Performance of Single Cylinder

Performance of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine
Objective- “Performance of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine using Blends of Jatropha and Karanja Biodiesel with Diesel & 100% Karanja Biodiesel and Jatropha Biodiesel.”
Scope- 4S Single Cylinder Diesel Engine.
Engine Specifications:
Type- AV1, Single Cylinder Water Cooled Diesel Engine
Bore- 85mm
Stroke- 110mm
Capacity- 624.19cc
Power- 3.75kW
Make- Kirloskar
Output- Project outcomes can be interpreted with the diesel fuel for different blend ratio with which blending % for which engine performance will be satisfactory can be judged and these blending % can be recommended for the use under certain conditions. Also project may be use full for the comparison of different other fuel blends in future and or certain modifications to the engine can be suggested for obtaining better results with higher blend ratio.

Project Team
Student Name Sisode Ganesh U.
Roll No. 43
Exam No. 47933
Student Name Pawar Pradip S.
Roll No. 41
Exam No. 47903
Student Name Thakare Jayesh A.
Roll No. 55
Exam No. 47935
Project Resources Required
* Engine
* Air Box
* Calorimeter
* Fuel Blends
* Testing Foundation
* Measurement of calorific value for fuels
* Properties of fuels

Project Goals-
Analyzing the performance of Diesel & IC Engine using Blends of Karanja Biodiesel, Jatropha Biodiesel & 100% Karanja Biodiesel, Jatropha Biodiesel.
Biodiesel is one such alternate fuel which is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils or recycled restaurant greases. Biodiesel is safe, biodegradable, and reduces serious air pollutants, such as, particulates, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and air toxics. Blends of 20% biodiesel with 80% petroleum diesel (B-20) can be used in unmodified diesel engines, or biodiesel can be used in its pure form (B-100), but may require certain engine modifications to avoid maintenance and performance problems. Biodiesel has a high flashpoint and low volatility so it does not ignite as easily as conventional diesel, which increases the margin of safety in fuel handling. Biodiesel degrades four times faster than conventional diesel and is not particularly soluble in water. It is nontoxic, which makes it safe to handle, transport, and store. When blended with petrodiesel, the spills petrodiesel portion is still a problem, but less so than with 100% petrodiesel
The aim of the project is to analyze the engine performance for different blends of Biodiesel (B20 to B100) and comparing the performance of engine with respect to pure diesel engine under the same loading considerations (load varies from 10 % to 80%) and comparing the performance with respect to Break Power, Mean Effective Pressure, Fuel Consumption, Break Thermal Efficiency, Volumetric Efficiency, Mechanical Efficiency, A/F ratio, Temperature of exhaust gas.

ABSTRACT
3.75 kW diesel engine AV1 Single Cylinder water cooled, Kirloskar Make was used to test blends of diesel with kerosene and Ethanol. Engine test setup was developed to carry the trials using these blends. This paper presents a study report on the performance of IC engine using blends of Jatropha & Karanja with diesel with various blending ratio. The engine performance studies were conducted with rope break dynamometer setup. Parameters like speed of engine, fuel consumption and torque were measured at different loads for pure diesel and various combination of dual fuel. Break Power, BSFC, BTE and heat balance were calculated. Paper represents the test results for blends B20, B40, B60, B80 & B100.

Keywords: IC Engine, Diesel, Blends, fuel properties, heat balance, engine performance
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview of Biodiesel
Review of World fuel data
Present scenario of petroleum consumption is as shown in table given bellow

India Energy Data Petroleum (Thousand
Barrels per Day) 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Total Oil Production (Production of crude oil including lease condensate, natural gas plant liquids, and other liquids, and refinery processing gain (loss). Negative value indicates refinery processing loss.) 329.4 394.5 485 525 626 645.7

626.8 654.5 723.7 681.8 639.2 602.06 577.5 650.6 769.7 Crude Oil Production (Includes lease condensate.) 325 390 480 519 620 630 609 635 700 660 615 561.1 534 590 703.5 Consumption (Consumption of petroleum products and direct combustion of crude oil.) 729 737 773 824 895 947 988 1084 1150 1168 1190 1275 1311 1413 1575 Net Exports/Imports
(-) (Net Exports = Total Oil Production-Consumption. Negative numbers are Net Imports.) -400 -343 -288 -299 -269 -302 -361 -429 -426 -487 -551 -673 -734 -763 -805 Total Oil Exports to U.S. (Total crude oil and petroleum products. Data through 2007 is currently available.) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Refinery Capacity (Crude oil distillation capacity as of January 1. Sources: U.S. data from EIA; Other countries from Oil & Gas Journal.) 557 557 753 779 705 867 991 1059 1051 1080 1122 1122 1047 1086 1086 Proved Reserves (Billion Barrels) (As of January 1. Sources: U.S. data from EIA; Other countries from Oil & Gas Journal.) 2.58 2.672 3.41 3.48 3.5 3.73 4.20 4.25 6.354 7.516 7.997 6.127 6.049 5.921 5.776

