A case study of Dongton, China
School of planning and Architecture
Table of Content
2. Goals to be an eco-city
3. The city as a catchment
4. Resource efficient
5. Adapted for climate change
6. Living and working in a dense urban centre
7. Case Study of Dongton,Shanghai
8. vision and leadership
9. Sustainable design and management of city
10. Town of tree villages
11. Compact city
12. Environmental Protection
13. Social and Economic Benefits
14. Low ecological Footprint
15. Water and Flood Management
16. Agricultural Protection
17. Energy Production, Use and Waste Reduction
18. Waste Management
19. Accessibility and Transport
20. Construction Impact
21. Development of Eco-City concept in Pune City
22. Sustainable Development
23. CASE STUDY : PUNE
24. Procedure Adopted in Pune
25. Approach towards Pune Eco City Action Plan
26. Process of Pune Eco City Action Planning
27. PROPOSAL AND RESPONSES TO CHALLENGES
28. Case study of CAOFEIDIAN ECOCITY
An eco-city reduces its ecological footprint to fit within the boundaries of one planet. In an eco-city, people and organisations adapt to a changing climate and gladly act to build a sustainable future.
As an eco-city has a healthy environment with a high quality of life and a growing economy. We will develop and use technology to preserve resources to ensure the city is sustainable now and in the future. Melbourne will achieve zero net emissions, manage climate change risks and lead the way in sustainable water management. An eco-city is compact, with a high density of housing, business and cultural uses that sustain an effective public transport system, and walking and cycling above car use. With excellent air quality and generous public open space and landscaping, biodiversity is supported and people enjoy the benefits of health and happiness. City infrastructure and buildings generate and use renewable energy and feed into the metropolitan electricity grid. Food is grown locally and creatively, using horizontal and vertical spaces on buildings and in private and public gardens. In its journey to become an eco-city, the municipality achieves zero net emissions, manages climate change risks, leads the way in sustainable water and resource management, and increases its population density. To guide this, the municipality employs a ‘city as an ecosystem’ approach to develop new models of living that allow us to prosper within the Earth’s ecological limits.
As a result, people in Melbourne are motivated to minimise their energy and water consumption and to support mandatory measures such as water and carbon restrictions. The City of Melbourne also advocates the importance of the metropolitan, regional and global ecosystem, partnering and sharing knowledge about green technologies and sustainable urban management practices with other cities. It supports and promotes innovative industries and businesses that have positive benefits for our environment.
Goals to be an eco-city:
1.Zero net emissions city
2. The city as a catchment
3. Resource efficient
4. Adapted for climate change
5. Living and working in a dense urban centre
The concept of “eco-city” originates from the fundamental objective of sustainability and the application of ecological principles to urban planning, design and management. “Sustainability” and in turn “sustainable development” can mean different things to different people, making it challenging to provide a single definition. This book therefore adopts the original and most widely used definition of sustainable development as contained in the 1987 Brundtland Report commissioned by the United Nations General Assembly. The report defines sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.
As an important model of sustainable development, we believe that an eco-city must be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable. These three essential components must be present in order to be regarded as a sustainable eco-city or an eco-friendly project. First, on the environmental front, the eco-city must be able to protect or, preferably, even enhance the environment. Within the eco-city, there ought to be important aspects or features such as the application of green technologies, environmentally sustainable transportation, rational use of space, green-belts and parks, and cultural and heritage conservation. On the whole, the eco-city should strive towards producing a lower ecological footprint. This would require paying attention not only to what is being practised within the confines of the eco-city itself but also to the impact of building an eco-city beyond the confines of such a city.
Second, on the economic front, the eco-city must be able to contribute to the growth of the economy through attracting investments and generating employment. Economic growth will provide the necessary resources to the government, to organisations and individuals to better protect the environment. More importantly, economic growth will raise the living standards of the people. Over time, with greater prosperity and better living standards, the people will likely become more aware and supportive of efforts to safeguard the environment especially if the environment is regarded as critical to their well-being and quality of life.
