Edia Ovie is a morbidly obese, quadriplegic she is 62 years of age, recently widowed African-American female from a small rural town in central Darling Downs, and she is being seen by a local physician for enduring chronic physical and emotional conditions.
Mrs Edia Ovie has three sons and one daughter living in the same shire, one son lives at home with Edia Ovie whom provides care and administers her medication and provides her with her meals.
A nursing assistant cooks the meals for Mrs Edia Ovie when she is there, the other two sons and daughter pre-fills the medication planner and administers her insulin injections.
In July 2nd 1999 Mrs Edia Ovie was admitted to the local hospital for complaints of sporadic chest pain, back pain and pain in the left knee. Edia spent three days in acute ward before being transferred to medical ward.
Prior to her discharge, Edia had a consult with the local mental health centre for medication consultation after episodes of aggressive behaviour.
September 2nd 1999 Mrs Edia Ovie was admitted to the local hospital for hypoglycaemia there she was being treated by another physician and referred the local mental health centre for confusion and medication consultation. Edia’s medication and diet were changed upon discharged.
The leading contributing illness that is affecting Mrs Edia Ovie’s health is that she had experienced Cerebrovascular accident on three separate occasions leaving her with the left side weak in muscle movement, dysphasia and quadriplegic.
The common name for Cerebrovascular accident is a stroke, this can only occur when the blood vessels in the brain is block or erupt. Without a blood supply with oxygen it carries, a part of the brain starves from lack of oxygen and starts to die.
The results can vary depending on where in the brain the damage had occur, some parts of the body that are related to that specific area may not function fully or not at all. Damage to the brain can begin in minutes, only quick treatment can help limit the damaging affects on the brain and increase the chances of a full recovery.
When the neurons and the glia die due to not receiving any oxygen and nutrients from the blood supply or they are damaged by a haemorrhage into or around the brain, the cells can hang around in a via media state for several hours after the incident; with timely treatment they can be saved.
However when these cells suffer the ischemia free zinc ions begin to enter the cells which are released from their own proteins even the metallothionein, as this can release seven (7) zinc ions per molecule. The zinc released is the major contestant in assuring the death of the brain cells, there are drugs that can buffer the zinc and reduce the level of free zinc that is already being tested to reduce the brain cell death after the Cerebrovascular accident.
As the neurons in the surrounding ischemic or infracted areas go through some changes that interrupts the plasma membranes as cellular edema results thus causing further compression of the capillaries.
Symptoms that are related to the intracranial haemorrhage from an erupted or leaking aneuryusm could include one of the following three sets of symptoms: (1) excruciating headache with immediate lapse into a non-responsive state, (2) headache but still in conscious state and (3) sudden lapse into unconsciousness.
If there is haemorrhaging constricted to the subarachnoid space local symptoms may not appear, however if the bleeding moves and spreads into the brain tissue hemiparesis/paralysis, dysphagia or homonymous hemianopia could be present.
Impending eneurysm rupture may show symptoms of headache, transient one-sided weakness, transient numbness and tingling, and transient speech disruption. However many signs can differ from person to person and in some cases there may not be any at all.
Mrs Edia Ovie lives in a small old house with one of her sons and she also has a nursing assistant comes in and assist with daily activities and help cook meals for Mrs Edia Ovie when possible.
Other 2 son and a daughter come in also to assist in medication daily and ensure that the house is tidy and clean for their mother.
Edia doesn’t go out after her last stroke, spends all of her time either in bed, lounge room or out in her back yard in amongst the gardens. Only visitors Edia has is her family that provides care and the nursing assistant that comes daily for a few hours.
Mrs Edia Ovie is pleasant, alert and oriented to person, place and general time. She is very talkative although her speech is slow but it is understandable to what she is saying. Edia has occurrences of depression and aggressive behaviour from time to time; her depression could be a link with her recent loss of her husband Lorey.
In Mrs Edia Ovie’s is able to mobilise herself around in a wheel char but is unable to move from side to side without assistance, Edia is able to hold on one with the aide of a bed rail on the bed when turned on the side with assistance.
Assistance is required to go from inside to outside and vice versa as the ramp is too steep for her to push herself up and she feels uncomfortable going down as Edia is afraid of failing of the ramp.
There is a potential problem for aspiration as there is a diminished gag reflex and impaired swallowing ability with some associated weakness on the left hand side.
Dysphasia is apparent as there is impairment of the power of expression by speech and some impairment of comprehension of spoken words.
