DIMENSIONS AND EFFECT ON CUSTO

DIMENSIONS AND EFFECT ON CUSTOMER OUTCOMES The Four Dimensions of CRM Implementations
Focusing on Key Customers
A customer-focused structure, culture, policy, and reward sys- tem should permeate any organization that strives to imple- ment CRM successfully (Ryals and Knox 2001; Sheth, Sisodia, and Sharma 2000). All interactions with key customers, who are often identified by “lifetime value computations,” must fully reflect this company-wide CRM focus (Jain and Singh 2002; Schmid and Weber 1998). The ultimate goal is to achieve deep customer relationships through which the seller organi- zation becomes indispensable to its most profitable custom- ers (Vandermerwe 2004). Equipped with company-wide understanding and internal support for key customer relation- ships, the sales force generally is better enabled and motivated to cultivate long-term customer relationships by offering more personalized products and services (Armstrong and Kotler 2003, p. 514; Srinivasan, Anderson, and Ponnavolu 2002
Organizing Around CRM
With a strong focus on key customers deeply embedded throughout its CRM system, the entire company should be organized around cultivating these valuable relationships. The organizational structure needs to be flexible and, if necessary, reconstructed to generate customer-centric values (Homburg, Workman, and Jensen 2000) and improve coordination of customer-focused, cross-functional teams (Brown 2000; Homburg, Workman, and Jensen 2000; Sheth and Sisodia 2002). For CRM success, there also must be an organization- wide commitment of resources. With concerted efforts by all organizational functions to continuously provide a stream of value-rich actions and customer outcomes (Ahmed and Rafiq 2003; GroÉnroos 1990), the company and its sales force are assured that they can satisfy customers’ needs and enhance customer relationships.
Managing Knowledge
Strongly related to knowledge management, successful CRM is predicated on effectively transforming customer informa- tion to customer knowledge (Freeland 2003; Peppard 2000; Plessis and Boon 2004; Stefanou, Sarmaniotis, and Stafyla 2003; Stringfellow, Nie, and Bowen 2004). Specifically, to enhance customer profitability, information about custom- ers should be gathered through interactions or touch points across all functions or areas of the firm (Brohman ?.a.. 2003), so that a 360-degree customer view is established, maintained, and continually updated (Fox and Stead 2001). Customer knowledge thereby generated needs to be shared and dissemi- nated throughout the organization (Peppard 2000; Ryals and Knox 2001) to address customers’ current and anticipated needs. Salespeople are then equipped with a wealth of valu- able customer knowledge to meticulously adjust marketing offers to fit the idiosyncratic needs of each customer (Arm- strong and Kotler 2003, p. 514).
Incorporating CRM-Based Technology
Many CRM-oriented activities, such as knowledge manage- ment, cannot be optimized without leveraging the latest tech- nology. Indeed, most CRM applications take great advantage of technology innovations with their ability to collect and analyze data on customer patterns, develop prediction mod- els, respond with timely and effective customized communi- cations, and efficiently deliver personalized value offerings to individual customers (Peppard 2000; Vrechopoulos 2004). With the development of sophisticated information manage- ment tools, such as database marketing, data warehousing, data mining, and push technology, companies are striving to seamlessly incorporate the latest technology into their CRM systems. In particular, salespeople frequently depend on con- tinually updated software programs to better respond to their customers and build enduring customer relationships (Kotler 2004, p. 141). CRM technology helps companies and their salespeople collect, analyze, and distribute information for enhanced prospecting, improved communication and sales presentations, and tailored product configurations. It also fa- cilitates cross-referencing of customers within divisions of a company for greater sales opportunities (Widmier, Jackson, and Mccabe 2002). Among the major outcomes sought by incorporating CRM-based technology are enhanced customer satisfaction, higher customer retention, and more profitable long-term customer relationships (Butler 2000). In summary, successful CRM implementations depend on combining the four aforementioned dimensions-focusing on key customers, organizing around CRM, managing knowledge, and incorporating CRM-based technology-into an effective over- all CRM strategy. Deficiencies in any of these areas can render the firm’s CRM endeavors attenuated or even ineffectual.