Third, on the social and cultural front, the eco-city must be able to meet social considerations including promoting interactions and strengthening the bonds of friendship and even unity among the different ethnic and religious groups of society. An eco-city must not become or be perceived as an enclave for only the rich and powerful but must welcome and be accessible to people from various walks of life. The eco-city should also provide employment for residents living in it so as to maximise convenience for them and minimise travel out of the city. By allowing residents to witness and experience the benefits of living in an eco-city, they will become strong advocates for the norms, values and practices prevalent in such a city. This will foster valuable ground-level support – a key ingredient if the eco-city is to last.
ECOCITY CONCEPT IN INDIA
The concept’s roots in India can be traced back to initiatives launched by the Government of India, chiefly the Zoning Atlas initiative of the Centre for Spatial Environmental Planning (CSEP) of the Central Pollution Control Board. This led to pilot studies on the Environmental Management Plan for Kanpur. Experience gained under these initiatives has led to the evolution of eco city concept.
The Ecocity concept draws upon the various international initiatives discussed in earlier sections, important forerunners that aim at far reaching change in UEM. These initiatives acknowledge the multi dimensional issues of urban environments and lay special emphasize on transparency and accountability in governance, and the need for public participation in decision making processes. More specifically the Ecocity concept has evolved to include
– Integration of environmental concerns in urban civic management – Balancing the needs and pressures of urban growth and change with the needs and constraints of the environment – Planning and management of urban development, avoiding or alleviating problems while realizing the positive potentials of city growth and change – New and more positive approach to urban management that help to mobilize and effectively use local resources This concept was extnsively discussed in May 2000, in the Conference of Ministers organized by The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) for the heads of the departments of environment of the various states of the country.
1. Zero net emissions city
To become an eco-city the municipality will need to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases to zero. We will do this by massively reducing our greenhouse gas emissions and then offsetting those that remain. The interim target for this ambitious goal is to reduce the total emissions across the municipality by 59 per cent per worker and 35 per cent per resident by 2020 (from 2006 levels).
The municipality, along with all developed cities and countries across the world, must make big reductions in greenhouse gas emissions – and fast. Melbourne can be a leader in the global task of averting catastrophic manmade climate change. But on average Australians are one of the worlds highest per capita greenhouse gas emitters.
In 2000 Australian ranked as the 9th highest emitter out of 185 countries and was the highest emitters of any developed countries. Victoria’s Commissioner for Environmental Sustainability has said “…our energy legacy has positioned Victoria as one of the highest per capita greenhouse polluting states in one of the highest per capita greenhouse polluting countries in the world”.
Effective action to achieve a zero-carbon municipality requires widespread community participation. A long-term and focused communication program to motivate people will cater to our diverse community, and will cover all opportunities for meaningful contributions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Communications will also focus on increasing awareness that actions in Melbourne affect not just the city, but also the state, nation and the world.
The City of Melbourne has reviewed and updated its Zero Net Emissions by 2020 – Update 2008 . The municipality and the Victorian and Federal Governments, as well as community and professional organisations, have initiated programs and projects to improve the environmental sustainability of the municipality.
Better data is needed on the performance of inner and central city residences. From these and other initiatives we can learn what does and doesn’t work, who participates and who watches, and what some of the keys to effective and lasting change are. This will help us energise the community to take the direct actions necessary if we are to become an eco-city.
Building and infrastructure
All new buildings in the municipality must be energy efficient. New residential and commercial buildings will aim to achieve a six-star or greater NABERS energy rating. An award could be instituted as celebration and incentive for this. Reducing the embodied energy contained in buildings and infrastructure is also important. The manufacture of materials such as concrete and steel is extremely resource-hungry. Careful selection of materials is necessary to minimise this problem.
New building and infrastructure are more easily rendered energy efficient. But these only make up a small proportion of the whole stock of buildings and can therefore only make a limited contribution to municipality becoming a Zero-carbon city in the short time available.
To achieve this we will retrofit our existing buildings with more energy efficient heating, cooling, lighting, equipment and appliances through initiatives such as the Clinton Climate Initiative .
Retrofitting will yield significant savings through reduced energy costs, which can be used to cover retrofitting costs. Tailored programs, including appropriate data, will be developed for retrofitting of residential and commercial buildings and could be supported by pro-active planning scheme provisions. Innovative thinking will be important. For example, roof tops could become more valuable for wind or solar energy generation and/or food production and new options for aggregating and renting these spaces put into place.
