to overstate. Its corporate symbol – the Golden Arches – is now more widely recognized than the Christian cross. On a given day, about one-quarter of the adult population of the United States visits a fast food restaurant. Whereas Americans spent about $6 billion on fast food in 1970, they spent more than $110 billion in 2000. Americans now spend more money on fast food than they do on higher education, personal computers, software or new cars. They spend more on fast food than on movies, books, magazines, newspapers, videos and recorded music – combined. Almost twenty-five years ago, the farm activist Jim Hightower warned of ‘the McDonaldisation of America’. He viewed the emerging fast-food industry as a threat to independent businesses, as a step toward a food economy dominated by giant corporations and as a homogenizing influence on American life. Much of what he feared has come to pass.6
The global fast food market grew by 4.8% in 2006 to reach a value of $102.7 billion. In 2011, the global fast food market is forecast to have a value of $125.4 billion, an increase of 22.2% since 2006. The global fast food market grew by 1.5% in 2006 to reach a volume of 80.3 billion transactions. In 2011, the global fast food market is forecast to have a volume of 86.4 billion transactions, an increase of 7.6% since 2006. Sales to quick service restaurants account for 67.4% of the global fast food markets value. The Americas is the most lucrative regional market, generating 63.1% of the global fast food market revenues.7 According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), FAFH increased from 33% of total food expenditures in 1970 to 47% by 2003, with most occurring at table service and fast food restaurants. (Binkley, 2008)
A rapid rise has been observed in the number of Western fast food chains serving the big cities, and increasingly spreading out into smaller towns with significant implications for urban diets. Figure 2 presents, as an example, the case of the spread of McDonald’s, globally and in Asia in particular, between 1987 and 2001. The observed growth in fast food chains does not derive only from multi-national corporations, such as McDonald’s, but also from domestic firms copying the products and operational procedures of foreign companies (Pingali and Khwaja 2004). While the presence of large retail outlets and fast-food chains respond to consumer demand for their products and services, they also influence the dietary patterns in developing countries. Studies indicate that about 75 percent of a person’s daily requirement for salt may be provided in one processed meal purchased from a retail outlet. Fast foods are also rich in animal fat and sugar. Hence, while in general food purchased from large retail outlets and fast food outlets from retail outlets may be safe (barring incidents like salmonella outbreaks from lettuce), their regular consumption can certainly be a cause for concern from the point of view of nutrition and the increased risk of the diet related diseases.
Figure 2: The spread of fast food chains in Asia/Pacific: The case of McDonald’s (1987-2002)