Cele patru dimensiuni ale CRM Implementari
Concentrându-se pe Clien?ii cheie
O structura orientata spre client, cultura, politica, ?i recompensa sis-tem ar trebui sa patrunda orice organiza?ie care se straduie?te de implementat CRM cu succes (Ryals ?i Knox 2001, Sheth, Sisodia, ?i Sharma 2000). Toate interac?iunile cu clien?ii-cheie, care sunt adesea identificate de “calcule de valoare durata de via?a,” trebuie sa reflecte pe deplin acest lucru la nivel de companie CRM focalizare (Jain ?i Singh 2002, Schmid ?i Weber 1998). Scopul final este de a realiza rela?ii cu clien?ii profunde prin care vânzatorul organi-zarea devine indispensabil pentru cele mai profitabile personalizate-rilor sale (Vandermerwe 2004). Echipat cu în?elegere la nivel de companie ?i de sprijin intern pentru rela?ii cu clien?ii-cheie-nave, for?a de vânzari, în general, este mai bine activat ?i motiva?i pentru a cultiva rela?ii cu clien?ii pe termen lung, prin oferirea de produse mai personalizate ?i servicii (Armstrong ?i Kotler 2003, p. 514;. Srinivasan , Anderson, ?i Ponnavolu 2002
Organizarea Aproximativ CRM
Cu un accent puternic pe clien?ii-cheie profund integrate de-a lungul sistemului de CRM, întreaga societate ar trebui sa fie organizat în jurul cultivarea acestor rela?ii valoroase. Structura organizatorica trebuie sa fie flexibila ?i, daca este necesar, reconstruit pentru a genera valori centrate pe client (Homburg, Workman, ?i Jensen 2000) ?i de a îmbunata?i coordonarea, echipele de eco-func?ionale orientata spre client (Brown 2000, Homburg, Workman, ?i Jensen 2000 Sheth ?i Sisodia 2002). Pentru a avea succes CRM, exista, de asemenea, trebuie sa existe un angajament la nivel de organiza?ie de resurse. Cu eforturi concertate de toate func?iile de organizare pentru a oferi în mod continuu un flux de ac?iuni cu valoare bogata ?i rezultatele clien?ilor (Ahmed ?i Rafiq 2003; GroÉnroos 1990), compania ?i for?a de vânzari sunt siguri ca ei pot satisface nevoile clien?ilor ?i de a spori rela?iile cu clien?ii.
gestionarea de cuno?tin?e
În strânsa legatura cu managementul cuno?tin?elor, CRM de succes se bazeaza pe transformarea in mod eficient in-forma?ii client la client cuno?tin?e (Freeland 2003; Peppard 2000 Plessis ?i Boon 2004; Stefanou, Sarmaniotis, ?i Stafyla 2003; Stringfellow, Nie, ?i Bowen 2004). În mod specific, pentru a spori profitabilitatea clientului, informa?ii despre personalizate-ers ar trebui sa fie colectate prin interac?iuni sau puncte de contact din toate func?iile sau zone ale firmei (Brohman ?.a.. 2003), astfel încât o vedere client de 360 ??de grade este stabilit, men?inut, ?i actualizate continuu (Fox ?i Stead 2001). Cunoa?tere a clientului, prin urmare, trebuie sa fie împarta?ite ?i diseminate în întreaga organiza?ie (Peppard 2000 Ryals ?i Knox 2001), a generat pentru a raspunde nevoilor actuale ?i anticipate clien?ilor. Vânzatorii sunt apoi echipate cu o multitudine de valoroasa cunoa?tere a clientului pentru a adapta cu meticulozitate de marketing ofera pentru a se potrivi nevoilor idiosincratice ale fiecarui client (Arm-puternic ?i Kotler 2003, p.. 514).