Changes to transport use patterns will reduce transport-related greenhouse gas emission, see City of Melbourne Greenhouse Footprint for Transport Draft Report May 2008 . Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by changing from unsustainable modes such as cars to public transport5, bicycles and walking and also just travelling less by eliminating unnecessary trips.
Low emissions local power generation
Melbourne is heavily dependent on brown coal as an energy source. This energy-source generates high levels of greenhouse gas emissions6. Reducing these emission by pumping the Co2 underground (geo-sequestration) is being researched but full scale commercial application may be decades away. We need to adopt energy sources with low and even no greenhouse gas emissions more immediately.
Redesigning and re-equipping whole precincts and neighbourhoods to reduce net energy demands and to generate energy on-site is an emerging focus of eco-cities across the world. Partnership with key stakeholders can achieve this. The proposed Green Transformers program in the City of Sydney is one example.
In Australia food-related greenhouse gas emissions exceed transport emissions, and may prove to be more significant than greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. Changes to food production, processing and consumption patterns will significantly reduce these greenhouse gas emissions.
This very challenging goal for the municipality can only be achieved through partnerships, incentives, proactive regulation such as through the planning scheme, and the cumulative effect of many smaller initiatives.
2. The city as a catchment
Through the adoption of a ‘city as a catchment1’ philosophy, the municipality will conserve water and improve the health of its waterways. By 2020, resident mains water use will be reduced by 40 per cent and worker mains water use will be reduced by 50 per cent (from 2000 levels). Pollution entering our waterway will be reduced by 20 per cent by 2020.
A city as a catchment philosophy helps to determine the flow and amount of water moving through the municipality and the pollutants that are carried with these flows. It ensures greater emphasis is given to rainwater and stormwater harvesting, which not only saves mains water and reduces pollutants entering our water bodies, it also detains stormwater, allowing us to adapt for forecasts of bigger, more frequent storms, a result of climate change.
Through the identification and linking of water source (a road, or a building with a large roof) and water sinks (a large water-using business or a park), this philosophy allows for water to be effectively managed locally and to reduce both water demand and polluted run-off into areas beyond the local catchment.
The movement of water through the municipality today is set out below. A system based on a city as a catchment philosophy would include less untreated stormwater run-off, which will be treated and reused where possible.
3. Resource efficient
An eco-city uses only what it needs and produces no waste, creating many environmental and economic benefits that contribute to sustainability.
While densely populated cities have intrinsic efficiencies of scale we are only just beginning to understand them as an ecosystem. They currently require an enormous amount of resources to sustain their inhabitants. London for example needs a staggering 125 times its own area to supply the resources to sustain itself.
Large cities are central to the flow of goods and services, people, and ideas that have enabled global integration and prosperity for many. These flows can also create direct and indirect environmental impacts. We need to understand, measure and monitor these impacts and design new ways to make them more efficient and reduce their ecological footprint to a sustainable level.
Melbourne’s high consumption of energy, water, food, materials and natural resources is not sustainable – economically or environmentally. Increased consumption of animal-based, processed and imported foods as well as out-of-season produce has environmental implications. Inefficient appliances, entertainment units, airconditioners and other electrical devices unnecessarily increase the amount of energy and resources used.
Through partnerships with various private and public groups and organisations, Melbourne will become a resource and material-efficient city. To achieve this goal, we will measure and report on our ecological footprint, and develop new ways of living that are less resource-intensive. We will also promote use of backyard and rooftop vegetable gardens, and encourage greater waste reduction, re-use and recycling. The incorporation of waste-management facilities that make it easier for people to reduce waste sent to landfill is also essential.
4. Adapted for climate change
Every person in the municipality will be aware of – and manage – risks associated with climate change. We will adapt to ensure long-term benefits for the community and capitalise on opportunities for adaptation.
The municipality is already experiencing the effects of human-induced climate change, including: reduced rainfall; higher temperatures and heat waves; increased evaporation; sea level rises and storm surges; intense rainfall events; increased storm frequency and intensity; increased wind speed. These changes in our local weather conditions and climate signal the start of a long-term shift, they are not merely a variation of the norm.
Developed cities around the world are preparing for climate change. Given the potential high risk impacts of these changes on our economy and sustainability, our municipality must prepare for climate change, developing and implementing strategies to reduce its vulnerability and make the most of its opportunities.