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 750.86 779.62 761.31 764.78 770.05 781.63 812.67 815.03 851.34 835.16 854.19 881.11 883.51 651.02 674.62 661.42 652.66 646.34 642.4 664.75 660.03 683.11 664.66 688.61 697.53 693.71 1681 1765 1844 2031 2127 2184 2263 2346 2430 2512 2658 2800 2940 -930 -986 -1083 -1266 -1357 -1402 -1451 -1531 -1578 -1677 -1804 -1919 -2056 4 5 0 1 6 14 21 20 12 28 12 29 NA 1086 1086 1086 1142 1858 2113 2135 2135 2135 2255 2255 2256 2256 5.814 4.333 4.34 3.972 4.838 4.728 4.84 5.367 5.371 5.417 5.848 5.625 5.625

Reference – Sources: EIA, International Energy Annual, Short Term Energy Outlook, Table 3a, Table 3b
With reference to rate of consumption of petroleum fuels which has been increased from 329.4 (1981) to 883.51 (2008) (thousands barrel per day) which is now alarming situation to search for alternative fuels since proved reserve for the same are 5.625 Billion Barrels only.

Biodiesel is one such alternate fuel which is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils or recycled restaurant greases. Biodiesel is safe, biodegradable, and reduces serious air pollutants, such as, particulates, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and air toxics. Blends of 20% biodiesel with 80% petroleum diesel (B-20) can be used in unmodified diesel engines, or biodiesel can be used in its pure form (B-100), but may require certain engine modifications to avoid maintenance and performance problems. Biodiesel has a high flashpoint and low volatility so it does not ignite as easily as conventional diesel, which increases the margin of safety in fuel handling. Biodiesel degrades four times faster than conventional diesel and is not particularly soluble in water. It is nontoxic, which makes it safe to handle, transport, and store. When blended with petrodiesel, the spill.s petrodiesel portion is still a problem, but less so than with 100% petrodiesel

1.2 Biodiesel
Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources.Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transeterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil.
Biodiesel generally refers to the mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids, and can be derived from a variety of vegetable oils and animal fats. Stated simply, it is the product of a chemical reaction between the basic feedstock (vegetable oil or animal fat) and alcohol (in commercial applications usually methanol) in the presence of a catalyst (usually sodium or potassium hydroxide) (Gerpen). The reaction results in a compound called fatty acid alkyl ester (the biodiesel product) and a byproduct called glycerol.
In general, the energy yield of the biodiesel process is significantly greater than that of other bio-fuels (for example, ethanol). Current technology yields about 3.2 units of energy for every unit of energy consumed in the production process. In comparison, the return from ethanol production is less than 1.5 units of energy for each unit consumed in the manufacturing process.
The general conversion of feedstock to biodiesel is:
100 lbs. of feedstock + 10 lbs. of methanol ? 100 lbs. of biodiesel + 10 lbs. of glycerol
However, there is some variation depending on the specific feedstock used. The most common feedstock in the US is soybean oil, with other feedstocks being corn oil, canola oil, cottonseed oil, recycled restaurant oils (fry oil, etc), tallow and lard, grease recovered from restaurants, and float grease from waste water treatment plants. Most biodiesel in Europe is made from rapeseed oil. Alternative diesel fuel consisting of fatty acid esters produced by esterification of triglycerides which make up vegetable oils or animal fats.
•Bio diesel is the most efficient and valuable alternative sourceof diesel engine fuel.
•It is eco-friendly and its performance is exactly similar to the petro-diesel.
•It can be produced from renewable biological sources like edibleand non-edible oils.
•Fuels derive from renewable biological resources for use in diesel engines are known as Biodiesel Fuels.
•Animal fats, virgin and recycled vegetable oils derived from crops such as soybeans, canola, corn, sunflower, and some 30 others can also be used in the production of biodieselfuel. Tall oil produced from wood pulp wastes is yet another possible feedstock source.
•Biodiesel is a pure 100% fuel conforming to ASTM Specifications D 6751.
•It is referred to as B100 or “neat” biodiesel. A biodiesel blend is pure biodiesel blended with petrodiesel. Biodiesel blends are referred to as BXX. The “XX” indicates the amount of biodiesel in the blend.
In India, Jetropha, Karanja and Mahua trees has great potential for production of bio-fuels like bio-ethanol and biodiesel. The annual estimated potential is about 20 million tones per annum. In India, out of cultivated area,about 175 million hectares are classified as waste and degraded land, We can cultivate these crops very easily on this land. Biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels. I.e.transportation needs (cars, trucks, buses, airplanes, and trains).The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel.
The petroleum products play on important role in our modern life. The costs of these products depend on international markets and petroleum reserves are limited to nearly 30 years. India is projected to become the third largest consumer of transportation fuel in 2020, after the USA and China, with consumption growing at an annual rate of 6.8% from 1999 to 2020. India’s economy has often been unsettled by its need to import about 70% of its petroleum demand from the highly unstable and volatile world oil market (India, 2004). The acid rain, global warming and health hazards are the results of ill effects of increased polluted gases like Sox, CO and particulate matter in atmosphere. Rising petroleum prices, increasing threat to the environment from exhaust emissions and global warming have generated an intense international interest in developing alternative non-petroleum fuels for engines.