Încorporeaza tehnologie CRM-Based
Multe activita?i orientate spre CRM, cum ar fi cuno?tin?e management, nu poate fi optimizat fara pârghie cele mai recente ale tehnologiei. Într-adevar, cele mai multe aplica?ii CRM avea un mare avantaj de inova?ii tehnologice, cu capacitatea lor de a colecta ?i analiza date privind modelele clientului, dezvolta predic?ie mod-Els, raspunde cu comunica?iile în timp util ?i eficiente personalizate, ?i sa livreze eficient oferte personalizate de valoare pentru clien?ii individuali (Peppard 2000; Vrechopoulos 2004). Odata cu dezvoltarea de informa?ii sofisticat management de instrumente, cum ar fi de marketing de baze de date, depozite de date, data mining, ?i împinge tehnologie, companiile se straduiesc sa includa perfect cele mai recente tehnologii în sistemele lor CRM. În special, agen?ii de vânzari depinde adesea pe programe software-con urmarind continuu actualizat pentru a raspunde mai bine pentru clien?ii lor ?i de a construi rela?ii cu clien?ii de durata (Kotler 2004, p.. 141). Tehnologia CRM ajuta companiile ?i agen?ii de vânzari lor de a colecta, analiza, ?i a distribui informa?ii pentru prospectare sporita, îmbunata?irea comunicarii ?i prezentari de vânzari, ?i configura?ii de produse adaptate. Este, de asemenea, fa-cilitates cross-referin?e de clien?i într-divizii de o companie pentru oportunita?i mai mari de vânzare (Widmier, Jackson, ?i McCabe 2002). Printre cele mai importante rezultate solicitate prin incorporarea tehnologiei CRM bazate pe sunt cre?terea satisfac?iei clien?ilor, pastrarea clien?ilor mai mare, ?i rela?ii mai profitabile cu clien?ii pe termen lung (Butler 2000). În rezumat, implementarile CRM de succes depinde de combinarea patru dimensiuni-concentrându-se mai sus pe clien?ii-cheie, organizarea în jurul CRM, gestionarea cuno?tin?elor, ?i care încorporeaza tehnologia în CRM bazate pe o strategie eficienta de peste-tot CRM. Deficien?e în oricare dintre aceste domenii pot face eforturile firmei CRM atenuate sau chiar ineficient. To Explore Hotel Service Factors Effect on Increasing Tourist Loyalty-Malaysia Evidence Stank ?.a.., (1999) defined service performance as the level of a service which categorized into two important level: operational performance which is related to physical aspect of service and relational performance which is related to the service delivery process. Parasuraman ?.a.. (1988) provided the SERVQUAL as a multi-item scale to assess customer perception of quality of provided service. This scale has five aspects: tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy which can provide operational definition of service quality. Therefore modified scales based on specific hotels are suitable for operational definition for service quality. Valuable model is provided by Kano (1984) to help analysis customer satisfaction. This model include classifications: attractive quality (A), one dimensional quality (O), must be quality (M), indifferent quality (I) and reverse quality(R). Skogland & siguaw (2004) provided an useful instrument to evaluate customer loyalty in hotel industry.
There are several studies about service quality and its affect on customer satisfaction (Hsieh ?.a.., 2008; Senga ?.a..; 2007 and Tsung ?.a.., 2008) especially some research provided information about the effect of hotel`s services on visitors (Barros & Mascarenhas 2005; Hawang & Chang, 2003 and Wang ?.a.., 2006). They tried to realize important aspects of service in different companies by which customers are satisfied or not. Some models are designed to evaluate service such as SERVQUAL provided by Parasuraman (1988). They defined quality as the gap between customer’s expectation and perceptions. Service quality is the most important part of hotels to be profitable and to grow in tourism industry (Senga ?.a.., 2007). Hsieh (2008) believed that dimensions of service quality provided by Parasuraman and his college must be concerned she argued that this aspects are reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security, understanding and knowing the customer and tangible. Amjad & Mamoun (2011) believe three factors in hotel services are important to attract tourists to be loyal, reputation building, nonverbal communication and customer service culture. According to Tsung ?.a.. (2008) enhancing facilities and requirements for customers in these days, which called as customers-based service, help to raise customer loyalty. Physical evidence plays vital role to provide qualified service in hotels and as Berry ?.a.. (2007) argued, the quality of services is not determined only by one aspect of that and