Melbourne has world leading research resources in this area and can become a world centre for research and innovative industries and businesses that meet the challenge of a changing climate. In July 2008 The City of Melbourne released its public consultation draft Climate Adaptation Strategy for the municipality. Operational research is needed into the specific localised effects and solutions in Melbourne including key institutions such as Melbourne Water, hospital and retailers.
Adapting to climate change requires a better understanding of the city’s dependence on resource-based or climate-sensitive industries, the capacity and resilience of its infrastructure, and the needs of its diverse and growing population. We will need to:
* manage water shortages and flooding through actions such as stormwater harvesting and other strategies set out in The city as a catchment ;
* use cooling from the city parks and rooftop gardens as part of the city ecosystem to delivering eco-system cooling services along with passive shading to reduce the impact of heat stress and the heat island effect3; and
* ensure that buildings and infrastructure are designed to mitigate the impacts of projected sea-level rise, storm damage surge, and flooding.
We will successfully adapt to climate change through a good public awareness of the municipality’s specific risks based on the best scientific and professional research and advice. We will also adapt through organisations in the municipality collaborating to develop effective, innovative and economically productive adaptation solutions. These solutions will be aligned with the municipal greenhouse gas mitigation strategy. This will enable residents, visitors and workers within the municipality to understand their shared and individual responsibilities.
5. Living and working in a dense urban centre
To become an eco-city the living, working, cultural and recreational activities of the municipality will be integrated into a dense and liveable urban ecosystem at the hub of a metropolitan network of similar urban nodes, creating environmental, economic, social and health benefits alike for the metropolitan area and the municipality.
Since the 1950s, Melbourne has developed as a sprawling low-density metropolis. Today, most people depend on motor vehicles to go about their daily activities, and goods and services are freighted large distances within the city. This pattern has also driven agriculture beyond the metropolitan area, so food has to be freighted into the city every day.
Our high levels of personal, business and freight travel are a significant source of greenhouse emissions and increased costs to household and businesses.
Most Melburnians would prefer to have their homes, workplaces, schools, shopping social and other activities conveniently close by. This is why since the 1980’s many are now moving into urban centres such as the municipality of Melbourne where most daily trips for home, work, school and recreation can be done easily and in a short time, on foot or by bicycle.
To be an eco-city the municipality needs to have a high density of different types of activities, give priority for walking and cycling as the most logical and most sustainable transport options. New urban growth will need to focus around existing and proposed rail stations and tram routes, particularly along the main roads and boulevards in the municipality (known as transit-oriented development).
The development of similar urban nodes forming a network of mixed-use urban centres across the metropolitan area, connected by regular, high-speed sustainable transport and freight services will start to build a metropolitan urban ecosystem that will be more economic, more liveable and environmentally sustainable in the future.
Increasing residential population density in the municipality
Currently the municipality has a low residential density of 22 residents / hectare (or 13 dwellings per hectare). However, our population density increases to a high 212 people / hectare if daily visitors are added to the counts.
Each day, visitors to the municipality outnumber residents 10 to one. Business-as-usual trend population projections to 2020 for the municipality show residential population reaching 140,000 (currently 86,000) while daily visitor numbers (including workers) should reach 1,000,000 (currently 700,000). This projected daily visitor population presents a major transport challenge.
If more of these people both lived and worked within the municipality this would reduce the daily visitor transport task without increasing the number of people in the city daily. Pro-actively encouraging increasing residential density in the inner city will strengthen its sustainability.
The six-storey (medium rise) apartment block is the optimum building type for energy efficiency and can accommodate the household densities Inner Melbourne will require. This development standard could generate the density required for pedestrian comfort and a good public transport system. Implementation of this height limit will need to acknowledge and respond to heritage values.
Giving priority to walking and cycling
Inner Melbourne has an excellent road network that could be very suitable for walking and cycling. The current high volumes and speeds of motor vehicles in this network could be reduced in favour of walking and cycling, and the proportion of road space allocated to walkers and cyclists could be increased.
Changes are already happening in the central city, such as the separated bike lane along the north end of Swanston Street. Change of this nature could be accelerated and significantly expanded, eventually forming a network of safe and attractive routes throughout the inner metropolitan area.