Impaired physical mobility related to disuse secondary to cerebrovascular attack.
The cerebrovascular accident can have a big impact on Mrs Edia Ovie’s activities of daily living especially when she has developed dysphasia, weakness on one side (left) and quadriplegic as well of having type 1 diabetes.
The way that these illnesses can impact on Mrs Edia Ovie’s ADL’s;
o Unable to perform hygiene needs
o Unable to complete house hold duties
o Unable to complete the need of self nutrition.
o Difficulty in completing self dressing tasks.
o Difficulty mobilising independently
o Loss of sensation
o Loss of bowel and or bladder control
o Loss of independence
o Experience loss in self-image, sense of self-worth, self esteem, and sexuality
The nurse can assist with the problems that may inhibit the activities of daily living in Mrs Edia Ovie’s life by helping her to set simple short term goals and provide her with interventions or ways for her to reach her set goals.
To assist Mrs Edia Ovie with her mobility and to make her feel a little more comfortable the nurse can follow the steps below;
Goal: full passive and active ROM to all extremities.
1a. Apply warm moist compresses to all of the joints for 20 mins before performing passive and active ROM to all extremities.
SR: The heat promotes muscle relaxation and mobility, decrease pain and relieves morning stiffness. (Doenges, 878)
1b. Perform passive and active ROM once a day for 5 mins at a time to all extremities.
SR: This help in the prevention of join contractions and muscular atrophy. (Sparks, 178)
1c. Perform comfort measures to help encourage relaxation; for example, bathing, massage, repositioning. This needs to be done between 10 to 20 minutes after the passive and active ROM were performed.
SR: These measures help reduce the tension or spasm and redistribute the pressure on the body and help the client focus on non-pain related activities that they might be interested in doing. (Sparks, 204)
Goal: using positional techniques (eg; Fowlers position, extended leg joints and foot board)
2a. Assist the client to develop a sitting balance by raising the head of the bed to a 60 degree angle for 10 to 20 minutes when possible throughout the day.
SR: Increase the sitting time, aids in retraining neuronal pathways. (Doenges, 296)
To assist Mrs Edia Ovie’s to eat and help prevent any episodes of choking as she is a candidate for aspirating which relates to diminished gag reflex and impaired swallowing ability, the nurse can perform the following;
Goal: Prevent client from aspirating at any time.
1a. Elevate the head of the bed to a high Fowler’s position (60º) before, during and 5 minutes after the meal.
SR: the client should be sitting up straight in bed or in a chair (what ever is the aid client uses to sit out of bed during the day time) while eating meals to prevent aspiration. (Medical-Surgical, 890)
1b. Place food on the unaffected area/side of the mouth.
SR: This provides a sensory stimulation which may trigger swallowing action and enhance the intake. (Medical-Surgical, 891)
Goal: encourage the client to eat 80% to 100% of each meal.
2a. Refer to the dietician to modify the client’s diet and calorie count, as needed.
SR: This is to establish a adequate nutritional needs. (Medical-Surgical, 896)
Goal: demonstrate correct eating techniques to maximize the swallowing such as placing the bed head in a high Fowler’s position and eating slowly.
3a. Tipping the head forward to help to decrease the risk of aspiration.
SR: The client’s head and neck are slightly forward this allows the esophageus to be straightened thus allowing for ease of swallowing. (Medical-Surgical, 890)
Mrs Edia Ovie communication is impaired to secondary to CVA; to assist maximum communication ability the nurse can perform the following;
Goal: Encourage the client to express their needs.
1a. Ask short questions to be answered with a “Yes”, “No” or a nod and giving the client plenty of time to respond.
SR: this allows the client to express their needs by only answering with simple yes or no answer.
1b. Make use of picture flash cards to indicate needs.
SR: this allows the client to show the nurse their need.
1c. Stand within the client’s line of vision makes use of simple gestures as an added cue.
SR: Be supportive and accepting as the client deals with the frustration of finding the right words.
1d. Divide any task into small units, working with the client to accomplish those tasks and give praise along the way.
SR: This reinforces the client’s self-esteem and helps them to keep trying and not to give up on the task and slowly building their independence.
Two factors of Watson’s cartive factors can be of help here by involving the interpersonal care which consists of a moment of caring for which the client and the nurse are coming together within the circumstance of the personhood of each individual.
The carative factors are: 1. Development of helping, trusting, human caring relationship, and 2. Assistance with gratification of human needs. These factors relate to Mrs Edia Ovie as they help the nurse to return to the most basic of the human needs, caring and healing.