whole service package is necessary. Although there is not agreement about the relationship between the constructs of service quality with customer satisfaction, both of them affect future tourist selection (Tian & Crompton, 2003). In addition, personnel play the vital role to improve customer’s satisfaction in hotels. Simon ?2000? believes that interaction with service personnel is affect guest satisfaction. He argues that if tourists perceive that employees` behavior is unethical, it influences the whole assessment of the hotels` service and they will downgrade the quality of received service. So, ethical standard for employees plays the important role in presenting warm equitable and good service for all guests. Although tourists prefer to receive qualified service, authenticity of displayed service is more important and it affects on customer’s satisfaction Grandey ?.a.. (2005). Therefore based on previous research it is clear that service quality is very important for both customers and hotel managers to have long term relationship with together. So in this research try to realize the affects of five important aspects of service quality includes process, personnel, place switching cost and past experience on customer length of stay and revisit the hotel and finally try to realize the affect of these factors on customer loyalty. To analysis service quality previous models and theories must be concerned such as: GAP (Cronin & Tylor, 1994), SERVQUAL, DEA (Kao, 2009) and KANO (Kano, 1984). These models and theories are useful for this research and try to merge all these models to obtain model and framework which is suitable for studying in Malaysian hotels. It is argued that by providing more qualified services in hotel they can attract more tourists or encourage them to stay more or rebook this hotel for next time. On other word, by providing more qualified service they make tourists loyal to their hotel hence improve their profitability and help country to attract more tourist and receive to predicted plan. In fact 78% of executives in western countries and Japan believe that the key factor in hotel to compete with others is service improvement (Chen, 2005). Since 1920s when the first service research had started (Atilla, 2006), so many researches has carried out about service quality and customer loyalty (such as: Smith and Lewis, 1989; Quinn and Humble, 1993; and Sara T. ?.a.., 2012), however, from the literature review it is realized that there is a little researches have designed to investigate the relationship between service quality and customer loyalty in hotels specially in Malaysian hotels. Stank ?.a. (1999) au definit performan?a serviciilor ca un nivel de servicii care ar fi clasificate în doua nivele importante: performan?a opera?ionala, care este legata de aspectul fizic al serviciilor ?i performan?a rela?ionala, care se refera la procesul de prestare de servicii. Parasuraman ?.a. (1988) au oferit SERVQUAL-ul ca o scara formata din multe elemente pentru a evalua percep?ia clientului privind calitatea serviciului furnizat. Aceasta scara are cinci aspecte: tangibilitate, fiabilitate, receptivitate, asigurare ?i empatie, care definesc dimensiunea opera?ionala a calita?ii serviciilor. Prin urmare, scarile modificate în func?ie de specificitatea hotelurilor sunt potrivite pentru defini?ia “opera?ionala” a serviciilor de calitate. Un model valoros este furnizat de catre Kano (1984) pentru a contribui la analiza satisfac?iei clien?ilor. Acest model con?ine urmatoarele clasificari: calitate atractiva (A), o calitate dimensionala (O), trebuie sa fie de calitate (M), indiferent de calitate (I) ?i calitate reversibila (R).
Exista mai multe studii cu privire la calitatea serviciilor ?i influen?a ei asupra satisfac?iei clientelei (Hsieh ?.a., 2008;. Senga ?.a., 2007 ?i Tsung ?.a., 2008), unele cercetari, îndeosebi, au oferit informa?ii cu privire la efectul serviciilor hoteliere asupra vizitatorilor (Barros & Mascarenhas 2005; Hwang & Chang, 2003 ?i Wang ?.a., 2006.). Ei au încercat sa realizeze aspectele importante ale serviciului în diferite companii, care satisfac sau nu clien?ii. Unele modele sunt concepute pentru a evalua serviciul, cum ar fi modelul SERVQUAL furnizat de Parasuraman (1988). Ei au definit calitatea ca decalajul dintre a?teptari ?i percep?ii ale clientului. Calitatea serviciilor este cel mai important element în hoteluri, care le fac profitabile ?i produc cre?tere în industria turismului (Senga ?.a.., 2007). Hsieh (2008) crede ca dimensiunile calita?ii serviciilor oferite de Parasuraman ?i colegii lui trebuie sa fie în corela?ie cu a?a