1.3 Production
Biodiesel is commonly produced by the transesterification of the vegetable oil or animal fat feedstock. There are several methods for carrying out this transesterification reaction including the common batch process, supercritical processes, ultrasonic methods, and even microwave methods.Chemically, transesterified biodiesel comprises a mix of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids. The most common form uses methanol (converted to sodium methoxide) to produce methyl esters as it is the cheapest alcohol available, though ethanol can be used to produce an ethyl ester biodiesel and higher alcohols such as isopropanol and butanol have also been used. Using alcohols of higher molecular weights improves the cold flow properties of the resulting ester, at the cost of a less efficient transesterification reaction.A lipid transesterification production process is used to convert the base oil to the desired esters. Any Free fatty acids (FFAs) in the base oil are either converted to soap and removed from the process, or they are esterified (yielding more biodiesel) using an acidic catalyst.After this processing, unlike straight vegetable oil, biodiesel has combustion properties very similar to those of petroleum diesel, and can replace it in most current uses.A by-product of the transesterification process is the production of glycerol. For every 1 tonne of biodiesel that is manufactured, 100 kg of glycerol are produced. Originally, there was a valuable market for the glycerol, which assisted the economics of the process as a whole. However, with the increase in global biodiesel production, the market price for this crude glycerol (containing 20% water and catalyst residues) has crashed. Research is being conducted globally to use this glycerol as a chemical building block. One initiative in the UK is The Glycerol Challenge.Usually this crude glycerol has to be purified, typically by performing vacuum distillation. This is rather energy intensive. The refined glycerol (98%+ purity) can then be utilised directly, or converted into other products. The following announcements were made in 2007: A joint venture of Ashland Inc. and Cargill announced plans to make propylene glycol in Europe from glycerol and Dow Chemical announced similar plans for North America. Dow also plans to build a plant in China to make epichlorhydrin from glycerol. Epichlorhydrin is a raw material for epoxy resins.

Differents methodologies used for production of Biodiesel are:
1.Direct use/Blending,
2.Micro-emulsion,
3.Pyrolysis,
4.Transesterfication.
Transesterfication was carried out in a system,as shown in Figure 1.Reactor consisted of spherical flask, which was put inside the heat jacket. Oil was used as medium of heat transfer from heat jacket to the reactor. Thermostat was a part of heat jacket, which maintained the temperature of oil and in turn the temperature of the reactants at a desired value. The reaction was carried out at around 65- 70(c). Spherical flask consisted of four openings. The center one was used for putting stirrer in the reactor. The motor propelled the stirrer. Thermometer was put inside the second opening to continuously monitor the temperature of the reaction. Alcohol being volatile vaporized during the reaction so the condenser was put in the third opening to reflux the vapors back to the reactor to prevent any reactant loss.Fourth opening was used for filling reactants to the reactor.

Figure 1
Although the species concerned are well known, there is a need to domesticate them for cultivation under different production systems on degraded lands & community wastelands. Determining the specific agro-climatic requirement,identifying superior seeds, proper space management,critical moisture regime for flower induction,enhancing the seeds yield & calculation of cost benefit analysis are essential before the farmers accept them as a production option.
The Indian Railways has taken the initiative to promote jatropha cultivation along the railways tracks and use biodiesel as engine fuel.They have successfully tested the biodiesel by running a Jana Shatabdi Express from Delhi to Chandigarh. Mahindra & Mahindra have trials for operting tractors on biodiesel. Daimaler Chrysler is sponsoring Jatropha production with a communication to run their cars on biodiesel.Use of biodiesel at the village level for operating oil engines that pump water,run small machinery & generate electricity is another possibility.
Jatropha oil was collected from a private firm Rural Community Action Centre, Erode and filtered for solid impurities. The curcas oil was transesterified using methanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide in the pilot biodiesel plant. Free Fatty Acid of jatropha oil used in the pilot biodiesel plant was less than 5 per cent. The molar ratio and sodium hydroxide amount used for biodiesel production were 1:6 and 0.8 (w/w), respectively. The fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel and its blends and diesel fuel are shown in Table 3.