Source: McDonald Corporation, Annual Reports, as cited in Pingali (2004).
With sales revenue of $ 223.6 billion in 2007, the fast food industry has been experiencing steady growth. But the growth rate has seen a significant decline over the past couple of years, reflecting the maturity of the industry. This inevitable stagnation has been caused by several factors such as over saturation, slowing economy, anti-westernization, the rise of fast casual restaurants, and obesity. The various players in the category have been trying to combat the losses due to over saturation, anti-westernization, and the rise of fast casual restaurants by developing new products, pricing strategies, and cutting food and labor costs. But, obesity remains as the greatest threat to the long term future of the industry, as it continues to come under fire for offering high calorie food that lacks sustenance. The drastic rise in obesity has caught the attention of many lawmakers, parents, doctors, lawyers, and activists. This attention has caused fast food to become the main cause of obesity in the public’s eye, which has tarnished its image. This poses short-term and long-term risks to the industry. Successfully addressing the issue would affect the industry in areas besides sales and profits as well.
4. Fast Food Industry in Bangladesh
The fast food culture started in Bangladesh in the nineties and became very popular. Fast food affects a community in many aspects. It is mainly geared towards the younger end of the market and the employees of the fast paced corporate world. The preparation and service times are relatively quick in case of fast food. Fast food can be clearly distinguished from snack/confectionery items by its perishable nature. Being a part of the developing countries, Bangladesh has her fair share of this fast food action. Starting around 90’s, the fast food culture has taken the country by storm. The first fast food shops started their businesses in the Bailly (a name of a road) road, beside the guide house auditorium. After that, the number of fast food shops started to grow exponentially. Local entrepreneurs were leaders in pioneering the fast food industry of Bangladesh. New brands i.e. Swiss, Helvetia etc. were to name some Bangladeshi fast food shops. In early 2000, Bangladesh saw the entry of the first international brand of fast food franchise come into the country. Pizza Hut and later KFC came into the Bangladeshi market having franchise with Transcom Foods Limited. Transcom Foods Limited (TFL) started its journey in 2003 as a franchisee of Pizza Hut, the first International Chain Restaurant in Bangladesh, and went on to sign the contract to become the franchisee of Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) in the year 2006.
Both Pizza Hut and KFC are subsidiaries of the world’s largest restaurant company Yum! Restaurants International. TFL has opened 3 Pizza Hut and 3 KFC outlets in Bangladesh in a span of five years. Pizza Hut, the first International Chain Restaurant in Bangladesh, opened its flagship restaurant in 2003 at Gulshan in Dhaka. Pizza Hut has over 12,000 outlets across 100 countries. Following its grand success in Dhaka, the Chittagong outlet was opened in September 2005. The third Pizza Hut restaurant was launched in Dhanmondi, Dhaka in January 2008. Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) stands for high-quality fast food in a popular array of complete meals to enrich the consumer’s everyday life. TFL successfully launched the flagship KFC on South Avenue, Gulshan in September 2006. It has already won over the heart of the Dhaka crowd with its great tasting food, high standard of hygiene, cleanliness, terrific interior and of course excellent and affordable pricing. Following its enormous success in Gulshan, the second outlet was opened in Dhanmondi (a name of place at Dhaka) in November 2008, and yet another in Banani in December 2008.8
For our research, we selected the local fast food shops which were operating for a long time here in Bangladesh, in the capital city of Dhaka. We selected them using our exploratory research, by asking the respondents to recall the names of top 5 local fast food shops. The chains of fast food stores mostly residing on the Baily road like the ancient Swiss, Capital, Bamboo Castle, Palki, Dahlia, Golpea, Euro Hut, Golden Food and Dominous pizza came up9. According to a Whimpy branch, an international fast food franchise based in the United Kingdom, in Dhamondi- a residential area in Dhaka, Children under 12 and their parents accounts for 70 to 80% the customers10. For this research, we needed to have secondary data regarding the fast food industry of Bangladesh. It was assumed that there were some forms of owner’s association will be operating in the capital city as well as the whole country- given the vast spread of the fast food shops. But unfortunately this was not the case. In our observation of the major fast food shops in the capital city Dhaka, we could not find any such fast food owners’ association or such.
5. Major Incidents in Fast Food Industry of Bangladesh
There was however, two times when there were major shakeups in the fast food industry as well as the whole food industry. In September 2005, the government of Bangladesh started a major drive against the individuals and the organizations that were found adulterating fruits, using pesticides, unauthorized food colors and food items that expired their date of uses etc. These conducts were serious threats against the public health safety. Many renowned restaurants and fast food shops were found guilty and these events were highly publicized. This lead to the mistrust of the common people towards a temporary halt in the fast food industry. Due to this shakeup, many middle and small fast food shops were out of the business, only a few restaurants, mostly the expensive and franchise ones were left standing.
Fast food shops in the city had incurred heavy losses following surprise raids by mobile courts. The number of customers had dropped significantly at popular fast food destinations of Bailey Road and Gulshan after mobile courts in separate drives found unhygienic conditions prevailing at some of the outlets and adulterated, stale or date expired items being used to prepare snacks. The normally buzzing snack shops at Bailey Road no longer draw the same attraction after September 2005. According to the manager of a fast food shop in Bailey Road, the mobile court’s raids and reports in the media had severely damaged their reputation, resulting in loss of almost sixty percent of business that month. A big portion of the customers at these joints were teenagers and students, many of which had stopped going to the snack shops following the news reports of stale items being sold. Many shop owners meanwhile had complained that the magistrates, inspectors and the newsmen never want to hear their side of the story.
According to the proprietor of Palki Confectionery in Bailey Road, the charges the mobile court officials are bringing against fast food shops are not entirely fair. Confectioners around the world are using coloring agents in cakes and pastries. They are using the best food color of Foster Clarks and their bottles are not supposed to have the BSTI (Bangladesh Standard Testing Institute) seal. It is the duty of the BSTI or the DCC (Dhaka City Corporation) to check the contents of imported food colors. Furthermore they have stopped producing cakes other than chocolate and vanilla flavored ones as using food color had given them lots of problems. Another owner alleged that mobile teams were demanding money openly. If anyone argues with them, the fines just keep increasing. The mobile court of DCC raided fast food shops in Bailey Road and Gulshan in September 2005 and found some renowned joints using substandard cooking oil and dyes. Helvetia, Swiss Bakery and Euro Hut in Bailey Road and Wimpy in Gulshan were among the outlets that were fined for using substandard oil. Coopers was the only fast food shop in Gulshan to experience a rise in sales and customers in recent months. The mobile court found Coopers to be among a rare group of food outlets that were maintaining proper standards11.
One magistrate of the CMM Court and one Magistrate have led the mobile courts with an iron hand and exposed the nefarious schemes of even the most respected eateries in the city. Dhaka watched in horror as the mobile court team sent out to stop food adulteration and contamination in eateries and processed-food factories around town revealed their findings. The success owes no small measure of gratitude to the men who have led it. The mobile teams included an official from the Bangladesh Standards Testing Institute, a department of public health official, a DCC official as well as members of the police and BDR and was led by the two magistrates. For their devoted work to stop the contamination of all food and drink items and bring the offenders to justice and hence work towards the ultimate benefit of the citizens of Dhaka city many during that time considered the magistrates as the heroes12.
The mobile court operations also expanded to other cities outside the capital. The mobile court of Chittagong City Corporation (CCC), conducting drive against adulterated food, fined Chittagong Club Limited Tk 1,75,000 for dirty kitchen, preserving stale chicken and running a bakery without BSTI license on August 22, 2005. The court during the drive also picked up its secretary for refusing to pay the penalty and misbehavior with the magistrate present. He, however, was released after two hours on payment of the fine. The magistrate also warned one club security officer and one supervisor as they tried to stop her from entering the club premises and kitchen. The magistrate was “shocked to see the kitchen environment” of the elite Chittagong Club. & found several pieces of half-boiled stale chicken with bad smell in the refrigerators. The kitchen staffs when asked told us that the chickens were preserved for using in sandwiches. The magistrate also levied Tk 75,000 on Dearly Bakery at GEC Intersection for selling stale bread and failing to show BSTI license, Tk 10,000 on Hotel Al Imam at Zakir Hossain Road for dirty kitchen and existence of a latrine inside the kitchen, Tk 5,000 on Mohammadia Hotel for keeping uncovered food and other items and Tk 3,000 each on three fruits traders for selling stale fruits.13
The government formed two mobile courts to stop food adulteration and punish perpetrators after the publication of ”Eating dangerously,” following a series of reports regarding food adulteration in The Daily Star- one of the prominent newspapers of Bangladesh. After formation of the mobile courts, two teams had been conducting a drive under two magistrates in the city since July 2005. They have so far doled out more than one million taka in fines, filed more than two hundreds cases, and jailed nearly two hundred people in connection with adulteration.14
Also on The avian influenza, also known as bird flu, was first detected in Bangladesh on February 2007. It reached an epidemic form, hitting the poultry industry that accounts for over 1.6 percent of GDP in 2008. According to a government count, nearly 8.5 lakh fowls of 277 poultry farms — 236 of them commercial and 41 backyard in 43 districts- were culled as of February 20, 2008. Nearly 100,000 poultry farms have been shut down due to the outbreak of the deadly H5N1 virus, throwing around 2.5 million people out of jobs. Sales in Dhaka city’s fast food shops had marked a sharp fall as customers continued to ignore chicken items out of bird flu fear, hitting hard the booming fast-food business.15
6. Factors Related to Consumers’ Preferences of Fast Food Products
When there was not enough time to prepare a ‘traditional’ meal, varieties of fast foods were chosen by girls and young women of African and South Asian decent in a study including a focus group discussion conducted in UK (Lawrence, J. M. et al., 2007). It indicated that all the communities in the study took time, price, health and availability into consideration when making food purchases. Many issues that affect the food choice of people who move to the UK are common within different ethnic groups. One study (Richards, 2009) considered only measurable attributes of fast food-nutritional profiles, vendor identity or the distance from a consumer’s home. However, the study suggested that more detailed experimental analysis would be able to determine the effect of perceptual attributes on consumer demand as well. Specific qualities of taste, consumer self-esteem, the reputation of each restaurant and other non-measurables may be relevant to a comprehensive treatment of an attribute-based fast food model.
Clark and Wood (1998) comment, on the basis of their evidence, that food quality and value appear to be the most significant restaurant attributes. Lewis (1981) considered five factors important: food quality, menu variety, price, atmosphere and convenience. Food quality was found to be the most important attribute influencing customers’ selection of a restaurant. Auty (1992) undertook a study of customers’ perceptions of restaurants and the way that they select a particular eating place. Food type and quality were the most frequently cited variables, regardless of the occasion for dining out, but image and atmosphere or style were critical in the final choice between restaurants serving a similar quality and type of food. Carey and Genevieve (1995) determined food quality to be the most important variable in restaurant choice. The five factors most commonly included in respondents’ rankings were: (1) range of food; (2) quality of food; (3) price of food; (4) atmosphere; and (5) speed of service. The quality of food and types of food were the key determinants of restaurant choice/customer loyalty in this study. In general, then, evidence from all these studies suggests that the more concrete factors play the most important role in the consumer’s choice of a dining-out unit. Besides the factors related to the dining-out unit itself, those related to the customer’s socio-cultural background are also influential in their dining-out behavior. For example, attitudes, social values, family influences, group influences, social class and cultural background are also important in determining choice (Buttle 1986; Bareham 1995). During the past several decades, physical environment has become an important area in the study of hospitality and retail environment, with researchers beginning to study the influence of such physical environments of a restaurant or store environment on consumer behavior (Turley & Milliman, 2002). After concluding our initial exploratory study we were able to identify the actors which might be related to consumers’ preference of fast food products in case of Bangladesh such as, (i) Time factors (Delivery time, cue management etc.), (ii) Cost factors (Price of items etc.) (iii) Hygiene factors (Clean packaging, hygiene records etc.), (iv) Convenience factors (Location proximity, accessibility etc.) (v) Taste factors (Uniqueness, less variability of taste), (vi) Brand factors (vii) Group influence factors (Friends etc.) (vii) Nutrition factors, and (viii) Shop environment factors (Personnel, decoration of shop etc.).
7. Methodology
To conduct this study, a total of 250 respondents were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Five-point Likert scales were used to in designing the questionnaire. Direct interview was conducted among the people living in Dhaka city to test the attitudes of the consumers’ regarding various factors. Random sampling was used to select the sample respondents. After collecting the data, it was scrutinized and analyzed using SPSS 12.0. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing the data. Descriptive statistics such as simple percentage, mean, standard deviation, tabulation etc were used to describe the situation. Multivariate analysis like factor analysis was performed to identify the preference factors of the fast food consumers living. Multiple regressions analyses were conducted to identify the relationship between the factors identified through factor analysis and the overall measure of preference of the respondents.
8. Results and Discussions
8.1 Results of Factor Analysis