aspecte ca fiabilitatea, receptivitatea, competen?a, accesibilitatea, curtoazie, comunicarea, credibilitatea, securitatea, în?elegerea ?i cunoa?terea clientului. Amjad & Mamoun (2011) considera ca exista trei factori importan?i în managementul serviciilor hoteliere pentru a fideliza clien?ii: construirea reputa?iei, comunicarea nonverbala ?i cultura serviciului clien?i. Conform Tsung ?.a. (2008), îmbunata?irea facilita?ilor ?i necesita?ilor clien?ilor, proces numit serviciu bazat pe clien?i (customers-based service), contribuie la cre?terea loialita?ii clien?ilor. Berry ?.a. (2007) argumenteaza ca dovezile fizice joaca un rol vital în prestarea serviciilor calificate în hoteluri, calitatea serviciilor nu este determinata doar de un singur aspectm este necesar întreg pachetul de servicii. Tian & Crompton (2003) considera ca alegerea hotelurilor este dependenta de determinan?i ca satisfac?ia clientului ?i calitatea serviciilor. În plus, în hoteluri personalul joaca rolul vital la îmbunata?irea satisfac?iei clien?ilor. Simon (2000) considera ca interac?iunea cu personalul ce presteaza serviciul afecteaza satisfac?ia clien?ilor. El sus?ine ca în cazul în care ospe?ii percep ca comportamentul angaja?ilor este lipsit de etica, aceasta influen?eaza evaluarea în integritate a serviciilor hotelurilor, retrogradând calitatea serviciilor primite. Deci, standardul etic pentru angaja?i joaca un rol important în oferirea unui serviciu calduros, echitabil ?i bun tuturor clien?ilor. Grandey ?.a.. (2005) considera ca, de?i clien?ii prefera sa primeasca un serviciu calificat, autenticitatea serviciului prestat este mai importanta, aceasta afectând satisfac?ia clientului. Prin urmare, dupa cum este relatat anterior, este clar ca se considera foarte importanta calitatea serviciilor atât pentru clien?i, cât ?i pentru managerii hotelieri, pentru a avea rela?ii durabile.
Referitor la calitatea serviciilor, în literatura de specialitate se întâlnesc teorii ?i modele, cum ar fi: GAP (Cronin & Tylor, 1994), SERVQUAL, DEA (Kao, 2009) ?i KANO (Kano, 1984).
Se sus?ine ca prin furnizarea de servicii mai calificate la hotel se pot atrage mai mul?i turi?ti sau sa le încurajeze sa ramâna mai mult sau reprogrameze acest hotel pentru data viitoare. Altfel spus, furnizarea serviciilor calificate fidelizeaza clien?ii hotelieri, fapt ce contribuie la imbunata?irea profitabilita?ii întreprinderii ?i spore?te atragerea turi?tilor în ?ara. Business processes in a hotel in order to fulfill the expectations and request of guests, the management system in a hotel must be developed, documented, implemented and managed in such way to ensure realisation of the actual and foreseen guests requests. In order to create completely controlled environment for developing a business process in a hotel, it is necessary that hotel business processes be: named, described, structured / organised, controlled, managed and always improving. In order to fulfil it, hotel business processes need to be conceived, i.e. developed accordingly methodology.

the process approach has the advantage of permanent managing of links between – particular processes (within the process structure), which is the structural element of hotel management system – and – combination and mutual interaction of these elements. When applying in hotel quality management system, this process approach underlines the importance of the followings:
understanding and meeting of guests requests
need of supervision of business processes in value added conditions
achieving results of business processes and their efficiency
permanent improvement of business processes, based on impartial estimation
Regardless of many types of business processes, and many diversities of process structures, all business processes in hotel can be divided in three types:
management processes – are important for progress of core business processes, as well as support processes.
core processes – are focused on the achievement of satisfaction of customers. They directly add new value to the product / service. They meet requests of hotel guests and are generator of their contentment. Are processes of fulfillment or realisation, are business process whose result – in form of product or service has direct value confirmation on the market.
support processes which are also called logistical or resourceful business process, are directed towards producing satisfaction of internal users within hotel organisational structure. They are able to create value for the guests. However, this influence on making added value is indirect and is fulfilled through support of core business processes.