1.4 Manufacturing in India
State-wise area for biodiesel plantation
Sr.No. State Area(ha)
1. Andhra Pradesh 44

2. Chhatisgarh 190

3. Gujarat 240

4. Haryana 140

5. Karnataka 80

6. Madhya Pradesh 260

7. Maharastra 150

8. Mizoram 20

9. Rajasthan 275

10. Tamil Nadu 60

11. Uttaranchal 50

12. Uttar Pradesh 200

13. Bihar 10

Table No. 1
1.5 Importance
Advantage of Biodiesel
1. National security- Since biodiesel is made domestically; biodiesel reduces our dependence on foreign oil. That’s good.
2. National economy- Using biodiesel keeps our fuel buying dollars at home instead of sending it to foreign countries. This reduces our trade deficit and creates jobs.
3. It’s sustainable & non-toxic.- Face it, we’re going to run out of oil eventually. Biodiesel is 100% renewable… we’ll never run out of biodiesel. And if biodiesel gets into your water supply, there’s no problem – it’s just modified veggie oil! Heck, you can drink biodiesel if you so desire, but it tastes nasty.
4. Emissions- Biodiesel is nearly carbon-neutral, meaning it contributes almost zero emissions to global warming! Biodiesel also dramatically reduces other emissions fairly dramatically.
5. Engine life- Studies have shown biodiesel reduces engine wear by as much as one half, primarily because biodiesel provides excellent lubricity. Even a 2% biodiesel/98% diesel blend will help.
6. Drivability- We have yet to meet anyone who doesn’t notice an immediate smoothing of the engine with biodiesel. Biodiesel just runs quieter, and produces less smoke.
* Biodiesel produces approximately 80% less carbon dioxide, almost 100% less Sulphurdioxide.
* Combustion of biodiesel alone produces over a 90% reduction in total unburned hydrocarbons, and a 75-90% reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons.
? Neat biodiesel fuel is non-toxic and biodegradable.
? Lubricity is improved over that of conventional diesel fuel.
? Bio-diesel is safe to handle and transport.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
D. Ramesh et.al. Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India, had reported a studies on,
“Investigations on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine with Jatropha Biodiesel and Its Blends”
A 5.2 kW diesel engine with alternator was used to test jatropha biodiesel and its blends. A pilot plant was developed for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils and used for this study. In the case of jatropha biodiesel alone, the fuel consumption in the diesel engine was about 14 per cent higher than that of diesel. The percent increase in specific fuel consumption ranged from 3 to 14 for B20 to B100 fuels. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel and its blends was found to be slightly higher than that of diesel fuel at tested load conditions and there was no difference between the biodiesel and its blended fuels efficiencies. For jatropha biodiesel and its blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in load and amount of biodiesel. The highest exhaust gas temperature was observed as 463ºC for biodiesel among the three load conditions. The diesel mode exhaust gas temperature was observed as 375ºC. The CO2 emission from the biodieselfuelled engine was slightly higher than diesel fuel as compared with diesel. The carbon monoxide reduction by biodiesel was 16, 14 and 14 per cent at 2, 2.5 and 3.5 kW load conditions. The NOx emissions from biodiesel was increased by 15, 18 and 19 per cent higher than that of the diesel at 2, 2.5 and 3.5 kW load conditions respectively.
India is home to over a billion people, about one-sixth of the world’s population. The population continues to grow at 1.93% per annum, which is well above the global average (India, 2001). The population of India has nearly tripled in the last 50 years, from 361 million in 1951 to 1.027 billion in 2001. The country’s economy has also been growing rapidly in the last decade, with real GDP growth rates remaining consistently over 5% (India, 2004). The petroleum products play on important role in our modern life. The costs of these products depend on international markets and petroleum reserves are limited to nearly 30 years. India is projected to become the third largest consumer of transportation fuel in 2020, after the USA and China, with consumption growing at an annual rate of 6.8% from 1999 to 2020. India’s economy has often been unsettled by its need to import about 70% of its petroleum demand from the highly unstable and volatile world oil market (India, 2004). The acid rain, global warming and health hazards are the results of ill effects of increased polluted gases like SOx, CO and particulate matter in atmosphere. Rising petroleum prices, increasing threat to the environment from exhaust emissions and global warming have generated an intense international interest in developing alternative non-petroleum fuels for engines (Ajav and Akingbehin, 2002). In recent years, research has been directed to explore plant-based fuels and plant oils and fats as fuels (Martini and Shell, 1998). Biodiesel is described as a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. It is oxygenated, essentially sulfur-free and biodegradable (Yuan et al., 2004). The use of non-edible oils compared to edible oils is very significant because of the increase in demand for edible oils as food and they are too expensive as compared with diesel fuel. Among the various non-edible oil sources, Jatropha curcas oil has added advantages like pleasant smell, odorless and can easily mix with diesel fuel. Jatropha oil cannot be used for food or feed because of its strong purgative effect (Corner and Watanabe, 1979). The Jatropha plant having advantages namely; effectively yielding oilseeds from the 3rd year onwards, rapid growth, easy propagation, life span of 40 years and suitable for tropical and subtropical countries like India (Patil et al., 1991). Henning and Kone (no date) reported activities involving the use of physic nut oil in engines in Segou, Mali during World War II. Research on this oil was first initiated during World War II to study the use of curcas oil as a liquid, renewable fuel source to substitute for diesel oil (Jones and Miller, 1992). The use of physic nut seed oil in diesel engines is reported in the literature (Mensier and Loury 1950; Cabral 1964; Takeda 1982; Ishil and Takeuchi 1987; Forson et al. 2004; Pramanik 2003; Senthil Kumar et al. 2003). Mori (1983) using refined curcas oil blends in precombustion chamber engine, and reported fair results for thermal efficiency and emission compared with diesel No.2 diesel. He also pointed out the problems of filter blockage, carbon deposits and oil incompatibility with fuel line materials. Pramanik (2003) found the jatropha oil blending up to 40 to 50 per cent with diesel fuel could be used in engine without modifications. In general, it has been reported by most researchers that if raw vegetable oils are used as diesel engine fuel, engine performance decreases, CO and HC emissions increase and Nox emissions also decrease accordingly (Sinha and Misra, 1997; Goering, et al., 1992; Altõn, 1998 and Shay 1993). However, Acrolein is high toxic substance released from the engine due to thermal decomposition of glycerol present in the oils (Schwab et al., 1987). The problems encountered in raw oils are solved by forming biodiesel, which is non toxic, eco-friendly fuel, and have similar properties of diesel fuel (Krawczyk, 1996). Biodiesel consists of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) of seed oils and fats and have already been found suitable for use as fuel in diesel engine (Harrington, 1986). CO2 emission by use of biodiesel in diesel engines will be recycled by the crop plant resulting in no new addition in to atmosphere (Peterson and Hustrulid, 1998). It is estimated that petrodiesel demand in India by the end of 10th Plan (in 2006-07) shall be 52.33 million MT. In order to achieve 5% replacement of petrodiesel by bio-diesel by the year 2006-07, there is need to bring minimum 2.29 million ha area under Jatropha curcas plantation (India, 2004). A study was taken for performance evaluation and and assesses the emissions from jatropha biodiesel fuelled engine.

