Code No: RR-220301

II-B.Tech. II-Semester Regular Examinations, April/May-2004

MECHANICS OF FLUIDS

(Common to Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgy and Material Technology)

Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

– – –

1.a) Explain the terms, ‘ Total Pressure’, and centre of pressure’. Show that the centre of pressure and centroid coincide for a horizontally submerged plane surface.

b) The pressure at the centre of a pipe of diameter 3m is 30 N/cm2. The pipe contains oil of specific gravity 0.87 and is fitted with a gate valve. Find the force exerted by the oil on the gate and position of centre of pressure.

2.a) State and explain the four types of displacements of a fluid particle that undergoes as it moves in a flow field.

b) For the following flows, determine the components of rotation about the various axes:

i) , ,

ii) ,

iii) ,

3.a) Define the terms (i) Vortex flow (ii) Forced vertex flow (iii) Free vortex flow. Give suitable examples.

b) A rectangular duct of width 25 cm has a two dimensional irrotational flow. It has an elbow made up of circular arcs of radius 40 cm and 65 cm for the inner and outer walls respectively. Calculate the discharge per unit width of the duct when the difference in pressure between outer and inner walls in the elbow is 30 kPa.

4.a) What forces influence the motion of (i) a ship (ii) a sub marine (iii)an aeroplane flying at suspension speed.

b) Define and derive the expression for displacement thickness.

c) For laminar boundary layer on a flat plate held parallel to a stream of uniform velocity, determine the location of the section where drag upto that section is twice the drag on remaining region.

Contd…2

Code No. RR-220301 -2- Set No.1

5. Air flows through a frictionless adiabatic convergent -divergent nozzle , in which air is flowing at a pressure, velocity, temperature and cross section area are 200 KN/ m2, 170 m/s , 200 ? C and 1000 mm2 respectively. If the flow condition are isentropic.

Determine

(i) Stagnation temperature and pressure

(ii) Sonic velocity and Mach number at this section

(iii) Sonic velocity and Mach number at outlet section where the pressure is 110 KN/ m2. Take R= 290 J/Kg ?K ðŸ˜• = 1.4, and Cp = 1.0 KJ/ Kg K

6.a) Sketch the velocity distribution of laminar flow in ideal and real fluid flow and

explain it in detail.

b) A fluid of viscosity 0.883 pascal-sec and specific gravity 1.26 is pumped along a horizontal pipe 65 m long and 10 cm diameter at a flow rate of 0.18 m3/sec. Determine the Reynolds Number and calculate the pressure loss in the pipe, if the flow is laminar.

7.a) Explain the terms Pipes in parallel, Equivalent pipe and Equivalent size of the pipe.

b) Determine the difference in the elevations between the water surfaces in the two tanks which are connected by a horizontal pipe of diameter 30cm and length 400m. The rate of flow of water through the pipe is 300 lit/sec. Neglect the minor losses and take the value of f=0.008 .

8.a) What is the purpose of a differential manometer, and what are the types of differential manometers

b) What are the devises to measure discharge in open channels.

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Code No: RR-220301

II-B.Tech. II-Semester Regular Examinations, April/May-2004

MECHANICS OF FLUIDS

(Common to Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgy and Material Technology)

Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

– – –

1.a) Derive an expression for the force exerted on a submerged vertical plane surface by the static liquid, and locate the position of centre of pressure.

b) A tank 20m deep and 7m wide is layered with 8m of oil, 6 m of water and 4m of mercury. Determine the total hydrostatic force and resultant centre of pressure on the side. Specific gravity of oil is 0.881 and that of mercury is 13.6.

2.a) Give the complete classification of types of flow.

b) Given the velocity field

v = (6 + 2xy + t2 ) i – (xy2 + 10t) j + 25 k

Determine the acceleration of a particle at P(3,0,2) and at time t = 1.

3.a) Derive an expression for the depth of paraboloid formed by the surface of a liquid contained in a cylindrical tank which is rotated at a constant angular velocity about its vertical axis.

b) A U – tube contains a liquid of relative density 1.25 to a height of 25 cm in both the columns. It is rotated about a symmetrical vertical axis which is 15 cm from both the limbs. Calculate the pressures at the bottom horizontal connecting points and mid point when the speed of rotation is 240 rpm.