Develop a metropolitan network of urban centres
The Victorian Government’s Melbourne 2030 sets out a long-term vision for a network of activity centres and transit cities connected by tram and high-speed rail public transport. Activity centres will increasingly provide employment, accommodation and recreation, and the municipality will include the largest of these centres.
The municipality will be the heart of a network of similar but smaller urban centres forming a more sustainable and powerfully connected metropolitan region. The City of Melbourne will foster functional links with Footscray (identified as a transit city), the municipality’s closest urban centre, and will work to create and strengthen sustainable transit links with all surrounding cities, towns and communities.
Between these urban nodes lower density suburbs would become more energy efficient and greener.
Developing local food production
Urban agriculture can reduce environmental impacts and increase the resilience of urban food supplies by:
* reducing vulnerability to oil prices
* reducing food miles and greenhouse emissions
* making use of alternative agricultural inputs such as stormwater, wastewater and food waste
* reducing land conflict between food production, biodiversity and biofuels.
City of Melbourne residents, restaurants and businesses will increasingly source more fresh foodstuffs grown and processed locally, and therefore reduce the financial and greenhouse gas costs of food freight. Food-yielding trees and plants may be incorporated into public parks and private body corporate gardens. Space will be used intensively, including rooftop and wall gardens.
Throughout the metropolitan region, food will be produced in and between urban centres and distributed locally and regionally. Up to one third of food consumed in the city will be sourced locally or regionally. Organic waste including food waste may be collected and processed locally as compost.
A sustainable city, or eco-city is a city designed with consideration of environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution – CO2, methane, and water pollution. Richard Register first coined the term “ecocity” in his 1987 book, Ecocity Berkeley: building cities for a healthy future. Other leading figures who envisioned the sustainable city are architect Paul F Downton, who later founded the company Ecopolis Pty Ltd, and author Timothy Beatley, who has written extensively on the subject. The field of industrial ecology is sometimes used in planning these cities.
A sustainable city can feed itself with minimal reliance on the surrounding countryside, and power itself with renewable sources of energy. The crux of this is to create the smallest possible ecological footprint, and to produce the lowest quantity of pollution possible, to efficiently use land; compost used materials, recycle it or convert waste-to-energy, and thus the city’s overall contribution to climate change will be minimal, if such practices are adhered to.
Case Study of Dongton,Shanghai
Arup, the British engineering consultancy firm, was contracted in 2005 by the developer, The Shanghai Industrial Investment Company (SIIC), to design and masterplan Dongtan, an eco-city on Chongming Island close to Shanghai, the first of a planned series.
Dongtan was presented at the United Nations World Urban Forum by China as an example of an eco-city, and is the first of up to four such cities to be designed and built in China. The cities are planned to be ecologically friendly, with zero-greenhouse-emission transit and complete self-sufficiency in water and energy, together with the use of zero energy building principles. Energy demand will be substantially lower than comparable conventional cities due to the high performance of buildings and a zero emission transport zone within the city. Waste is considered to be a resource and most of the city’s waste will be recycled.
However, the planned ecological footprint for each citizen in Dongtan is currently 2.2 hectares, higher than the 1.9 hectares that the World Wildlife Fund claims is theoretically sustainable on a global scale.
Dongtan proposes to have only green transport movements along its coastline. People will arrive at the coast and leave their cars behind, traveling along the shore as pedestrians, cyclists or on sustainable public transport vehicles. The only vehicles allowed in the city will be powered by electricity or hydrogen. Houses are now selling here to Shanghai middle classes for use when spending weekends away from the city. The Controlling authorities are now backtracking on these commitments and allowing private vehicles onto the site.
Sustainability means meeting our community’s present needs while preserving our historic character and ensuring the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It involves balancing and integrating environmental, economic, health and social issues so as to maximize the quality of life for all. Sustainable development means attaining a balance between environmental protection and human economic development and between the present and future needs. It means equity in development and sectoral actions across space and time.
It requires an integration of economic, social and environmental approaches towards development. Sustainable urban development refers to attaining social equity and environmental protection in urbanization while minimizing the costs of urbanization.
What is Eco City?