Surendra R. Kalbande et.al. College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Marathwada Agriculture University, Parbhani (M.S.), India, had reported studies on,
“Jatropha and Karanja Biofuel: An Alternate fuel for Diesel Engine.”
The bio-diesel was produced from non-edible oils by using bio-diesel processor and the diesel engine performance for water lifting was tested on bio-diesel and bio-diesel blended with diesel. The newly developed bio-diesel processor was capable of preparing the oil esters sufficient in quantity for running the commonly used farm engines. The fuel properties of bio-diesel such as kinematic viscosity and specific gravity were found within limited of BIS standard. Operational efficiency of diesel pump set for various blends of bio-diesel were found nearer to the expected efficiency of 20 percent. Bio-diesel can be used as an alternate and non-conventional fuel to run all type of C.I. engine.
Fast depletion of the fossil fuels and some times shortage during crisis period directs us to search for some alternative fuel which can reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. The agriculture sector of the country is completely dependant on diesel for its motive power and to some extent for stationary power application. Increased farm mechanization in agriculture thus, further increase requirement of this depleting fuel source. Many alternative fuels like biogas, methanol, ethanol and vegetable oils have been evaluated as a partial or complete substitute to diesel fuel. The vegetable oil directly can be used in diesel engine as a fuel, because their calorific value is almost 90-95 percent of the diesel. The technology of production, the collection, extraction of vegetable oil from oil seed crop and oil seed bearing trees is well known and very simple. The development in this respect also provides much ecological balance. Due to pressure on edible oils like groundnut, rapeseed, musterd and soyabean etc. non-edible oil of Jatropha curcas and Karanja (Pongamia Pinnata) are evaluated as diesel fuel extender (Racheman et al., 2003). The oil is extracted from the seeds and converted into methyl esters by the transesterification process. The methyl ester obtained from this process is known as bio diesel. Bio diesel is renewable source of energy which can be produced locally by our farmers by growing oil seed producing plants on their waste lands, barren land which is eco friendly also. In order to propagate and promote the use of bio-diesel as an alternate source of energy in rural sector, the bio-diesel was produced from non-edible oils by using bio-diesel processor and the diesel engine performance for water lifting was tested on bio-diesel and bio-diesel blended with diesel.
They Conclude that,
* The fuel properties of bio-diesel such as kinematic viscosity and specific gravity were found within limited of BIS standard.
* Operational efficiency of diesel pump set for various blends of bio-diesel were found nearer to the expected efficiency of 20 percent.
* Bio-diesel can be used as an alternate and non-conventional fuel to run all types of C.I. engines.

N. Stalin et. al. Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India, Had reported studies on
“Performance test of IC Engine using Karanja Biodiesel Blending with Diesel”
Biodiesel production is a modern and technological area for researchers due to constant increase in the prices of petroleum diesel and environmental advantages. This paper presents a review of the alternative technological methods that could be used to produce this fuel. Biodiesel from Karanja oil was produced by alkali catalyzed Transesterification process. Performance of IC engine using Karanja biodiesel blending with diesel and with various blending ratios has been evaluated. The engine performance studies were conducted with a Prony brake-diesel engine set up. Parameters like speed of engine, fuel consumption and torque were measured at different loads for pure diesel and various combinations of dual fuel. Brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were calculated. The test results indicate that the dual fuel combination of B40 can be used in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications. Also the cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel.
Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics.
Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transeterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil. The process leaves behind two products-methyl esters (the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (a valuable byproduct usually sold to be used in soaps and other products.
Biodiesel is better for the environment because it is made from renewable resources and has lower emission compared to petroleum diesel. The transesterification is achieved with monohydric alcohols like methanol and ethanol in the presence of an alkali catalyst. Biodiesel and its blends with petroleum-based diesel fuel can be used in diesel engines without any significant modifications to the engines. The advantages of biodiesel are that it displaces petroleum thereby reducing global warming gas emissions, tail pipe particulate matter, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and other air toxics. Biodiesel improves lubricity and reduces premature wearing of fuel pumps.
They Conclude that
* For all the fuel samples tested, torque, brake power and brake thermal efficiency reach maximum values at 70% load.
* The dual fuel combination of B40 can be recommended for use in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications. Also the cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel.
* The cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel.
CHAPTER 3
ENGINE SETUP DESIGN AND DETAIL
3.1 ENGINE SPECIFICATION-