The nursing interventions that are in place for Mrs Edia Ovie will be evaluated based on the patients progress towards each outcome criteria, this can be done by observation whilst performing the task in place to achieve the client’s goal.
For such interventions as “feed the client liquids which have been thickened, as thin fluids is more likely to cause aspiration.” And the evaluation outcome for this intervention might look “client did not have any problems with choking throughout the shift/day” other things that may need to look at is after evaluating the client with the intervention you can then also look at, was the nursing Dx appropriate for this client.
Before discharging the client there is a checklist that must be completed by the hospital staff before the client is able to leave, as this done along side with the admission.
Things that are on a discharge checklist are:
o Have you recorded your name and the time you saw the patient?
o Have you identified the contact details of the patients LMO of specialist?
o Recorded the patients best contact details?
o What is the diagnosis?
o What is the differential diagnosis?
o Have you documented investigation results?
o Have a follow up of results been organised?
o Discharged plan recorded
o Explained to the patient
o Discharged medications dispensed and
o Communication with the patients regular practitioner
o Copy included in the medical record
o Is there a follow-up required?
o Explained to the patient (including symptoms requiring return)
o Medical certificate (including TAC, Workcover)
o Social support needed?
o New disabilities or limitations in activity documented?
o Have the next of kin or carers been notified?
o How is the patient retuning home?
Mrs Edia Ovie is able to perform some self care routines such as grooming, wash face, brush teeth and clean her glasses. The client can mobilize herself around in a wheelchair by propelling herself using her strong arm or by pulling herself along using the rails alongside the wall but for only short distances at a time.
Mrs Edia Ovie has trouble with meeting her personal hygiene needs as she is unable to stand and is weak on the left side secondary to the CVA; to help her overcome this problem the client needs full assistance by one person, needs two people to assist in all transfers, lifting and to utilize aides and machines where ever possible.
Assistance is required by one person to help the client to meet her nutritional needs; although the client is able to feed herself in small intervals supervision is required as there is a tendency of aspirating.
To help Mrs Edia Ovie to meet her needs, a carer is needed who drops by a certain particular time/s of the day each week is advisable to able the family (main care givers) a break from time to time. Respite may be an option as this enables Mrs Edia Ovie to meet her social needs as well as any other.
To ensure that client’s needs are fully met, array of services may be needed. For the individual herself a service such as a respite service one a week may be the thing this gets her out of the house into the community talking with others and making new friends, this is helpful to her psychological, social and emotional needs.
A carer can be utilized once a day by coming in and fulfilling some of the client’s needs such as personal hygiene, nutrition needs and at the same time giving time to the main care givers time to themselves.
Entry written in the client’s record:
25/5/2008, 0800hrs. ——————————————————————————-
Mrs Edia Ovie had a big breakfast this morning she had ate all of her cereal (porridge puréed), main (purée baked beans) and fruit (soft fruit Banana). I asked Edia would she like some more and Edia replied yes I would love some more please, I returned with some more soft fruit (Banana). Edia ate it all with no problems. ——————–
EN Kelly j Wilson kjw —————————————————————————
Commence discharge plan on admission and complete prior to discharge of a veteran from the community nursing service. Items on the discharge plan should be dated and ticked when achieved.
Expected date of discharge / / Date Education The veteran and/or carer have been provided with verbal and written information and
education, in the appropriate language, relating to
? Ongoing health management
? Use of equipment aids & appliances
? Possible complications & warning signs
Date Contacts The veteran and /or carer have been provided with
? An appropriate post-discharge contact to answer queries and address concerns
? Any relevant follow-up appointments
? Contact details for relevant follow-up services
Date Discharge information Relevant discharge information has been provided to
? Veteran &/or carer or authorised representative ? LMO ? Community providers
? Hospital ? Hospice ? Residential Aged Care Facility
? Other (specify)_____________________________________________________________
Date Equipment aids & appliances
Veteran and/or carer are aware of
? Where to return any borrowed equipment
? Where to obtain other aids & equipment they may need
To acknowledge the involvement of the veteran and/or carer or authorised representative (as referred to in the Assessment and Clinical Pathway Entry Point, ‘Legal’ page 7) both the nurse and the veteran and/or carer or authorised representative should sign below.
Date / / Signature of nurse_________________________________________
Signature of veteran or authorised representative___________________________________________
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Vocational Placement Assignment
Mrs Edia Ovie
Kelly J Wilson
Kelly J Wilson
4140880602 Vocational placement assignment case study