Factor analyses results show that the communalities of the variables are quite high, indicating that the variable used in the data set are highly cohesive in nature. The following factor, the questionnaire item “Consumption of the unwanted fast food items due to friends’ influences.” has the highest score; 0.726- meaning this factor has the highest importance among all the other factors in the group. The questionnaire items with the higher than average scores (0.6-0.7) are the following- meaning these factors have the higher importance among all the other factors in the group. They are- Costlier fast foods offer better quality (.616), Avoiding fast food shops that have past records of using hazardous materials in their products. (.645), Preferring the fast food shops that are close to own university (.622), Preferring the fast food shops that are easily accessible from anywhere in Dhaka city (.650), Favorite fast food item purchased from any fast food shop offers the same tastes (.617), Even though not liking the food, like to go to the well reputed fast food shops (.639), Willing to try new fast food items only from well reputed fast food shops (.652), Willing to buy any fast food from well reputed fast food shops (.661), Willing to go to the fast food shops that offer group discounts (.604), Going to the not favored fast food shops due to friend’s influences (.639), Avoiding the fast food items that carry the most fat and cholesterol (.624), Preferring the fast food shops that have smart personnel working (.692) and Preferring the fast food shops with self service (.619). The questionnaire items with the middle scores (0.5-0.6) are the following, – meaning these factors have the moderate importance among all the other factors in the group. They are- Quick delivery of the item ordered in a fast food shop is important (.577), Preference of the fast food shops that manages the long cues efficiently (.556), Price of favorite fast food is acceptable (.565), Preferring the fast food shops that use fresh ingredients everyday (.596), Preferring the fast food shops that offer privacy (.560), Preferring the fast food shops that are located in the busiest areas of Dhaka city (.583), Preferring items from well known fast food shops to little known fast food shops (.590), Considering the food values of the fast food items regularly consumed (.549), Preferring the fast foods that are most tasty (.548) and Avoiding the tasty fast food items that are not easily digestible (.597). The questionnaire items with the lower scores (below .5) are the following – meaning these factors have the lowest importance among all the other factors in the group. They are- Fast food outlets with clean hygiene records are more preferred by consumers (.478), Clean packaging of the fast food is important to consumers (.486), The service people present in the fast food shop is important to consumers (.489), Favorite fast food item offers a unique taste to consumers (.447), Not consumption of favorite fast food item if it does not taste right to consumers (.370) and Considering the lighting, decoration etc. of the fast food shops before revisiting them (.497).