Description Unit Type
1. Name of the Engine — Kirloskar oil engine AV1

2. Type of engine — Vertical,4S, High speed, CI engine

3. No. of cylinders — 1

4. IS rating at 1500 rpm KW 3.7

5. Cubic capacity — 0.533

6. Compression ratio — 16.5 : 1

7. Injection pump & type — Single cylinder, Flange mounted without Camshaft

8. Governor type — Mechanical centrifugal type

9. Lubricating oil specification — HD type 3 as per IS :496-1982

10. Maximum permissible back Pressure KPa 2.5

11. Method of cooling — Cooling water

Table No.2

3.2 ENGINE SETUP DESIGN
3.2.1 Design of Calorimeter
Assumption: Overall heat transfer coefficient U = 20 Watt/m2K
A/F ratio = 19

Observations:
1. Exhaust gas inlet temperature =Thi=2250 C
2. Exhaust gas outlet temperature =Tho=1200 C
3. Water inlet temperature = Tci =320 C
4. Water outlet temperature = Tco =­ 0 C
5. Mass flow rate of water = (mc)= 1/36 kg/sec

Mass of fuel (mf) = 3.75/44200
= 8.48*10^-5 kg/s
Mass of air (ma) = mf * A/F ratio
=8.48*10^-5 * 19
=1.61*10^-3 kg/s
Mass of flue gas (mg) = ma + mf
= 8.48 *10^-5 +1.61 *10^-3
=1.7 *10^-3 kg/s
?= [ 1- exp (- NTU* (1+ C))]/(1+ C)
Cc = mc * Cpc = 113.05 W/k =Cmax
Ch=mg *Cpg =1.7085W/k =Cmin
Qmax = Cmin (Thi – Tci) =329.74 W
Q = Ch * (Thi – Tho) = 179.3 W
? = Q/Qmax = 179.3/329.74 =0.54
C= Cmin/ Cmax = 0.0151
0.54 = [1- exp (- NTU* (1+ 0.0151))]/( 1+ 0.0151)
NTU = 0.78
NTU = U *A/ Cmin
0.78 = 20*A/1.7085
A = 0.0.0668 = p* d * n*L
= p*0.1*1*L
L = 0.213 m

Length of colorimeter = 0.213 m

3.2.2 DESIGN OF AIR-BOX
(From Sharma, Mathur “Internal Combustion Engine”)
Swept Volume of engine = ?/ 4 *82 * 11 = 552.92 cc
Capacity of suction box = 100 * 552.92
=55292 cc
Side of suction box = (55292) ^ (1/3)
= 38.12
= 40 cm
Side of suction box = 40 cm
3.3 Testing Procedure
The engine testing setup consists of diesel engine. The diesel engine without any modifications was used for this study. The five levels of Jatropha & Karanja biodiesel blending at 20, 40, 60, 80 & 100 per cent (B20, B40, B60 ,B80 and B100) with diesel, diesel and biodiesel were used for engine testing.
The diesel generator set was tested at different loads. The engine speed was measured by a tachometer. The engine was tested with load 0,2,4,6,8. The engine was started with diesel and changed over to the desired biodiesel blends such as Jatropha & Karanja. Specific fuel consumption with the tested fuels was calculated.
The parameters like speed of engine, fuel consumption and torque were measured at different loads for diesel and with various combinations of dual fuel, Brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency was calculated using the collected test data.

CHAPTER 4
PROPERTIES OF FUEL
4.1 Lab Testing Report
4.2 Method for finding the intermediat value of properties
NEWTON-GREGORY FORWARD INTERPOLATION FORMULA
Suppose the values of Yi=f(x) are given for equally spaced values of the independent variable (argument) Xi=X0+ih for i =0,1,2,3…………n Here h, known as the size of the interval or spacing, is const. Assuming that nth degree interpolation polynomial is given by
F(x)=a0+a1(x-x0)+a2(x-x0)(x-x1)+……………..+an(x-x0)(x-x1)….(x-xn-1) (1)
Using the n+1 condition, yi=f(x) for i=1,2,3,………….n, we determine the (n+1) unknown coefficients a0, a1, a2………an in (1), we get
y0= f(x0)= a0+0+…..+0 a0=y0
Putting x=x1 in (1), we get
y0= f(x0)= a0+ a1(x-x1) but a0=y0 and x1-x0=h
a1 = (y1- a0)( x1- x0) = (y1- a0)/h = 1/h ?y0
Now with x= x2 in (1), we get
y2 = f(x2)= a0+a1( x2 -x0)+ a2 ( x2 -x0)( x2 -x1)
= a0+a1.2h+ a2.2h.h
So, a2=( y2- a0-2h. a1)/(2h²) = (y2-y0-2h.1/h.?y0)/(2h²)
a2= (y2-y0-2(y1- a0))/2h = 1/(2.h) ?²y0
Similarly, at x= x3, we get
y3=f(x3)= a0+a1( x3 -x0)+ a2 ( x3 -x0)( x3 -x1)+a3 ( x3 -x0)( x3 -x1)( x3- x2)
= a0+a1.3h+a2.3h.2h+ a3.3h.2h.h
solving a3=( y3-3 y2+3 y1- y0)/(3!h³) = 1/(3!h³)?³y0
This way, we get
a4=1/(4!h4) ?4y0 , a5=1/(5!h5)?5 y0
an=1/(n!h^n).?^ny0 (2)
Substituting all this values of a0, a1, a2………an in (1), we get the NEWTON-GREGORY FORWARD INTERPOLATION FORMULA as
y=f(x)= y0+?y0/h. (x-x0)+?²y0/2!h².(x-x0)(x- x1)+……+?^ny0/n!hn(x-x0)(x-x1)…….(x-xn-1) (3)
Introducing q=(x-x0)/h, the above formula (3) can be written in more convenient way.
Now
(x-x1)/h = (x-( x0+h))/h = (x- x0)/h-1 =q-1
(x-x2)/h = (x-( x0+2h))/h = (x- x0)/h-2 =q-2 etc.
(x-xn-1)/h = (x-( x0+(n-1)h))/h = (x- x0)/h-(n-1) =q-n+1
Substituting these values, we get
f(x)=f(x0+hq)=g(q)=y0+?y0.q+?²y0/2!q(q-1)+?³y0/3!q(q-1)(q-2)+….
+{q(q-1)….(q-n+1)}/n!(?ny0) (4)
Note that the coefficient of ?’s are binomial coefficient. Since(4) involves only the ” forward differences” ?y0, ?²y0,……….?ny0. Newton-Gregory forward interpolation formula given by (4) is most often used to interpolation for values of y at the beginning of a set of tabular data.
for n=1 in (4), we get linear interpolation
P1(x) = y0+q ?y0
for n=2 in (4), we have parabolic interpolation
P2(x) = y0+q ?y0+q(q-1)/2. ?²y0