4.a) Describe with the help of neat sketch, the variation of drag coefficient for a cylinder over a wide range of Reynolds number.

b) Oil with a free stream velocity of 3 m/s flows over a thin plate 1.25-m wide and 2 m long. Determine the boundary layer thickness and the shear stress at mid – length and calculate the total, double-sided resistance of the plate. Take p = 860 kg/m3 and v= 10-3.

5. A 120 mm diameter pipe reduces to 60 mm diameter through a sudden contraction. When it carries air at 25? C under isothermal condition, the absolute pressure observed in the two pipes just before and after contraction are 480 KN/m2 and 384 KN/m2 respectively. Determine (i) Densities at two section (ii) Velocity at two section (iii) Mass flow rate of the pipe.

Contd…2

Code No. RR-220301 -2- Set No.2

6.a) Derive the equation for laminar flow between two parallel plates both fixed.

b) A fluid of viscosity 0.8 pascal-sec and specific gravity 1.1 flows in a horizontal pipe of diameter 10 cm. If the pressure drop per meter length is 4 KN/m2, find the power required for 200 m length of pipe.

7.a) Prove that the head lost due to friction is equal to one third of the total head at inlet for maximum power transmission through pipes.

b) The rate of flow of water pumped into a pipe ABC, which is 200m long is 20lit/sec. The pipe is laid on an upward slope of 1 in 40. The length of the portion AB is 100m and it’s diameter 10cm, while the length of the portion BC is also 100m but it’s diameter is 20cm. The change of diameter at B is sudden. The flow is taking place from A to C where the pressure at A is 19.62 N/cm2 and end C is connected to a tank. Find the pressure at C taking f=0.008.

8.a) A venturimeter has its axis vertical, the inlet and throat diameters being 150 mm and 75 mm respectively. The throat is 225 mm above inlet and k = 0.96, petrol of specific gravity 0.78 flows up through the meter at a rate of 0.029 m3/s. Find the pressure difference between the inlet and the throat.

b) Explain Bourdon pressure gauge.

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Code No: RR-220301

II-B.Tech. II-Semester Regular Examinations, April/May-2004

MECHANICS OF FLUIDS

(Common to Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgy and Material Technology)

Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

– – –

1.a) Derive an expression for the depth of centre of pressure from free surface of liquid of an inclined plane surface submerged in the liquid.

b) A circular plate of diameter 0.75m is immersed in a liquid of relative density 0.80 with its plane making an angle of 30o with the horizontal. The centre of the plate is at a depth of 1.50m below the free surface. Calculate the total force on one side of the plate and the location of the centre of pressure.

2.a) The velocity components in x and y directions are given as

Indicate whether the given velocity components represent a case of possible flow field or not.

b) Show and deduce the relation between stream and velocity potential functions.

3.a) Name the different forces present in a fluid flow. For the Euler’s equation of motion, which forces are taken into considerations.

b) A closed vertical cylinder 400 mm in diameter and 500 mm height is filled with oil of relative density 0.9 to a depth of 340 mm, the remaining volume containing air at atmospheric pressure. The cylinder rotates about its vertical axis at such a speed that the oil just begins to uncover the base. Calculate (i) the speed of rotation for this condition.

4.a) What are the causes leaving to separation of boundary layer.

b) Derive an expression for the momentum thickness of boundary layer.

c) A train is 250 m long and its surface area is 15 m2 per meter length of the train. If the train moves at a speed of 120 kmph, calculate the power required to overcome the friction resistance. The surface can be assumed to be smooth. Take density of air 1.2 kg/m3 and viscosity of air 1.8×10-5 Pas.

5.a) What is mach number? Why is this parameter is so important for the study of flow of compressible fluid?

b) A supersonic aircraft flies at an altitude of 1.8 Km where the temperature is 4 ?C. Determine the speed of aircraft if its sound is heard 4 second after its passage over the head of observer.

Take? = 1.4 and R= 281.43 J/ Kg ?K.