Factor analyses identified 9 factors that are related to the consumers’ preferences related to fast food in Bangladesh. The total variance of the factors is 58.31%. From the table we can conclude that the following 9 factors constitute 58.316% of the total variance (Table 8.1). Brand reputation is the most important factor of the fast food consumers in Bangladesh followed by closeness and accessibility, similar taste of fast food, cost and quality relationship, discount & taste, clean and hygiene, salesmanship and decoration, fat & cholesterol, and self-service.
Table 8.1 Factors related to Consumers’ Preferences on Fast Food in Bangladesh
Factors Eigenvalues % of Variance Cumulative % 1. Brand reputation 4.088 13.626 13.626 2. Closeness and accessibility 2.554 8.513 22.139 3. Similar taste of fast food 2.331 7.770 29.909 4. Cost and quality relationship 1.837 6.123 36.032 5. Discount & Taste 1.738 5.794 41.826 6. Clean and Hygiene 1.556 5.186 47.012 7. Salesmanship and Decoration 1.221 4.069 51.081 8. Fat & Cholesterol 1.150 3.832 54.914 9. Self-service 1.021 3.402 58.316 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Brand reputation is the number one factor used by the consumers of fast food in selecting the item. This factor was constituted by the variables like reputation of the fast food shop for both new fast food and old fast food (Table 8.2).
Table 8.2 Factor 1: Brand Reputation
Variables Factor loading I will buy any fast food from well reputed fast food shops. .763 I am willing to try new fast food items only from well reputed fast food shops. .712 Even though I do not like the food, I like to go to the well reputed fast food shops. .642 I prefer items from well known fast food shops than to little known fast food shops. .621
Closeness and accessibility is another factor of preference of taking fast food in Bangladesh (Table 8.3). Tables 8.4 to 8.10 are shown in appendices.