Newtons-Gregory Backward Interpolation Formula
It is mainly useful to interpolate near the end of the table.Assume the polynomial as
y=F(x)= a0+ a1(x-xn)+ a2(x-xn)(x-xn-1)+a3(x-xn)(x-xn-2)+…….+an(x-xn-1)….(x-x1) (5)
We use Yi=F(xn) to Determine a0, a1, a2………an . Put x=xn in (5). Then
yn =F(xn)= a0+0……….+0 a0=yn

When x=xn-1 in (5),We get
Yn-1=F(xn-1)= a0+ a1( xn-1- xn) or a1=( Yn-1- a0)( xn-1-xn)=(yn-yn-1)( xn- xn-1)=1h?Yn
For x=xn-2 in in (5), we have
yn-2=F(xn-2)= a0+ a1( xn-2- xn)+ a2( xn-2- xn)( xn-2-xn-1)
a2=(yn-2-2 yn-1+ yn)(2h²)=1/(2h²)*?²yn
Similarly, we Get
an=1(n!hn) ?nyn
Substituting these values of a0, a1, a2………an un (5), We get the Newton-Gregory backward interpollation formula. as
y=F(x)=yn+(x- xn)h*? yn+(x- xn) (x- xn-1)(2!h²)*?²yn+ ………
+(x- xn) (x- xn-1)……((x- x1)(n!hn)*(?nyn) (6)

Introducing q=(x-x-1)h and nothing that
(x-xn-1)h=q+1, (x-xn-2)h=q+2, (x-xn)h=q+n-1
yF(x)=F(xn+hq)=yn+q? yn+q(q+1)2!* ?²yn+q(q+1)(q+2)3!* ?³yn……+
…….+q(q+1)(q+2)…(q+n-1)1n! *(?nyn) (7)
Generally (4) is used for forward interpollation and backward extrapolation and (7) is used for backward interpolation and forward extrapolation.

4.3 Fuel Properties
The densities & calorific values of all fuels are measured in the laboratory.
FUEL Density (Kg/m3) Calorific Value (KJ/Kg) Diesel 822 42200 Jatropha 888.34 38450 Karanja 861.25 36120 B20-J 811.46 45200 B40-J 830.68 47054 B60-J 849.9 37230 B80-J 869.12 36800 B20-K 837.85 33400 B40-K 843.7 32779 B60-K 849.55 31199 B80-K 855.4 30300
Table No.3
CHAPTER 5
PERFORMANCE TEST
5.1 Diesel Engine Cycle
5.1.1 CI Engine Types
Two basic categories of CI engines:
i) Direct-injection – have a single open combustion chamber into which fuel is injected directly.
ii) Indirect-injection – chamber is divided into two regions and the fuel is injected into the “pre chamber” which is connected to the main chamber via a nozzle, or one or more orifices.
• For very-large engines (stationary power generation) which operate at low engine speeds the time available for mixing is long so a direct injection quiescent chamber type is used (open or shallow bowl in piston).
• As engine size decreases and engine speed increases, increasing amounts of swirl are used to achieve fuel-air mixing (deep bowl in piston)
• For small high-speed engines used in automobiles chamber swirl is not sufficient, indirect injection is used where high swirl or turbulence is generated in the pre-chamber during compression and products/fuel blow down and mix with main chamber air.
5.1.2 Air-Standard Diesel cycle

Fig.2 p-v & T-S diagrams of diesel cycles
Process 1–> 2 Isentropic compression
Process 2 –> 3 Constant pressure heat addition
Process 3 –> 4 Isentropic expansion
Process 4 –> 1 Constant volume heat rejection
5.1.3 Combustion in CI Engine