“It is an urban center that is moving towards controlled and sustainable patterns of consumption and growth.”
What is Eco -City concept?
•It means reducing the Ecological Footprint while simultaneously improving the Quality of Life-for our and future Generations -within the Capacity Limits of the City
The scientific and technological objective of the ECO-City project is to establish the technological basis and to demonstrate innovative integrated energy concepts in the supply and demand side.
The focus of the Eco-city Project is:
1. To improve environment through conservation of natural resources, management of sewerage, drainage and solid waste; reduction of air and water pollution; recycling of wastes and creation of job opportunities for the urban poor:
2. To improve visual qualities through urban design of selected complexes and landscaping of parks and open spaces and providing green belts;
3. To improve traffic management by providing efficient circulation, parking, pedestrian system that cater to the residents as well as the visitors to the town;
4. To build capacities of the stakeholders to prepare and implement projects;
5. To monitor the projects using specific environmental indicators;
6. To document the project impact;
7. To improve urban management and for this purpose, promote networking of participating cities with similar cities in Europe; and
8. To improve tourism and job opportunities.
vision and leadership
“China’s current development is ecologically unsustainable, and the damage will not be reversible once higher GDP has been achieved”
Zhenhua Xie, Minister of State Environmental Protection Agency
THE ECO-CITY- DONGTON
The eco-city is an umbrella metaphor that encompasses a wide range of urban-ecological proposals that aim to achieve urban sustainability. These approaches propose a wide range of environmental, social, and institutional policies that are directed to managing urban spaces to achieve sustainability.
Dongton promotes the ecological agenda and emphasizes environmental management through a set of institutional and policy tools. The distinctive concepts of the eco-city are greening and passive solar design. In terms of density and other concepts, the eco-city might be conceived as a “formless” city or an ecoamorphous city. There are some approaches that emphasize the passive solar design, such as the Ecovillage, Solar Village.
It is remarkable that the core of many approaches is the management of the Dongton city, rather than the suggesting of any specific urban form; it is believed that not the physical shape of the Dongton city and its built environment that is important; it is how the urban society is organized and managed that counts most.
Therefore, the Dongton city is managed to achieve sustainability through different land use, environmental, institutional, social, and economic policies In practice, many local governments, planning consultants, landscape architects, and so on are grappling much more specifically with aspects of ecological, pedestrian oriented, or otherwise sustainable urban form.
Development of Eco-City concept in Pune City
Maharashtra State is located in western part of India. It is one of the most important States in the country. It has many reputed Educational Institutions, Major International Industries, IT Companies etc. It has a reasonably good climatic condition. It’s been a major attraction for many International Companies for investments. Its population counted to 85 million. (2001 census)
About Pune Municipal Corporation Area
Pune is located in western part of Maharashtra State of India. PMCA was established in 1950. Its population ranged up to 3.18 million in 2006 and spread over an area of 243.97 sq.km. Its altitude is 560m above MSL and coordinates are 18 34″N 73 58″E.
It’s one of the most important cities in the country. It has a very good climatic condition. It is one of the prime destinations for major Industries, Educational Institutions, IT companies and Allied Industries. City has a good connectivity with Mumbai and other parts of the country by Road, Railway and Airways. An International Air Port is proposed in the city.
About Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC)
The Civic Body Name Pune Municipal Corporation Governing Act The Bombay Provincial Municipal Corporations Act,1949 Mode of Governance General Body Policy Making Standing Committee Financial Decisions Municipal Commissioner Chief Executive Some Statistics… Area of Jurisdiction 243.84 Sq.km. Population (2001) 3 Million Staff Strength 17,333 Annual Budget (2010-11) Rs 3196.12 crore Parks and Gardens 79 + 10 Swimming Pool Schools and Colleges 535 (1,10,321 students) Disp. and Hospitals 60 (9000 patients /day) Source: PMC official website (www.punecorporation.org)
Major Industries in and around Pune
Turning to the industrial sector the picture is rather enviable. The Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) has developed two industrial estates in the immediate vicinity of Pune on the lines of the Industrial Parks of United Kingdom. One such area is located at Parvati while the other is at Bhosari, near the already sprawling industrial area of Pimpri, Chinchwad and Pradhikaran. In the MIDC industrial estates land, fuels, electricity, water and select raw materials are provided at subsidised rates to priority sector productions / companies.