At identifying business processes in a hotel and dividing them into types, it is necessary to avoid identification of business function and business process in a hotel. Essential differences are at least these that follows:
– business function is static category, while business process is dinamic category
– business process is mostly operated within one structural hotel unit, and is usually named after it, while process implies more participants from more structural units
– business function is operated whithin a hotel, while process can have participants from outside of hotel structural organisation, but who are important for progress of concrete business process
– business function is run by functional manager, and process is run by business process manager, and identification of these roles must not be a rule, but an exception
– business function is one of the inner aspects of supervision of costs, quality costs as well, while function is not. Pentru a satisface a?teptarile ?i necesita?ile oaspe?ilor, sistemul de management într-un hotel trebuie sa fie dezvoltat, documentat, implementat ?i gestionat în a?a fel încât sa fie asigurata realizarea cererilor reale ?i prevazute ale clien?ilor. În scopul de a crea un mediu controlat în întregime pentru dezvoltarea unui proces de afaceri într-un hotel, este necesar ca procesele de afaceri sa fie definite, descrise, structurate / organizate, controlate, administrate ?i îmbunata?ite mereu.
Abordarea procesuala are avantajul de gestionare permanenta a legaturilor dintre procesele particulare, care sunt elementul structural al sistemului de management hotelier, ?i combinarea ?i interac?iunea reciproca a acestor elemente. Atunci când se aplica în sistemul de management al calita?ii în hotel, aceasta abordare procesuala subliniaza importan?a urmatoarelor aspecte:
– în?elegerea ?i anticiparea cererilor clien?ilor
– nevoia de supraveghere a proceselor de afaceri în condi?iile de monitorizare a valorii adaugate
– ob?inerea unor rezultate din procesele de afaceri ?i considerarea eficien?ei acestora
– îmbunata?irea continua a proceselor de afaceri bazate pe estimare impar?iala
Indiferent de existen?a multor tipuri de procese de afaceri ?i a multor ?i diverselor structuri procesuale, toate procesele de afaceri într-un hotel pot fi împar?ite în trei tipuri:
– procesele de management – sunt importante pentru progresul proceselor de afaceri de baza, precum ?i a celor de suport
– procesele de baza – sunt axate pe realizarea satisfac?iei clien?ilor. Ele adauga direct valoare noua produsului / serviciului. Ele servesc la anticiparea cererilor aspe?ilor hotelului ?i sunt generatoare de satisfac?ie a acestora. Sunt procese de execu?ie sau realizare, sunt procese de afaceri al carui rezultat, sub forma de produs sau serviciu, are o confirmare directa pe pia?a a valorii.
– procesele de suport, care sunt, de asemenea, numite procese de business sau resurse logistice, sunt orientate spre producerea de satisfac?ie a utilizatorilor interni în cadrul structurii organizatorice a hotelului. Ele sunt capabile sa creeze valoare pentru oaspe?i. Cu toate acestea, influen?a asupra valorii adaugate este indirecta ?i este realizata prin sprijinirea proceselor de afaceri de baza.
Identificând procesele de afaceri într-un hotel ?i împar?indu-le în tipuri, este necesar sa se evite identificarea func?iei de afaceri ?i a proceselor de afaceri în hotel. Diferen?ele esen?iale sunt cel pu?in cele care urmeaza:
– func?ia de afaceri este categorie statica, în timp ce procesul de afaceri este categorie dinamica
– func?ia de afaceri este operata, în mare parte, într-o unitate structurala din hotel ?i este, de obicei, numita în func?i de ea, în timp ce procesul implica mai mul?i participan?i din mai multe unita?i structurale
– func?ia de afaceri este operata în hotel, în timp ce procesul poate avea participan?i din afara structurii organiza?ionale a hotelului, dar care sunt importan?i pentru progresul unui concret proces de afaceri
– func?ia de afaceri este condusa de managerul func?ional, iar procesul este condus de manager de proces de afaceri; identificarea acestor roluri nu trebuie sa fie o regula, ci o excep?ie
– procesul de afaceri, în compara?ie cu func?ia, reprezinta unul din aspectele interne de supraveghere a costurilor, inclusiv a costurile calita?ii
– ca urmare a tuturor acestor diferen?e, func?ia este un concept mai restrâns decât procesul Influence of Customer Relationship Management on consumer loyalty The advantage of customization use for manufacturers consists in the increasing “the cost of changing vendors” for customers and premises to create loyalty to the brand (Gray & Byun 2001, p.29).