Fig.3 Combustion in C.I. engines

The combustion process proceeds by the following stages:
i) Ignition delay (ab) – fuel is injected directly into the cylinder towards the end of the compression stroke. The liquid fuel atomizes into small drops and penetrates into the combustion chamber. The fuel vaporizes and mixes with the high-temperature high-pressure air.
ii) Premixed combustion phase (bc) – combustion of the fuel, which, is mixed with the air to within the flammability limits (air at high-temperature and high-pressure) during the ignition delay period occurs rapidly in a few crank angles.
iii) Mixing controlled combustion phase (cd) – after premixed gas consumed, the burning rate is controlled by the rate at which mixture becomes available for burning. Primarily the fuel-air mixing process controls the burning rate.
iv) Late combustion phase (de) – heat release may proceed at a lower rate well into the expansion stroke (no additional fuel injected during this phase). Combustion of any unburned liquid fuel and soot is responsible for this.

5.1.4 TERMINOLOGY INVOLVED:-
i) Brake Thermal Efficiency: – It is the ratio of energy in the brake power bp, to the input fuel energy in appropriate units.
?bte= (bp/Qs )* 100

ii) Indicated thermal efficiency: – It is the ratio of energy in the indicated power ip, to the input fuel energy in the appropriate units.
?ite =(ip/Qs)* 100

iii) Mechanical Efficiency: – It is defined as the ratio of brake power to the indicated power.
?mech = (bp /ip) * 100

iv) Volumetric Efficiency: – It is defined as the volume flow rate of air into the intake system divided by the rate at which the volume is displaced by the system.
?vol = (Va /Vs) * 100

v) Brake Specific Fuel Consumption: – It is the fuel consumption rate of the engine per unit kW of the brake power developed by the engine.

vi) Swept Volume (Vs): – The nominal volume swept by the working piston when travelling from one dead centre to the other is known as swept volume.

vii) Clearance Volume (Vc): – The nominal volume of the combustion chamber above the piston when it is at the top dead centre is the clearance volume.

viii) Compression Ratio (r): – It is the ratio of the total cylinder volume when the piston is at the bottom dead centre, VT, to the clearance volume, Vc.

CHAPTER 6
CALCULATION
6.1 Formulae
1. Brake Power – B.P. = (2* p*N * T)/ (60*1000) (kW)
T = (W – S) * 9.81 * Rb
2. Fuel Consumption – Mf = p /4 * db2 * 5/100 * 3600/ t * ?f (kg/hr)
3. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption -Bsfc = mf (kg/hr) / (Bp(kW))
4. Indicated Power -Ip = BP + FP
FP- Frictional Power, it is obtained by plotting William’s line on the graph between load and fuel consumption.
5. Thermal Efficiency: –
a) Heat Supplied=Qs=mf*C.V
b) Brake Thermal Efficiency -?bte= ( bp/ Qs )* 100
c) Indicated Thermal Efficiency -?ite = (ip/ Qs)* 100
6. Mechanical Efficiency -?mech = (bp/ Ip)* 100
7. Volumetric Efficiency -?vol = (Va / Vs) * 100
Where, Va = Cd* p/4 * do2* v (2*g*Ha)
Vs = p/4 * D2 * L * N/60 * 1/n
8. Heat to cooling water jacket (Qcwj) = Mwj* Cpw* (?T)
9. Heat to exhaust gas(Qeg) = Meg*Cpg*(?T)
10. Heat unaccounted = Qs – ( B.P.+ Qcwj+ Qeg)
CHAPTER 8
CONCLUSION

Single cylinder diesel engine were tested for different blends of Karanja and Jatropa fuel. Also the engines were run on the 100% pure Jatropha and Karanja fuel. These biofuels can easily replaced in the present cylinder due to small variations in the viscosity and the specific gravity compared with the pure diesel. For the test results it is observed that the brake thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency are improved @ 2 to 8 % compared with the diesel fuel for the blends of B40 and B60. Also the exhaust gas temperature is lower in these blends that reduces the effect of dissociation significantly and hence the major pollutant. During the trial due to nonavilability of exhaust gas analysis results of pollutants CO, CO2 and NOx ae not reported however from the exhaust gas temperature and A/F ratio it can be concluded that the pollutant CO will definitely reduced. Comments are difficult to made for NOx due to high A/F.
B40 & B60 is significant, it controls the emission of CO hence it is ecofriendly.

REFERENCES
1. S. R. Kalbande, S. N. Pawar, S. B. Jadhav, Production of Karanja Biodiesel and its Utilization in Diesel Engine Generator Set for Power Generation, Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science, 2007, 20(3), 680-683.
2. M.A. Haque, M. P. Islam, M.D. Hussain, F. Khan, Physical, Mechanical Properties and Oil Content of Selected Indigenous Seeds Available for Biodiesel Production in Bangladesh, Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR E-journal. Manuscript 1419, 2009 (10) 01-08
3. D. Ramesh, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India “Investigations on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine with Jatropha Biodiesel and Its Blends”, 2008, 10
4. Surendra R. Kalbande & Subhash D. Vikhe, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Marathwada Agriculture University, Parbhani (M.S.), India, “Jatropha and Karanja Biofuel: An Alternate fuel for Diesel Engine.” 2008, 3(1)
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