Contd…2

Code No.RR-220301 -2- Set No.3

6.a) Compute the kinetic energy and momentum correction factors for laminar flow in a pipe line.

b) Show that in laminar flow through a circular pipe the total kinetic energy of fluid passing per second is twice the value obtained on the basis of average velocity.

7.a) Define and explain the terms hydraulic gradient line and total energy line.

b) A pipe 20cm diameter and 1800 m long connects two reservoirs one being 30m below the other. The pipe line crosses a ridge whose summit is 7.5m above the upper reservoir. What will be the minimum depth of the pipe below the summit of the ridge in order that the pressure at the apex doesn’t fall below 7.5m vacuum. The length of the pipe from the upper reservoir to the apex is 300m. Taking f= 0.032. Determine the rate of flow to the lower reservoir in lit/min.

8.a) A venturimeter is used for measuring the flow of petrol (G = 0.81) in a pipeline inclined at 350 to the horizontal. The throat area ratio is 4. If the difference in mercury levels in the gage is 50 mm, calculate the flow if the pipe dia is 30 m. Take Cd = 0.975. Take specific gravity of mercury as 13.6.

b) Explain Bourdon pressure gage with a sketch.

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Code No: RR-220301

II-B.Tech. II-Semester Regular Examinations, April/May-2004

MECHANICS OF FLUIDS

(Common to Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgy and Material Technology)

Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

– – –

1.a) Derive an expression for the torque and power required to overcome the viscous drag for a shaft running at a particular r.p.m.

b) A hydraulic lift shaft of 500 mm diameter moves in a cylindrical sleeve the length of engagement being 2m. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2.4 X 10 -4 m2/sec and density of 888 kg/m3. The drag resistance when the shaft moves at 0.2 m/sec is 267.81 N. Determine the internal diameter of the cylinder.

2.a) Define and distinguish laminar and turbulent flows. Give two real fluid flow examples of each. How are they distinguished in real fluid flow?

b) For steady, incompressible flow, verify whether the following values of u and v are possible:

i) u = 4 x y +y2 , v = 6xy + 3x

ii) u = 2 x2 +y2 , v =- 4xy and

iii) ,

3.a) What is the significance of energy and momentum correction factors.

b) Calculate the energy correction factor for the following velocity distribution in a circular pipe of radius ‘R’ where Um = Maximum Velocity.

4.a) What is the physical significance of displacement thickness of boundary layer theory?

b) What boundary conditions must be satisfied by the velocity distribution in laminar boundary layer over a flat plate?

c) The velocity distribution in the boundary layer was found to fit the equation

(u/U) = (y/d)1/7. Find the displacement thickness.

5.a) How are shocks formed? Give some practical examples.

b) During a normal shock in a constant area duct containing air, the initial conditions are P1 = 10 N/m2, T1 = 0 ? c; U = 1000 m/s. Calculate (i) the corresponding trans shock condition and (ii) percentage change in density across the shock if R= 287 J/Kg?k.

Contd…2

Code No.RR-220301 -2- Set No.4

6.a) Obtain an expression for the head loss in laminar flow in a circular pipe. Also write down the equation for head loss due to laminar flow between parallel plates and for flow down an inclined plane. Give the Reynolds numbers up to which these equations are valid.

b) An oil of specific gravity 0.9 flow at a rate of 0.2 m3/sec through a horizontal pipe of 7.5 cm diameter. The pressure drop is 400 KN/m2 over 300m length of pipe. Find the viscosity of the oil.

7.a) Explain the concept of flow through a long pipe along with a neat sketch.

b) A main pipe divides into two parallel pipes which again forms one pipe. The length and diameter for the first parallel pipe are 2000 m and 1.0 m respectively, while the length and diameter of second parallel pipe are 2000 m and 0.8 m. Find the rate of flow in each parallel pipe if total flow in the main is 3.0 cumecs, the coefficient of friction for each parallel pipe is same and equal to 0.006.

8.a) How do you classify the notches.

b) The maximum flow through a rectangular flume 1.8m wide and 1.2m deep is 1.65 m3/sec. It is proposed to install a suppressed sharp crested rectangular weir across the flume to measure flow. Find the maximum height at which the weir crest can be placed in order that water may not overflow the sides of the flume. Assume Cd = 0.6.

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