The disadvantage of customization strategy is that consumers preferences are often influenced by fashion and trends, and it’s hard to customize the company’s products respectively. Therefore some scientists argue that it’s much more important to provide “the right products and services at the right time or moment” rather than to stake only on the individualization of products/services (Gray & Byun 2001, p.42).

The reaction of customers for company’s intrusion in their lives, for instance in the form of unwanted mails or calls, can take different forms: from simple irritation to the feelings of violation, fear of harm and nightmarish visions (Stanley 2000).

The debate about privacy issues tries to clarify how much control web users should obtain in regards to their private information. Companies argue that the more information they get, the better they can satisfy customers needs. The opponents provide for consideration two options: • “Opt-in”: customers have to agree for the collection of their private information or a certain amount of it, filling in the “customer consent form”. This opportunity gives consumers more control and rights due to the use of their information, builds thrust between the company and its’ customers. The disadvantage of this option from the companies’ view is that the amount of this information will not be enough for creating an in-depth database. • “Opt-out”: customers prohibit the usage of any private information. However, in reality it does not stop the company from collecting personal data; customers simply lose control over the process (Winer 2001). Avantajul de utilizare personalizare pentru producatori consta în cre?terea “costul de schimbare furnizori” pentru clien?i ?i spa?ii pentru a crea loialitatea fa?a de brand (Gray & Byun 2001, p.29).
Dezavantajul de strategie de personalizare este ca preferin?ele consumatorilor sunt adesea influen?ate de moda ?i tendin?e, ?i este greu de a personaliza produsele companiei respectiv. De aceea, unii oameni de stiinta sustin ca este mult mai important sa se asigure “produsele ?i serviciile potrivite la momentul potrivit sau momentul”, mai degraba decât de a miza doar pe individualizarea de produse / servicii (Gray & Byun 2001, p.42).

Reac?ia de clienti pentru intruziune companie în via?a lor, de exemplu, sub forma de e-mailuri nedorite sau apeluri, poate lua diferite forme: de la iritare simplu la sentimentele de încalcare, teama de rau ?i de co?mar viziuni (Stanley 2000).

Dezbaterea cu privire la problemele de confiden?ialitate încearca sa clarifice modul în care utilizatorii de mult de web de control ar trebui sa ob?ina în ceea ce prive?te informa?iile lor private. Companiile sus?in ca mai mult informa?iile pe care le ob?ine, cu atât mai bine se pot satisface nevoile clien?ilor. Adversarii prevad considerare doua op?iuni: • “Opt-in”: clien?ii trebuie sa fie de acord pentru colectarea de informa?ii lor privat sau o anumita cantitate de ea, completarea “formular de consim?amânt client”. Aceasta oportunitate ofera consumatorilor mai mult control ?i drepturi ca urmare a utilizarii informa?iilor lor, construie?te trac?iune între companie ?i clien?ii sai “. Dezavantajul acestei op?iuni de vizualizare a companiilor este ca suma acestor informa?ii nu vor fi de ajuns pentru a crea o baza de date în profunzime. • “Opt-out”: clien?ii sa interzica utilizarea de informa?ii private. Cu toate acestea, în realitate, ea nu se opre?te compania de colectare a datelor cu caracter personal; clien?ii î?i pierd pur ?i simplu controlul asupra procesului (Winer 2001). http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-disadvantages-of-customer-relationship-management.htm
Some of the main disadvantages of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) occur when professionals do not use software in a way that is beneficial to their organizations. When salespeople neglect to update customer records, for example, the software ends up costing more than it benefits a business. A customer relationship management system that is incorrectly implemented can also cause problems for a business. If an executive decides to implement this kind of system, for instance, but does not include all departments, the information generated by can be inaccurate. Some opponents point to other disadvantages of customer relationship management, such as the depersonalization of sales processes, the difficulties of implementing these systems into preexisting business systems, and the comparatively time consuming tasks associated with retrieving and recording data.
Customer relationship management is a strategy that allows sales and marketing professionals to record, access, and track information related to customers and potential clients. This strategy normally requires use of computer programs that allow users to keep records that can help professionals to determine how to sell and market to new clients and how to satisfy current customers. Proponents of customer relationship management believe that is a more cost effective way for service and retail professionals to increase profitability.