Table 8.3 Factor 2: Closeness and Accessibility
Variables Factor loading I prefer the fast food shops that are close to my university. .768 I prefer the fast food shops that are easily accessible from anywhere in Dhaka city. .753 I prefer the fast food shops that offer privacy. .659
8.2 Results of Regression Analysis

Three regression analyses were done with the factors identified through factor analysis and three dependent variables. The dependent variables are (i) fast food energies the respondents (ii) prefers fast food when the people are outside their home and (ii) fast food are good for lifestyle. These relationships are discussed in the following sections.

8.2.1 Fast Food Helps Energize University Students

First retrogression analysis was run between the factors identified through factor analysis and the energy impact of fast food. The analysis revealed that the nine factors can explain up to 22.9% of the dependent variable (R2 22.90%). This indicates that the factors related to students’ preferences have about 23% impact on the energy by fast food of the students (Table 8.11).

Table 8.11 Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .478(a) .229 .200 1.065 a Predictors: (Constant), REGR factor score 9 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 8 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 7 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 6 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 5 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 4 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 3 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 2 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 1 for analysis 1.

Table 8.12 shows that the preference factors related to the fast food choice of the students are as whole significantly related to the overall energizing capacity of the fast food.
Table 8.12 ANOVA(b)
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 80.426 9 8.936 7.879 .000(a) Residual 271.076 239 1.134 Total 351.502 248 a Predictors: (Constant), REGR factor score 9 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 8 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 7 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 6 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 5 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 4 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 3 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 2 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 1 for analysis 1
b Dependent Variable: Fast food helps me to energize whenever I study.

Table 8.13 shows that the factors like brand reputation, closeness and accessibility, similar taste of fast food, and cost and quality relationship are the significant factors. This means that these factors have significant relationship with the energy gained by the fast food by the students.

Table 8.13 Coefficients (a)
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 2.815 .067 41.713 .000 1. Brand reputation .151 .068 .127 2.234 .026* 2. Closeness and accessibility .302 .068 .254 4.468 .000* 3. Similar taste of fast food .322 .068 .271 4.763 .000* 4. Cost and quality relationship .296 .068 .248 4.370 .000* 5. Discount & Taste .056 .068 .047 .834 .405 6. Clean and Hygiene .029 .068 .025 .432 .666 7. Salesmanship and Decoration -.035 .068 -.029 -.511 .610 8. Fat & Cholesterol .036 .068 .030 .533 .595 9. Self-service -.112 .068 -.094 -1.655 .099 a Dependent Variable: Fast food helps me to energize whenever I study.
* Significant

8.2.2 Prefer Fast Food whenever they are out of Home

Second regression analysis was run between the preference factors of the students and the preference of the fast food when the students are out of their home. The analysis revealed that the nine factors can explain up to 9.3 % of this dependent variable (Table 8.14).
Table 8.14 Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .304(a) .093 .058 1.027 a Predictors: (Constant), REGR factor score 9 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 8 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 7 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 6 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 5 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 4 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 3 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 2 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 1 for analysis 1

Table 8.15 shows that the preference factors related to the fast food choice of the students are as whole significantly related to the preference of the fast food when the students are out of their home.

Table 8.15 ANOVA (b)
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 25.694 9 2.855 2.708 .005(a) Residual 251.968 239 1.054 Total 277.663 248 a Predictors: (Constant), REGR factor score 9 for analysis 1 , REGR factor score 8 for analysis 1 , REGR factor score 7 for analysis 1 , REGR factor score 6 for analysis 1 , REGR factor score 5 for analysis 1 , REGR factor score 4 for analysis 1 , REGR factor score 3 for analysis 1 , REGR factor score 2 for analysis 1 , REGR factor score 1 for analysis 1
b Dependent Variable: I prefer fast food whenever I am out of home.

Table 8.16 shows that the factors such as, brand reputation and discount & taste are the significant factors. This means that these factors have significant relationship with the preference of fast food of the students whenever they are out of their houses. This means that brand reputation and discount and taste induces the students to consume fast food when they are out of their home.

Table 8.16 Coefficients (a)
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 3.337 .065 51.289 .000 1. Brand reputation .157 .065 .148 2.409 .017* 2. Closeness and accessibility .019 .065 .018 .296 .767 3. Similar taste of fast food .065 .065 .061 .996 .320 4. Cost and quality relationship .063 .065 .060 .972 .332 5. Discount & Taste .192 .065 .182 2.949 .004* 6. Clean and Hygiene .056 .065 .053 .855 .393 7. Salesmanship and Decoration .090 .065 .085 1.373 .171 8. Fat & Cholesterol -.109 .065 -.103 -1.664 .097 9. Self-service -.102 .065 -.097 -1.569 .118 a Dependent Variable: I prefer fast food whenever I am out of home.
* Significant

8.2. 3 Fast Foods are Good for Lifestyle

Third regression analysis was run between the preference factors of the students and good impact of fast food on the students’ lifestyle. The analysis revealed that the nine factors can explain up to 18.5 % of this dependent variable (Table 8.17).

Table 8.17 Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .430(a) .185 .154 .967 a Predictors: (Constant), REGR factor score 9 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 8 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 7 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 6 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 5 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 4 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 3 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 2 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 1 for analysis 1

Table 8.18 shows that the preference factors related to the positive impact of fast food on the students’ lifestyle are as whole significantly related to the preference of the fast food when the students are out of their home.

Table 8.18 ANOVA (b)
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 50.575 9 5.619 6.015 .000(a) Residual 223.280 239 .934 Total 273.855 248 a Predictors: (Constant), REGR factor score 9 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 8 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 7 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 6 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 5 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 4 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 3 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 2 for analysis 1, REGR factor score 1 for analysis 1
b Dependent Variable: I believe that fast foods are good for my lifestyle.

Table 8.19 shows that the factors such as, closeness and accessibility and cost and quality relationship are the significant factors. This means that these factors have significant relationship with the lifestyle of the students.

Table 8.19 Coefficients (a)
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 3.024 .061 49.371 .000 1. Brand reputation .030 .061 .029 .491 .624 2. Closeness and accessibility .228 .061 .217 3.710 .000* 3. Similar taste of fast food .066 .061 .063 1.070 .286 4. Cost and quality relationship .342 .061 .326 5.577 .000* 5. Discount & Taste .092 .061 .087 1.494 .137 6. Clean and Hygiene -.097 .061 -.092 -1.579 .116 7. Salesmanship and Decoration .090 .061 .086 1.467 .144 8. Fat & Cholesterol .025 .061 .024 .403 .687 9. Self-service -.056 .061 -.054 -.920 .359 a Dependent Variable: I believe that fast foods are good for my lifestyle.
* Significant

9. Conclusions and Recommendations

This study identified that brand reputation is the most important factor of the fast food consumers in Bangladesh followed by closeness and accessibility, similar taste of fast food, cost and quality relationship, discount & taste, clean and hygiene, salesmanship and decoration, fat & cholesterol, and self-service. Factor analyses identified nine factors that are related to the consumers’ preferences related to fast food selection by the students in Bangladesh. Brand reputation is the most important factor of the fast food consumers in Bangladesh followed by closeness and accessibility, similar taste of fast food, cost and quality relationship, discount & taste, clean and hygiene, salesmanship and decoration, fat & cholesterol, and self-service.

Brand reputation of the fast food is number one factor used by the students in selecting the items. Regression analysis between the factors identified through factor analysis and the energy impact of fast food are conducted. It identified that the factors related to students’ preferences have about 23% impact on the energy of the students. The preference factors related to the fast food choice of the students are as a whole significantly related to the overall energizing capacity of the fast food. The factors like brand reputation, closeness and accessibility, similar taste of fast food, and cost and quality relationship are the significant factors. This means that these factors have significant relationship with the energy gained by the students by consuming fast food.

Regression analysis between the preference factors of the students and the preference of the fast food when they are out of their home shows that the preference factors are as a whole significantly related to the preference of the fast food when the students are out of their home. The factors such as, brand reputation and discount & taste are the significant factors independently. This means that the factors have significant relationship with the preference of fast food of the students whenever they are out of their houses. This also indicates that brand reputation, discount, and taste induce the students to consume fast food when they are out of their home.

Regression analysis between the preference factors of the students and good impact of fast food on the students’ lifestyle were also run. The preference factors related to the positive impact of fast food on the students’ lifestyle are as a whole significantly related to the preference of the fast food when the students are out of their home. The factors such as, closeness and accessibility, and cost and quality relationship are the significant factors independently. This means that the factors have significant relationship with the lifestyle of the students. If there is a change there will be change in their lifestyle.

This study recommends that the fast food producers or distributors at Dhaka should focus more on the brand reputation, closeness or proximity and accessibility, cost, quality, discount, and taste factors. If they are able to ensure or fulfill these needs, university students of Bangladesh will be induced to buy and consume fast food whenever they are out of their houses. However, there is an ample scope to conduct study on the preference factors used by the office-goers, housewives, and or visitors in buying fast food in Bangladesh.
10. References

1. AUTY, S. 1992. Consumer choice and segmentation in the restaurant industry. Serv. Indust. J. 12(3), 324-339.
2. BAREHAM, J. 1995. Consumer Behavior in the Food Industry. A European Perspective, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, U.K.
3. Binkley, James K. (2008), Calorie and Gram Differences between Meals at Fast Food Table Service Restaurants, Review of Agricultural Economics-Volume 30, Number 4-Pages 750-763
4. Bowman, Shanthy A., Steven L. Gortmaker, PhD; Cara B. Ebbeling, PhD; Mark A. Pereira, PhD; and David S. Ludwig, MD, PhD (2004) Effects of Fast-Food Consumption on Energy Intake and Diet Quality Among Children in a National Household Survey, PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 1 January 2004
5. BUTTLE, F. 1986. Hotel and Food Service Marketing – A Managerial Approach, pp. 76-191, Cassell Educational, London, England.
6. CLARK, M. and WOOD, C.R 1998. Consumer loyalty in the restaurant industry: A preliminary exploration of the issues. Int. J. Contemporary Hospit. Mgmt. 10(4), 139-144.
7. CAREY, R.A. and GENEVIEVE, L. 1995. USA snapshots: Factors influencing choice of sit-down restaurant. USA Today, June 23, p. D1.
8. Kuchler,F.,E. Golan, J.N.Variyam, and S.R. Crutch-field. 2005. “Obesity Policy and the Law of Unintended Consequences.” Amber Waves 3:26-33.
9. Lawrence, J. M., E. Devlin, S. Macaskill, M. Kelly, M. Chinouya, M. M. Raats, K. L. Barton, W. L. Wrieden & R. Shepherd (2007) Factors that affect the food choices made by girls and young women, from minority ethnic groups, living in the UK. The British Dietetic Association Ltd 2007 J Hum Nutr Diet, 20, pp. 311-319
10. LEWIS, C.R 1981. Restaurant advertising: Appeals and consumer intentions. J. Advert. Res. 21(5), 69-74.
11. Lin, B.H., J. Guthrie, and E. Frazao. “Nutrient Contribution of Food Away from Home.” America’s Eating Habits: Changes and Consequences. Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Service Bulletin AIB-750, May 1999
12. Maxwell, D., Larbe, W., Lamptey, G., Zakariah, S. & Armar-Klemesu, M. 1998. Farming in the Shadow of the City: Changes in Land Rights and Livelihoods in Peri-Urban Accra. Cities Feeding People Report 23, International Development Research Centre (available at http://web.idrc.ca/en).
13. Prentice, A. M. and Jebb, S. A. (2003) Fast foods, energy density and obesity: a possible mechanistic link. The International Association for the Study of Obesity. Obesity reviews 187-194
14. Pingali, P. & Khwaja, Y. 2004 Westernization of Asian diets and the transformation of food systems: Implications for research and policy. (mimeo)
15. Popkin, B. 2002. The dynamics of the dietary transition in the developing world. In: B. Caballero & B. Popkin, eds. The Nutrition Transition: Diet and Disease in the Developing World, pp. 111-128. London, Academic Press.
16. Richards, Timothy j. and Padilla, Luis (2009) PROMOTION AND FAST FOOD DEMAND. Amer. J. Agr. Econ. 91(1) (February 2009): 168-183
17. Rosenheck, R. (2008) Fast food consumption and increased caloric intake: a systematic review of a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity risk, International Association for the Study of Obesity. obesity reviews 9, 535-547
18. Smil, V. 2000. Feeding the World – A Challenge for the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, MA, and London, England, MIT Press.
19. Stamoulis, Kostas G., Pingali, Prabhu and Shetty, Prakash; “Emerging Challenges for Food and Nutrition Policy in Developing Countries” Vol. 1, No. 2, 2004, pp. 154-167
20. Turley, L.W., Milliman, R.E. (2000), “Atmospheric Effects on Shopping Behavior: A Review of the Experimental Evidence”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 49 No.2, pp.193-211.
21. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) 2001. The State of World Population 2001 (available at http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2001/english).
Footnotes
1. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fast%20food
2. The Evolution of the Quick Service Restaurant”. A Management Consultant @ Large. http://jpfarrell.blogspot.com/2007/11/evolution-of-quick-service-restaurant.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.
3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_food_restaurant#cite_note-2
4. http://www.hoovers.com/fast-food-and-quickservice-restaurants/–ID__269–/free-ind-fr-profile-basic.xhtml
5. http://www.wikinvest.com/industry/Fast_Food_Restaurants_QSR
6. Schlosser, Eric, “Fast-Food Nation: The True Cost Of America’s Diet”, Rolling Stone magazine (USA), Issue 794, September 3rd 1998
7. “Fast Food: Global Industry Guide to their offering”, http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/c71910)
8. http://transcom.com.bd/?page_id=28
9. Star Lifestyle, Volume 1, Issue 26, Tuesday November 25, 2003
10. “Western Fast Food Influence Lifestyle in Bangladesh”, Xinhuanet.com 2002-05-11
11. The Daily Star, Vol. 5 Num 455 Mon. September 05, 2005
12. Star Lifestyle Volume 3, Issue 21, Tuesday December 27, 2005
13. The Daily Star, Vol. 5 Num 442, August 23, 2005
14. www.thedailystar.net/law, Issue No: 200, July 30, 2005
15. The New Nation, Internet Edition, March 9, 2008.

Appendices
Table 8.4 Similar Taste of Fast Food
Variables Factor loading My favorite fast food item purchased from any fast food shop offers me the same tastes. .689 I go to the fast food shops that my friends like but I don’t. .686 I consume the fast food items that my friends like but I don’t. .675 I prefer the fast food shops that are located in the busiest areas of Dhaka city. .422 I consider the food values of the fast food items I regularly consume. .417
Table 8.5 Cost and quality relationship
Variables Factor loading Costlier fast foods offer better quality. .745 Price of mine favorite fast food is acceptable to me. .720 Quick delivery of the item I order in a fast food shop is important to me. .498 I like the fast food shops that manage the long cues efficiently. .497
Table 8.6 Discount & Taste
Variables Factor loading I go to the fast food shops that offer group discounts. .733 My favorite fast food item offers a unique taste to me. .625
Table 8.7 Clean and Hygiene
Variables Factor loading Fast food outlets with clean hygiene records are more preferred by me. .581 I prefer the fast food shops that use fresh ingredients everyday. .532 I prefer the fast foods that are most tasty. .511 Table 8.8 Salesmanship and Decoration
Variables Factor loading I prefer the fast food shops that have smart personnel working. .816 I consider the lighting, decoration etc. of the fast food shops before revisiting them. .499
Table 8.9 Fat & Cholesterol
Variable Factor loading I avoid the fast food items that carry the most fat and cholesterol. .686
Table 8.10 Self-service
Variable Factor loading I prefer the fast food shops with self service. .697

Appendix 1 Communalities of the variables
Extraction Quick delivery of the item I order in a fast food shop is important to me. .577 I like the fast food shops that manage the long cues efficiently. .556 Price of mine favorite fast food is acceptable to me. .565 Costlier fast foods offer better quality. .616 Fast food outlets with clean hygiene records are more preferred by me. .478 Clean packaging of the fast food is important to me. .486 The service people present in the fast food shop is important to me. .489 I prefer the fast food shops that use fresh ingredients everyday. .596 I avoid fast food shops that have past records of using hazardous materials in their products. .645 I prefer the fast food shops that are close to my university. .622 I prefer the fast food shops that are easily accessible from anywhere in Dhaka city. .650 I prefer the fast food shops that offer privacy. .560 I prefer the fast food shops that are located in the busiest areas of Dhaka city. .583 My favorite fast food item offers a unique taste to me. .447 My favorite fast food item purchased from any fast food shop offers me the same tastes. .617 I do not consume my favorite fast food item if it does not taste right to me. .370 I prefer items from well known fast food shops to little known fast food shops. .590 Even though I do not like the food, I like to go to the well reputed fast food shops. .639 I am willing to try new fast food items only from well reputed fast food shops. .652 I will buy any fast food from well reputed fast food shops. .661 I go to the fast food shops that offer group discounts. .604 I consume the fast food items that my friends like but I don’t. .726 I go to the fast food shops that my friends like but I don’t. .639 I consider the food values of the fast food items I regularly consume. .549 I prefer the fast foods that are most tasty. .548 I avoid the fast food items that carry the most fat and cholesterol. .624 I avoid the tasty fast food items that do not suite my stomach. .597 I prefer the fast food shops that have smart personnel working. .692 I consider the lighting, decoration etc. of the fast food shops before revisiting them. .497 I prefer the fast food shops with self service. .619 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis
2