A number of large scale industries are also present in and around Pune. Some major companies are Phillips India, Bajaj Auto, Kirloskar Cummins, Kirloskar Filters, Kalyani Sharp, Mahindra And Mahindra, Hindustan Antibiotics, Tata Electric And Locomotive Company, Mercedes Benz India Ltd, Kirloskar Oil Engines, Indian card Clothing, Alfa Laval, SKF Bearings, State Transport Bodybuilding division, Weikfield India, Serum India, Duro Shocks, Kinetic Honda, Bajaj Tempo, Kirloskar Pneumatics etc.
These companies produce a variety of goods such as commercial vehicles (light and heavy), locomotives, electronic consumer durables, oil engines, pump sets, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, two wheeler vehicles, processed food, refrigeration systems (industrial and domestic), industrial filters, family cars, luxury cars, landrovers, pickup trucks and a number of intermediate goods also. The small scale and medium scale industries also produce a variety of items but it is
dominated by items like metal sheet components, fibre glass mouldings, nuts, bolts, screws, washers, gaskets, paint jobs, electro and other variety of platings, chemicals, bulk drugs, formulations, electronic components, spare parts, dye cast and drop cast jobs, foams etc and also a long range of goods used directly by consumers. There are enormous backward and forward linkages. The small and medium scale firms provide vital components and spares as well as other intermediate goods or finished raw materials for the large scale industries. Thus one can clearly observe external economies in Pune probably better than any other city in or around India.
Manufacturing Industries : Bajaj Auto -Kawasaki, Bharat Forge Ltd., Kinetic Engineering, Tata Motors, Dailmer Chrysler, Mercedes Benz, Cummins Engines co. ltd, Whirlpool, Frito Lay, and Coco Cola.
Software Industries-Tata Consultancy Services, Infosys, Wipro, Satyam, Mahindra British Telecom, Mastek Ltd., Kanbay Software, Cybage, HSBC Global Industries, IBM, Sybase, EDS, I -Flex, Cognizant, Sasken, KPIT, Amdocs, Avaya, Veritas, Aftek Infosys, Syntel, Zensarand TIBCO.
Energy consumption in Pune
The overall vision of the concept is to develop an integrated approach based on institutional arrangements and policies in interplay with sector fields
Change in regular construction process
Few additional steps is required in process for sustainable manufacturing of goods and services
Re-utilization and recycling of products are the key to effective approach.
Basic approach of towards sustainable environment
CASE STUDY : PUNE
What is Eco City?
“It is an urban center that is moving towards controlled and sustainable patterns of consumption and growth.”
What is Eco -City concept ?
It means reducing the Ecological Footprintwhile simultaneously improving the Quality of Life-for our and future Generations -within the Capacity Limitsof the City
Eco City Program in India
To carry forward the Eco City initiative, GoIhas developed an Eco City Program where in pilot projects have been planned in strategic urban centers like Agra-“TajEco City”in Uttar Pradesh and Kottayamin Kerala.
In order to ensure that the future development will be sustainable PMC with technical assistance from IIEC (International Institute of EnergyConservationhas developed criteria for Eco Housing .
•Total 8 focus areas.
•27 criteria mandatory.
•1000 scoring points.
•Star rating system linked with incentives.
Scope of Eco-housing activities spans from site-selection to energy-efficient materials and construction
Focus Areas and Point Allocation
Procedure Adopted in Pune
Eco City Sustainability Framework
First step in framework will be preparation of urban design for the city. Various urban plan proposals to be made at this stage. This stage will determine the final land use and urban settlement pattern of city. Then a detailed design of buildings, roads and landscape in Environmental Programme and architectural programme will be required. Then development and modification in plan of the project is undertaken. Tender may be issued afterwards. Maintenance programme is also required for proper operation and maintenance of project. Feedback at every stage to be collected which will give input to future. All steps need to look and assess economical, social and ecological aspects of city.
Need for Eco City Action Plan for Pune
Need for a Structured Approach :Pune does not figure in the list of GoI’s Eco City Program. But at the same time NURM and NUIF give importance to urban environmental improvement.
Needs a direction towards Sustainable Development :Efforts made so far are in isolation, hence a comprehensive approach is required.