One of the most commonly cited disadvantages of CRM is that it can lead to dehumanization in sales processes. Instead of learning from firsthand experience which services and products clients prefer, salespeople access information digitally stored in databases. Some professionals believe that selling is most effective when sales professionals are able to appeal to clients at a visceral level.
Some critics point to the the technical disadvantages of customer relationship management. In most cases, these systems are implemented into business systems that may already include a complicated network of software and hardware. Some sales professionals have found that customer relationship management systems may not be compatible with other management systems. This can lead to confusion among users, and inconsistent results.
One of the most commonly cited advantages of customer relationship management is that it helps organizations cut costs and become more efficient. Detractors, however, believe that the opposite is true. The amount of time it can take for professionals to access and record data is thought by some to be greater than the time it takes to use conventional filing methods. Other detractors point to the time and money required to train employees to use new software. Unele dintre principalele dezavantaje ale Managementul rela?iilor cu clien?ii (CRM) apar atunci când profesioni?tii nu utiliza software-ul într-un mod care este benefic pentru organiza?iile lor. Când agen?ii de vânzari neglijeaza sa actualizeze înregistrarile clien?ilor, de exemplu, software-ul se termina prin a costa mai mult decât aceasta beneficiaza o afacere. Un sistem de management al rela?iilor cu clien?ii, care este pusa în aplicare în mod incorect poate provoca, de asemenea, probleme pentru o afacere. În cazul în care un executiv decide sa puna în aplicare acest tip de sistem, de exemplu, dar nu include toate departamentele, informa?iile generate de pot fi inexacte. Unele adversarii punctul de alte dezavantaje de management al rela?iilor cu clien?ii, cum ar fi depersonalizarea proceselor de vânzare, dificulta?ile de implementare a acestor sisteme în sistemele de afaceri preexistente, precum ?i sarcinile relativ consumatoare de timp asociate cu preluarea ?i înregistrarea datelor.
Managementul relatiilor cu clientii este o strategie care permite de vânzari ?i de marketing profesionisti pentru a înregistra, acces, ?i sa urmareasca informa?iile legate de clien?i ?i poten?iali clien?i. Aceasta strategie necesita în mod normal utilizarea de programe de calculator care permit utilizatorilor sa ?ina eviden?e care pot ajuta profesionistii pentru a determina cum sa-?i vânda ?i pia?a de noi clienti si cum pentru a satisface clientii actuali. Sustinatorii de management al rela?iilor cu clien?ii cred ca este un cost-eficient mod mai mult pentru servicii ?i profesioni?ti de vânzare cu amanuntul pentru a cre?te profitabilitatea.
Una dintre cele mai frecvent citate dezavantaje ale CRM este ca aceasta poate duce la dezumanizare în procesele de vânzari. În loc de a înva?a din experien?a de prima mana care serviciile si clientii produse prefera, acces la informa?ie agen?ii de vânzari stocate digital în baze de date. Unii specialisti cred ca vânzarea este cel mai eficient atunci când profesioni?ti de vânzari sunt în masura sa faca apel la clienti la un nivel visceral.
Unii critici punct de dezavantajele tehnice de gestionare a rela?iilor cu clien?ii. În cele mai multe cazuri, aceste sisteme sunt puse în aplicare în sisteme de afaceri care pot include deja o re?ea complicata de software ?i hardware. Unii profesioni?ti de vânzari au constatat ca sistemele de management al rela?iilor cu clien?ii nu poate fi compatibil cu alte sisteme de management. Acest lucru poate duce la confuzii în rândul utilizatorilor, ?i rezultate contradictorii.
Unul dintre avantajele cele mai frecvent citate de management al rela?iilor cu clien?ii este acela ca ajuta organiza?iile reduce costurile ?i sa devina mai eficiente. Detractorii, cu toate acestea, cred ca opusul este adevarat. Durata de timp poate dura de profesioni?ti pentru a accesa ?i datele de înregistrare este considerat de unii a fi mai mare decât timpul necesar de a utiliza metode de depunere conven?ionale. Alte detractorii indica timpul ?i banii necesari pentru a instrui angajatii pentru a utiliza software-ul nou.