Needs a stakeholder participatory arrangement: Architects, NGOs, Educational Institutions, Builders play an important role in the development of city.
Needs an ‘environmentally’ oriented planning approach : It will bring a structured order to various projects and programs under environmental management in Pune.
Approach towards Pune Eco City Action Plan
Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Approach
A Multi Level Collaborative Approach for Pune Eco City Action Plan
Process of Pune Eco City Action Planning
Formulation of Eco City Working Committee & sub committees: Working Committee will play the role of nodal committee. The subcommittees will deal with various themes of Eco City Plan
Identification of stakeholders: Architects, Builders, Specialist Engineers, Environmentalists, NGO, representation from Govt. organizations, citizens Forum etc.
Appointment of consultant: This involves experts in various fields such as Water Management, Solid Waste Management, Traffic & Transportation, Housing, Urban Renewal etc.
Stakeholder consultations: This involves experts in Town Planning, NGOs, Citizens Forum, Industrial Association, Educational Institutes etc.
Taking the Pune Eco City Action Plan Ahead
A base document to guide Eco City action in Pune.
•Basic Structure for arranging and implementing projects and programs.
•Resource estimates and feasibility will be detailed out as a further step.
•Develop concrete projects and programs for implementation.
Initiatives of PMC
PMC has also taken initiative for the awareness of the citizens and to have more interaction with the other international cities has formed International Office Agenda 21 on the Guidelines of Rio Summit of UN held in 92.
•This office has actively co-ordinate between the cities like Okayama -Japan, Bremen -Germany and San Jose -USA for sustainable development of the cities.
•This Office has played active part in promoting the Association of Friends of Japan, PMC and Industries in Pune as well as Okayama to develop a Japanese Style garden in Pune.
LOCATION OF PLANNING OF THE CITY
The following principles were taken into consideration for planning of the city:
* An environment-friendly city: respect and harmony with natural conditions and system. The detrimental effects on natural systems by the development of Caofeidian eco-city will Reduce to a minimum level.
* A conservation-oriented city: compact city and resources saving. Caofeidian eco-city will significantly decrease demand of land, water, and energy.
* A hi-tech city: reaching the standard of tomorrow city. All the ideas of Caofeidian eco-city should have long-term perspectives. So many advanced ecological technologies should be widely utilized during the building process.
* A healthy, safe, livable city: meet the demand of citizen. Caofeidian eco-city will provide safety of environment and ecological system
PROPOSAL AND RESPONSES TO CHALLENGES
* The city is a transition between land and sea. There are four major regions flowing to the gulf. The major priority was given to the preservation of wetlands and corridors. A grid of ecological green space was built.
CHANGE IN ECOSYSTEM BEFORE AND AFTER BUILT
CAOFEIDIAN ECO PROTECTION AND REPAIR SYSTEM
* Stanislav E. Shmelev and Irina A. Shmeleva (2009) “Sustainable cities: problems of integrated interdisciplinary research”,International Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 12, Number 1, 2009, pp. 4 – 23
* Richard Register (2006) Ecocities: building cities in balance with nature, New Society Publishers. ISBN 0-86571-552-1.
* Shannon May (2008) “Ecological citizenship and a plan for sustainable development”, City,12:2,237 – 244
* Timothy Beatley (2000) (1997) [http://worldcat.org/oclc/36695680&referer=one_hit Eco-city dimensions : healthy communities, healthy planet, New Society Publishers. ISBN 0-86571-353-7.
* Richard Register (1987) Ecocity Berkeley: building cities for a healthy future, North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-009-4.
* Sim Van der Ryn and Peter Calthorpe (1986) Sustainable communities : a new design synthesis for cities, suburbs, and towns, Sierra Club Books. ISBN 0-87156-629-X.
* Paolo Soleri (1973) Arcology : the city in the image of man, MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19060-5.
* Ian L. McHarg (1969) Design with nature, Published for the American Museum of Natural History [by] the Natural History Press.
* Louise Crabtree (2006) Messy humans, dirty economies and leaky houses: citizenship, sustainable livelihoods and housing in Australia, doctoral dissertation, Macquarie University, 2006.
Submitted by :- Shashikant Nishant Sharma
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi