Chapter I Background of the S

Chapter I
Background of the Study

A. History of Barangay 365
Barangay 365 of Blumentritt lies at the city center with the busiest streets in Manila. The numerous businesses and residences that sprouted in the community led to its congestion which resulted to the overstepping of the community members’ personal boundaries. This, consequently, resulted to the perpetration of criminal activities.
Barangay 365 Blumentritt is one of the districts in Blumentritt, Manila which was named after Ferdinand Blumentritt who was a teacher from Germany that is a close friend of the Dr. Jose Rizal and a sympathizer of the Filipino cause. It started as relatively small community of around 50 to 100 families. By the time of urbanization, it had developed into a large community being headed by elected officials, the topmost being the kapitan.
The name Blumentritt today is more known as a Light Rail Transit (LRT) station which serves a convenient means of transportation and just located below the LRT Line 1 is the Blumentritt Street Market which is one of the largest street markets catering to the everyday needs. Blumentritt is in close proximity to many places in Manila such as Recto, Quiapo, Grand Central Caloocan, Espana Boulevard, etc. A few known landmarks in Manila are near Blumentritt such as SM City San Lazaro, Chinese General Hospital and Manila North Cemetery.

B. Statement of the Problem
The current chaotic organization of Barangay 365’s physical environment provides opportunities for criminal activities which compromises the safety of the community.

C. Hypothesis
Through proper community planning and organization of the physical environment, it is possible to prevent criminal activities which poses a threat to the safety of the community.

D. Objective of the Study
This study aims to respond to the community’s identified problem by complying with the following objectives:
1. To conduct a research survey that will determine the underlying causes of the deprivation of the users’ safety and protection;
2. To conduct case studies on past events and different areas that question the safety and security of the users in order to identify and determine possible solutions which can be adapted to the project;
3. To gather and record existing data, policies, mapping activities, historical accounts, flow of users and vehicles coming in and out of the area, which could help in the designing, planning and rehabilitation of the given community;
4. To design and manipulate the placement of public spaces and road networks to improve accessibility and public safety;
5. To design public areas where the community members can interact and socialize in order to foster a bond and familiarity among them;
6. To create community visibility by modifying landscapes and street lightings, changing parking patterns of public utility vehicles, and restricting access to private areas to reduce crime;
7. To design and develop a setting that is conducive to walking, bicycling and transit while providing accessibility to other automobile networks and also provide safe and walkable streets; and
8. To formulate a set of guidelines for the design of the community’s physical environment that can be applied to reduce the opportunities for criminal activities.

E. Significance of the Study
The significance of the study relies on an environmentally sensitive approach and its applicability in the given setting. The study suggests the possible solutions in enhancing the built environment that promotes better security and protection. This would lead into finding out how these solutions would affect the entire surrounding and how the users would be safe. Such an understanding would enable the local authorities to implement administration-induced policies and architectural strategies in response to the existing problems seen in Barangay 365, Blumentritt, Manila that would prove conducive for the people’s safety. This would only result in a systematic process that would lead to the satisfaction and safety of the entire community, guiding them into maintaining their new aesthetically pleasing and visually engaging surroundings, which in effect, could result to the improvement of their lives.

F. Limitation/Scope
The study involves examining the community’s built environment, identifying the aspects of the physical environment that provide opportunities for criminal activities and analyzing how they compromise the safety of the community. It also includes proposing possible architectural and planning solutions to deter and prevent these unlawful activities. The study covers the entirety of Barangay 365, Blumentritt, Manila – the residential community, the formal market and the street market, and the road networks located within the barangay. It will only be conducted for 5 months, from November to March. The study is limited to the data that will be gathered from the physical inspection of the barangay and the surveys and interviews of the residents, market vendors, barangay officials and experts. It is also limited to the financial capabilities of the student researchers.

Chapter II
Review of Related Literature and Case Studies

A. Related Literature
1.0. Altering the Physical Environment to Reduce Opportunities for Problems to Recur by Herman Goldstein, 1990
Crime prevention as a method of explanation and understanding based on the behavioral sciences, including: urban design, human ecology, neurology, psychological learning theory, sociology, environmental psychology, geography, etc. These are all key factors in the development of crime prevention programs. Ecology is very important in the crime prevention models. Early research conducted in France found that some police precincts had extremely high rates of crime, while others have low rates. Property offenses were found to be occurring most often in industrial areas, while violent crimes occurred more predominantly in rural areas.
A vast amount of work has been done in exploring ways to reduce crime by making changes in the physical environment – in the design of buildings, parks, streets, and lighting. Several experiments have been conducted to determine if intensive efforts to rehabilitate a neighborhood affect the level of crime, disorder, and fear. Much of the attention in exploring environmental changes to date has been reducing serious crime, with frequent reminders that the opportunities for doing so are still numerous.

2.0. Defensible Space; Crime Prevention Through Urban Design by Oscar Newman, 1972
The Defensible Space Theory was developed by Oscar Newman during the 1970’s. Newman associated the interaction between individuals and surroundings in creating their built environment a defensible space. In 1972, he wrote his first book entitled Defensible Space; Crime Prevention Through Urban Design. He discussed that a development could only be defensible if the inhabitants allow themselves to be the chief means in ensuring their own security. Newman asserts that a criminal will be isolated if his turf is removed; this could only be possible if the people itself have the sense of ownership as well as responsibility over that area. He also stated that violent acts wil be lessen if the criminals and intruders sense a watchful community because they will feel less secure in comitting a crime; through this, crime will be controlled and mitigated by a good environmental design.
Newman’s theory of defensible space consisted of various concepts which includes the following:
(1) Images – The images are the stigma or lack of which is said to be related to edifices. According to Newman, an intruder could either be deterred or encouraged through the visual hints given to them. If the community shows an outward appearance of being respected, taken care of, and sense of ownership, therefore, the community will be less likely to be vandalized.
(2) Surveillance – The surveillance is related on the capability of the people to observe their community. By increasing the number of observers, they also increasing the probability of the intruders to be seen resulting in the diminishing of crimes.
(3) Territoriality – The territoriality portrays the sense of possession and belonging for their community. Through a good design, real and symbolic barriers could be erected to establish the sense of territoriality. Those family who has the sense of community with other residents will be more likely to defend and protect their community against the presence of intruders.
(4) Safe Zones – Safe Zones refers to the general spaces of the community such as streets, road, parks, and etc. According to Newman, to provide a defensible space the community must have a proper zoning of public, private and semi-public spaces.
As for Barangay 365 of Blumentritt, based from the observation of their physical environment, it conveys that the said community lack these concepts of the defensible space which could possibly result to a high crime rate. Through this formulated theory of Newman of having an effective and proper design of spaces, it may help the said community to aid and reduce the possibility of crime from occuring.

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design
The notion of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) appeared in a 1971 book by criminologist and sociologist C. Ray Jeffery. Many of the elements in this approach are similar to the defensible space theory, which focuses on design solutions in reducing or preventing property crimes. The theory is based on the argument that most crime events are associated with the opportunities created by environmental design, meanwhile the CPTED approach is on the basis of reducing opportunity, which aims to manipulate the built environment in order to affect users’ behaviour that will reduce crime and the fear of crime (Cozens, 2007b). CPTED is assumed on the hypothesis that “the proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the fear of crime and the incidence of crime, and to an improvement in the quality of life” (Crowe, 1991, p.1). Furthermore, CPTED is the design or re-design of an environment to reduce crime opportunity and fear of crime through natural, mechanical, and procedural means (Sorensen, 2007). The study conducted by Parnaby (2007) revealed that today’s CPTED proponents claimed that modifying environmental design can reduce opportunities of criminal acts, mitigate fear of crime and provide a better quality of life to improve human health. A study of council housing estates in Sheffield, UK found that there is a significant negative relationship between territorial functioning as a crime prevention strategy and victimization, indicate that high territoriality is associated with less crime experience (Abdullah, 1999). Hedayati (2009) conducted a similar survey in Penang, Malaysia. It was found that the CPTED approach has been helpful to negatively influence crime.
The strategies employed in this approach are: natural surveillance, natural access control, territorial reinforcement and maintenance (Cozens, 2002; Parnaby, 2007). The first two strategies, natural surveillance and natural access control, are mainly geared towards promoting the offenders’ risk perception by keeping users and outsiders under observation and denying access to potential targets. On the other hand, territorial reinforcement and maintenance are based on the assumption that the design and management of the environment can help the user of a property to feel a sense of ownership over a territory.
These four key elements provide the means to engender particular activities and decrease more deviant forms of activity (Haigh, 2006). The Natural Surveillance concept refers to the arrangement of physical design features involved with the activities and the people in order to maximize opportunities for surveillance at the right moment in time and space, consequently leading to crime discouragement (Cozens, 2002). Activity support refers to kinds of design that can be encouraged using public areas. This concept refers to the fact that offenders prefer those places with less observational control. It suggests that landscaping features can be designed to foster natural surveillance from within the home premises by residents and at the same time from the exterior by passers-by and neighbors. Natural access control involves the managing of a design to control the ingress and egress of persons to and from a specific space (Parnaby, 2007). This approach focuses on the management and design strategies in order to direct pedestrians and vehicular traffic to an easy flow, simultaneously discouraging criminal activities (Cozens, 2002).
Territoriality focuses on creating residents recognizable and identifiable zones within communities, so that people would feel connected and, thus, would attempt to defend their own community (Geason& Wilson 1989). It involves the use of physical design to encourage a sense of propriety among citizens while, at the same time, creating environments where the perceived probability of resident intervention is high (Crowe, 2000; Newman, 1972; Parnaby, 2007). In terms of housing design, the concept of ‘territoriality’ can be enhanced to discourage criminality through using real and symbolic barriers to define space and property as being private or public zones (Cozens, Hillier & Prescott, 1999). The image of development can encourage or discourage crime, which means that it can offer increased perceptions of vulnerability or isolation by way of design and maintenance (Cozens etal., 1999).

B. Case Study
Quezon City
Quezon City is the largest city in Metro Manila that became a popular destination of settlers [including the “old rich” families of Manila City (Caoili 1988)] due to government’s decision to make the city the government center in 1948 and once declared as the new capital city. It is where many national government offices were transferred, big universities were established, and large government housing subdivisions were developed. Its population stands at 2,173,831 people as of 2000 census. In 2001, the total number of residential subdivisions in the city reached 615 communities, of which 239 are gated communities, the highest in Metro Manila.
Area 1 is geographically situated inside the curve of a highway and is critical to the decongestion measures of the thoroughfare (MMUTIS). Accordingly, the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) wants the major private roads in this area be opened for public use. The Area 2 is outside the curve with lesser degree of accessibility issue, but has considerable size to merit a spatial impact.
Clustered GCs in Area 1 is composed of 14 GCs with an estimated total area of about 274 hectares, and Area 2 has 4 GCs with a combined area of approximately 100 hectares. Meanwhile, the Ordinary Community (OC) is a public and open community immediately surrounding the clustered GCs. In general, OC is a mixture of both the low-, medium-, and high-density (slum-like)neighborhoods. They are either planned or unplanned and composed of squatters or legitimate lot-owner residents. Unplanned OCs normally developed out of sprawl residential and commercial developments without adequate spaces allotted for recreation and social gathering. There are also OCs that were originally planned public residential subdivisions, but later the constructions were abandoned and left the project not fully developed. As a result, some vacant spaces allotted for the construction of roads and recreational facilities are now home of illegal settlers. Those fully developed planned public communities are also exposed to degradation due to the encroachment of undesirable mixed developments. At present, the main city park and local public sport facilities are the only places where the OC residents can freely gather for socialization and relaxation. These facilities, however, are not conveniently accessible compared to the situations in GCs.

Chapter III
Methodology

A. Research Methodology
A descriptive research methodology was used for this study. Descriptive research involved fact-finding with adequate interpretation of the data gathered. .The true meaning of the data collected was reported from the point of view of the objectives and the basic assumptions of the project underway.

B. Tools of Methodology
The tools used for the collection of data are primarily the following:
1.0 Library Books, References, Handouts, Literature
These materials from various libraries such as the Far Eastern University library and the University of the Philippines – Diliman library were used as related literature and reference for case studies.
* Colquhoun, I. (2004). Design out crime: Creating safe and sustainable communities. Oxford: Architectural Press.
* Cozens, P. (2007). Public health and the potential benefits of crime prevention through environmental design. New South Wales Public Health Bulletin, 18, 232-237.
* Cozens, P., Hillier, D., & Prescott, G. (1999). The sustainable and the criminogenic: the case of newbuild housing projects in Britain, Property Management, 17(3), 252-261.
* Cozens, P. M. (2002). Sustainable urban development and crime prevention through environmental design for the British city, Towards an effective urban environmentalism for the 21st century. Cities, 19(2), 129-137.
* Cozens, P., Hillier, D., & Prescott, G. (1999). The sustainable and the criminogenic: the case of newbuild housing projects in Britain, Property Management, 17(3), 252-261.
* Crowe, T. D. (1991). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: Applications of Architectural Design and Space Management Concepts, Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
* Geason, S., & Wilson, P. R. (1989). Designing out crime: Crime prevention through environmental design, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
* Haigh, Y. (2006). Promoting Safer Communities through Physical Design, Social Inclusion and Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, Murdoch. (Centre for Social and Community Research)
* Hedayati, M. (2009). Perception of Crime and an Assessment of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Elements in a Housing Area: A Case Study OF Minden Heights in Penang. Unpublished Msc Thesis, UniversitiSains Malaysia, Penang.
* Newman, O. (1972). Defensible space; crime prevention through urban design, New York: Macmillan.
* Parnaby, P. (2007). Crime prevention through environmental design: financial hardship, the dynamics of power, and the prospects of governance, Crime Law Soc Change, 48, 73-85.
* Sorensen, D. W. M. (2003). The Nature and Prevention of Residential Burglary: A Review of the International Literature with An Eye Toward Prevention in Denmark.
2.0 Computer / Internet Sources
Research through the internet was also done in order to gather more information and acquire more insights on the possible contributions of the study to the physical layout of the chosen barangay’s environment. A computer was used in encoding all data and in writing the entire research.
3.0 Mobile Phone Camera / Digital Camera
In gathering all the data needed, it also required tools such as mobile phone cameras or digital cameras for photographs and video cameras for the documentation of interviews, ocular observations and site visitations in the barangay.
4.0 Digital Recorder
In data gathering, the use of a digital recorder was essential. The interviews were satisfactorily conducted and were recorded through a digital recorder.The data obtained were said to be reliable to the research.
5.0 Papers, Log Books, Sketch Pads
Papers were used to record all observations made during ocular inspections and site visits. The gathered data logs, such as the Comprehensive Land Use Plan of Manila, population statistics, socio-economic profile of the barangay, crime profile and statistics, served as an outline of consideration and reference for the interpretation process of the study. Sketch pads were used for mapping activities.
6.0 Survey and Interview Forms
Survey forms were used to determine the prevalent crime and the underlying causes of the deprivation of the users’ safety and protection within the barangay. This tool was used to make the study viable and reliable. The interviews provided an opportunity for the interviewers to give information and to develop certain attitudes on the part of the respondents. This tool allowed the researchers to pursue an in-depth information about the different problems with regards to crime in the barangaythat are encountered by the users.

C. Instruments of Methodology
1.0 Library Research
With the development of the modern university system, the modern research library of the Far Eastern University and the University of the Philippines – Diliman developed as a mediator in the processes of knowledge creation and knowledge use of the study. The library was used as a place for knowledge representation – through classification – for dissemination and for archiving the different documents related to Barangay 365,Blumentritt, Manila.
The research library system provided the basis for the strategic analysis that has to be made for the study. Throughout the work on this study, the researchers had received help and support from many people in and around the research library system.
2.0 Survey
According to the objective of this study, the researchers intended to conduct a research survey that would determine the underlying causes of the deprivation of the users’ safety and protection. In order to determine these causes, the researchers developed a combination type – yes or no type and recognition type – of survey form to acquire the necessary data and information to achieve the objective.
The survey forms contained10 questions that were distributed among the users – residents, vendors, consumers, officials, etc. – of Barangay 365,Blumentritt, Manila(See Appendix A for the sample survey form).A number of 50 respondents were used to make the study viable and reliable.
3.0 Interview
Aside from the data acquired from the survey forms givento the users of Barangay 365, personal interviews were also conducted by the researchers to not only seek for further causes of the problem but also to seek for possible solutions and to find out how these would affect the entire surrounding and how the users would be safe.(See Appendix B for the list of interview questions) The researchers have chosen reliable respondents that may give useful information that would seek to cover a factual and meaningful level of answers. The personal interviews were made with various people who had been residing in the barangay for more than 10 years and with police officers.
* Ricardo Gaspar,77 years old
– Retired Driver
– Resident of Barangay 365 for 77 years
* FelescmaBagtas,76 years old
– Vendor, Obrero Market
– Resident of Barangay 365 for 60 years
* Jaime M. Chua, 60 years old
– Sidewalk/Street Vendor
– Resident of Barangay 365 for 43 years
* Zenaida A. Albos, 58 years old
– Sidewalk/Street Vendor
– Resident of Barangay 365 for 37 years
* Rene N. Alapide,57 years old
– Electrician, Obrero Market
– Resident of Barangay 365 for 37 years
* Jose C. Vicente,56 years old
– Barangay Kagawad, Barangay 365
– Resident of Barangay 365 for 56 years
* Luz Espiña, 49 years old
– Housewife
– Resident of Barangay 365 for 31 years
* Clifford Alabado, 45 years old
– Vendor, Obrero Market
– Resident of Barangay 365 for 45 years

* RiaBrillantes,33 years old
– Vendor, Grocery, Old Antipolo Street
– Resident of Barangay 365 for 33 years
* Mary Jane G. Ensipido, 22 years old
– Account Relation Assistant, Smart Communications
– Resident of Barangay 365 for 22 years
* P/Supt. Aldrine S. Gran
– Officer-in-Charge
– Manila Central Police Station – 3
* PO3 Raylene M. Cruz
– Police Officer
– Manila Central Police Station – 3
4.0 Site Visitations
According to the objective of this study, the researchers were also tasked to conduct observations on different areas that question the safety and security of the users in order to identify and determine possible solutions which can be adapted to the project. To ensure both the reliability and validity of the observation, the researchers conducted their observations at frequent intervals and had their observations recorded independently. This instrument of research included examining the community’s built environment, identifying the aspects of the physical environment that provide opportunities for criminal activities and analyzing how they compromise the safety of the community.

D. Procedures of Methodology
1.0 Library Research
In the early stages of the study, library research was done to establish the framework for the strategic analysis that has to be made for the study. The researchers visited the Far Eastern University Library on November 23, 25, and 29, 2013 after their classes from 3:30 PM to 6:00 PM. They used the books and theses from the Circulation and Undergraduate Thesis Section for their related literature and case studies. They also made use of the computers in the Electronic Library of the Far Eastern University to search for internet sources and online journals. The researchers also visited the Architecture Library of the University of the Philippines – Diliman on December 6, 2013 to look for reference materials which they could use in their study.
2.0 Survey
The survey form consisted of 10 questions that were given to the people of Barangay 365, Blumentritt, Manila. Out of 1,217residents of Barangay 365, a sample of 50 respondents was used to make the study viable and reliable. The respondents were residents and vendors in the barangay who were willing to participate in the survey. The survey forms were distributed by going store-to-store, house-to-house or just wandering along the streets of the barangay. The surveys were done on January 4, 2014, from 1:00 PM to 5:00 PM.
3.0 Interview
The interviews were done as an alternative method of collecting data survey and were useful in obtaining information and opinions from theusers and from experts. The interviewees were residents and vendors in the barangay who were willing to participate in the interview. The interviews were conducted on three dates – January 11, 18 and 21, 2014.
* January 11 and 18, 2014 (Saturday) -On both days, the interviews were conducted between 9:00 A.M. to 2:00 P.M. with a one-hour break from 12:00 N.N. to 1:00 P.M. for the researchers to rest and to eat lunch. The researchers went around the barangay and looked for willing participants living in the barangay for more than 10 years. The researchers made small talk to get the background of the interviewees before easing in the interview questions that was prepared beforehand. The responses of the interviewees were recorded using a digital recorder
* January 28, 2014 (Tuesday) – The researchers went to Manila Central Police Station – 3 to retrieve the data they requested and to interview P/Supt. Aldrine S. Gran and PO-3 Raylene M. Cruz. The interview was done at 4:00 P.M. after the researchers’ classes. Due to the busy schedule of both P/Supt. Aldrine S. Gran and PO-3 Raylene M. Cruz, the interview was only conducted for thirty minutes each. Their responses were recorded using a digital recorder
4.0 Site Visitations
Site visits were done to observeand identify the different areas that question the safety and security of the users in order to determine possible solutions which can be adapted to the project. The site visitations were done on ten dates: November 22 and 26, 2013; December 1 and 4, 2013; January 4, 11, 18, 23, 24, and 25, 2014.
* November 22, 2013 (Friday) and November 26, 2013 (Tuesday) -Prior to the development of the survey questions, the researchers had explored Barangay 365 on these days in an attempt to gain an overview of the problems of the barangay and to take pictures around the vicinity.
* December 1, 2013 (Sunday) -The researchers visited the barangay and did a casual stroll and ocular inspection of the site from 9:00 A.M. to 12:00 N.N. The boundaries of the barangay were identified. The general problems of the barangay were pinpointed. All observations were jotted down on a sheet of paper along with time the observations were made.
* December 4, 2013 (Wednesday) – The researchers visited the barangay again and did a casual stroll and ocular inspection of the site from 4:00 P.M. to 6:00 P.M. The problems of the barangay related to the safety and security of the residents were identified. The researchers casually interviewed the residents.All observations were jotted down on a sheet of paper along with time the observations were made.
* January 4, 2014 (Saturday) – The surveys were distributedand observations around the site were done simultaneously from 1:00 PM to 5:00 P.M.
* January 11 and 18, 2014 (Saturday) – On these days, the interviews were conducted between 9:00 A.M. to 2:00 P.M. with a one-hour break from 12:00 N.N. to 1:00 P.M. for the researchers to rest and to eat lunch.
* January 23, 2014 (Thursday) -The researchers visited the barangay and did a more thorough inspection of the site from 5:00 P.M. to 8:00 P.M. The boundaries of the barangay were identified. The general problems of the barangay were pinpointed. All observations were jotted down on a sheet of paper along with time the observations were made.
* January 24, 2014 (Friday) – The researchers returned to observe the barangay from 11:00 A.M. to 4:00 P.M. Site conditions, vehicle and pedestrian traffic patterns, behavior and activities of the people were observed and recorded. All observations were jotted down on a sheet of paper along with time the observations were made.
* January 25, 2014 (Saturday) -The researchers returned again to observe the barangay from 5:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M. Between those times, the extensionof the market along the Old Antipolo Street,Manuel Hizon Street, Felix Huertas Road, and Sulu Street was open and was the busiest. Site conditions, vehicle and pedestrian traffic patterns, behavior and activities of the people were observed and recorded. All observations were jotted down on a sheet of paper along with time the observations were made.
Chapter IV
Presentation and Analysis of Data

A. User Analysis
1.0 Population

Figure 1. Population of Barangay 365, Blumentritt, Manila

Barangay 365 started as a relatively small community of around 50 to 100 families. By the time of urbanization, it had developed into a large community being headed by elected officials, the topmost being the kapitan. At present, it has a total population of 1,623 made up of 816 female and 807 male. Majority of the residents are vendors at the market or along the streets of the barangay.

2.0Organizational Structure

Figure 2. Barangay Organizational Chart

Mayor: Mayor Joseph EjercitoEstrada
Vice Mayor:Vice Mayor Francisco MorenoDomagoso
Barangay Captain:Kap. Peter Z. Bautista, Jr.
Kagawads:
1. Jose T. Bañares
2. Rudolfo L. Millar
3. Lu-Angel D.G. Godoy
4. Richard A. Claudio
5. Jose C. Vicente
6. Randel M. Miranda
7. Rebecca D. Daub

B. Crime Profile and Crime Rate Statistics
Figure 3.Barangay 365 Crime Statistics from January to December 2012
Figure 4.Barangay 365 Crime Statistics from January to December 2013

C. Survey Results
Figure 5.Age Range of the Respondents

Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure .Years of Residency of the Respondents

Figure .

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Figure .
D. Site Analysis
1.0 Macro Site Analysis
1.1 City of Manila

Figure .Locational Setting of Barangay 365, Blumentritt, Manila

The City of Manila is part of the National Capital Region. It covers a land area of 4,045.8 hectares including all reclaimed areas along the Manila Bay. It is strategically located on the eastern coast of Manila Bay at the mouth of Pasig River, which runs on an east-west course through the center dividing the city into northern and southern sections. Manila is bounded by seven other cities and municipalities: on the north by Navotas and Caloocan, on the northeast by Quezon City, on the east by San Juan and Mandaluyong, on the southeast by Makati and on the south by Pasay City.
Due to the existence of a developed port infrastructure, Manila serves as a major loading port of the country, the center of the country’s shipping network, and the link to the country’s many island destinations. There are four general entrance and exit points to the city: (1) from the north (Navotas and Caloocan) – R-10; Honorio Lopez, Juan Luna, Rizal Avenue and the railways, (2) from the east (Quezon City and Mandaluyong) – A. Bonifacio St., Dapitan, España, Magsaysay Boulevard, South Super Highway, Vito Cruz Extension, (3) from the south, Taft Avenue and Roxas Boulevard and, (4) from the west – the North Port and South Port.

Figure . Vicinity Map of Manila Subdivided into Districts

Manila is divided into six districts: (1) District I –

Figure .Offical Manila City District III Map

Figure .Offical Manila City Zoning Map – District III
E. S.W.O.T. Analysis
F. Pertinent Codes, Laws and Ordinances
1.0 Manila Ordinance No. 8119:Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Zoning Ordinance of 2006
ARTICLE IV
ZONE CLASSIFICATION
SEC. 7.Division into Zones or Districts. – To effectively carry out the provisionsof this Ordinance, the City of Manila is hereby divided into the following zones ordistricts as shown in the Official Zoning Maps.
A. General Residential Zone:
1. High Density Residential/Mixed Use Zone (R-3/MXD)
B. Commercial Zones:
2. Medium Intensity Commercial/Mixed Use Zone (C-2/MXD)
3. High Intensity Commercial/Mixed Use Zone (C-3/MXD)
ARTICLE V
ZONE REGULATIONS
SEC. 11.General Provision. The uses enumerated in the succeeding sectionsare neither exhaustive nor all-inclusive.
Specific uses/activities of lesser density within a particular zone (C-2/MXD) may beallowed within the zone of higher density (C-3/MXD) but not vice versa, nor in anotherzone and its subdivisions (e.g. I-1,I-2), except for uses expressly allowed in said zones,such that the cumulative effect of zoning shall be intra-zonal and not inter-zonal.
Developments of Mixed-Use character (R3/MXD, C2/MXD) shall have a 70/30 sharingof uses. Where 70% of the development must be of the principal use (e.g. R3/MXD -the principal use is residential) and the other 30% can be of any of the allowed useswithin the zone category.
SEC. 14. Use Regulations in High Intensity Commercial/Mixed Use Zone (C-3/MXD). A C-3/MXD Zone shall be used primarily for high intensity mixed use and commercial developments for trade, business activities and service industries. The service area covers a metropolitan to national scale of operations. Enumerated below are the allowable uses:
1. All uses in C-2/MXD Zone provided that in case of a residential building it shall have commercial footprints
2. Manufacture of wood furniture including upholstered
3. Manufacture of rattan furniture including upholstered
4. Manufacture of box beds and mattresses
5. Small-scale commercial warehousing activity
6. Large-scale commercial warehousing activity (strictly located at District I)
7. Other commercial activities and those not elsewhere classified
Service Area: Metropolis to Nation wide
The following is the Land Use Intensity Control ratings that shall be observed in the C- 3/MXD Zone:
LAND USE Maximum PLO Maximum FAR Commercial/Mixed Use
High Intensity Commercial/Mixed Use C3/MXD 0.8 7 PLO – Percentage of Land Occupancy
FAR – Floor Area Ratio
ARTICLE VI
GENERAL LAND USE INTENSITY CONTROL
SEC. 26.Development Density. Permitted density shall be based on the zones’capacity to support development.
B. All Other Zones
There is no fixed maximum density but should be based in the planned absolute level ofdensity that is intended for each concerned zone based on the comprehensive land useplan.
SEC. 27.Height Regulations. – Building height must conform to the heightrestrictions and requirements of the Air Transportation Office (ATO), as well as therequirements of the National Building Code, the Structural Code, as well as all laws,ordinances, design standards, rules and regulations related to land development andbuilding construction and the various safety codes.
B. All Other Zones
There is no fixed building Height limit except those prescribed by the AirTransportation Office (ATO) and other government regulations. Within thesezones, building heights shall be based on the prescribed FLOOR Area Ratio(FAR).
SEC. 28.Area Regulations. – Area regulation in all zones shall conform with theminimum requirement of the existing codes such as:
a. P.D. 957 – the “Subdivision and Condominium Buyers’ ProtectiveLaw” and its revised implementing rules and regulations
b. B.P. 220 – “Promulgation of Different Levels of Standards andTechnical Requirements for Economic and Socialized HousingProjects” and its revised implementing rules and regulations
c. P.D. 1096 – National Building Code and its implementing rules and regulations
d. Fire Code; Sanitation Code; Plumbing Code; Structural Code
e. E.O. 648 – Reorganizing the Human Settlement’s RegulatoryCommission
f. Other relevant guidelines promulgated by the national agenciesconcerned
SEC. 29.Additional FAR Provisions. – Additional FAR beyond the prescribedallowable maximum FAR can be availed through the following development modessubject to the requirements of the IRR of this Ordinance:
29.1. Transit-Oriented Developments (TOD) – in all commercial zones (C-2/MXD, C-3/MXD), a building or a structure that is within four hundred (400) meters walkingdistance from an existing LRT or commuter rail station will be allowed to buildthree (3) FAR higher than the maximum FAR specified in this Zoning Ordinance,PROVIDED, That the building owner/s or developer/s should build and maintain,at his cost, a direct, elevated as to being in the same level as the terminal, well-ventilated,sheltered pedestrian link from his building to the immediate structureof the transit station/terminal building as approved by the Building Official and inconsultation with concerned transit authorities, this link must be of sufficientdimension to accommodate public pedestrian volumes and must be kept open,safe, and well-lighted for the use of the general public at least during a periodthat extends before and after regular working hours.
As for all commercial zones (C-2/MXD, C-3/MXD), with a 400 meter distance butless than eight hundred (800) meters from the LRT or commuter rail station,these areas will be allowed to build one and a half (1.5) FAR higher than themaximum FAR specified in this Zoning Ordinance, PROVIDED, That thesedevelopments should be built and maintained by the owner/s or developer/s, athis cost, a sheltered pedestrian link from his structure connecting to those otherstructures within 400-meter distance T.O.D. pedestrian link towards the specifiedtransport terminal.
SEC. 32.Specific Provisions in the National Building Code. – Specific provisionsstipulated in the National Building Code (P.D.1096) as amended thereto relevant totraffic generators, advertising and business signs, erection of more than one principalstructure, dwelling or rear lots, access yard requirements and dwelling groups, whichare not in conflict with the provisions of the Zoning Ordinance, shall be observed.
SEC. 41.Dwelling Group. – When it is impractical to apply the requirements of these Zoning Regulations to individual building unit in a residential compound, consisting of two or more buildings, a permit for the construction of such compound may be issued, PROVIDED, That the plan thereof conform to the following conditions:
a. That the buildings are to be used only for residential purposes and such uses are permitted in the district where the compound is located.
b. That the average lot area per family of dwelling unit in the compound, exclusive of the area used or to be used for streets or driveways, is not less than the lot area per family required in the districts.
c. That there is provided, within the tract on which the residential compound is to be located, an open space for playground purposes with an area equivalent to at least an aggregate area of five (5%) percent of the required lot area per family, but in no case less than one hundred square meters; PROVIDED, That where the residential compound is intended for less than ten families, the setting aside of such area for playground purposes may be dispensed with; and PROVIDED FURTHER, That an open space may be used as part of the yard requirements for the compound; and
d. That there is provided within the tract on which the residential compound is to be erected or immediately adjacent thereto, an adequate private garage or off-street parking area, depending on the needs of the residents and their visitors.
ARTICLE VII
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
All land uses, developments or constructions shall conform to the noise, vibration, smoke, dust, dirt and fly ash, odors and gases, glare and heat, industrial wastes, sewage disposal, storm, drainage, pollution control, and other similar environmental standards of the National Building Code, The Clean Air Act, and other applicable laws, rules and regulations.
SEC. 44.Buffer Yards. – Aside from providing light and ventilation, buffers can mitigate adverse impacts and nuisances between two adjacent developments. Whenever necessary, buffers shall be required to extend and/or provided with planting materials in order to ameliorate said negative conditions such as, but not limited to, noise, odor, unsightly buildings or danger from fires and explosions. Building setbacks shall be considered as buffer yards. A buffer may also contain barrier, such as a fence, where such additional screening is necessary to achieve the desired level of buffering between various activities.
SEC. 46. Network of Green and Open Spaces. – Aside from complying with theopen space requirements of PD 957, BP 220 and other related issuances, the followingshall apply:
1. All residential, commercial, industrial and mixed-use subdivisionsare required to provide tree-planted strips along its internal roadshaving spacing of not more than ten (10) meters.
3. Residential compounds, regardless of total lot area, shall provide anopen space for playground purposes with an area equivalent to atleast five percent (5%) of the required lot area per family. Where theresidential compound is intended for less than ten (10) families, thesetting aside of such area for playground purposes may bedispensed with, PROVIDED, That an open space may be used aspart of the yard requirement for the compound.
* Note: All designated open spaces shall not be converted to other uses.

G. Architectural Programming
~Insert Space Interrelationship Diagram (Bubble Diagram)~
H. Architectural Translations
~Insert Architectural Translations (Bubble Diagram)~

Chapter V
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

Bibliography

Cozens, P. (2007b).Public health and the potential benefits of crime prevention through environmental design.New South Wales Public Health Bulletin, 18, 232-237.
Cozens, P., Hillier, D., & Prescott, G. (1999). The sustainable and the criminogenic: the case of newbuild housing projects in Britain, Property Management, 17(3), 252-261.
Cozens, P. M. (2002). Sustainable urban development and crime prevention through environmental design for the British city, Towards an effective urban environmentalism for the 21st century. Cities, 19(2), 129-137.
Cozens, P., Hillier, D., & Prescott, G. (1999). The sustainable and the criminogenic: the case of newbuild housing projects in Britain, Property Management, 17(3), 252-261.
Crowe, T. D. (1991). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: Applications of Architectural Design and Space Management Concepts, Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Geason, S., & Wilson, P. R. (1989).Designing out crime: Crime prevention through environmental design, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
Haigh, Y. (2006). Promoting Safer Communities through Physical Design, Social Inclusion and Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, Murdoch. (Centre for Social and Community Research)
Hedayati, M. (2009).Perception of Crime and an Assessment of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Elements in a Housing Area: A Case Study OF Minden Heights in Penang. Unpublished Msc Thesis, UniversitiSains Malaysia, Penang.
Newman, O. (1972). Defensible space; crime prevention through urban design, New York: Macmillan.
Parnaby, P. (2007). Crime prevention through environmental design: financial hardship, the dynamics of power, and the prospects of governance, Crime Law Soc Change, 48, 73-85.
Sorensen, D. W. M. (2003). The Nature and Prevention of Residential Burglary: A Review of the International Literature with An Eye Toward Prevention in Denmark.

Appendix A: Sample Survey Form

Magandangaraw!
Kami po ay mga mag-aaralnakumukuha ng BS Architecture sa Far Eastern University. Gumagawapo kami ng isangpag-aaraltungkolsaiba’tibangaspetongpisikal ng barangay namaaringmagingsanhi ng pagkakaroon ng krimenditoupangmakapagmungkahi kami ng mgasolusyongarkitekturalupangmabawasan kung hindi man ganapnamasugpoangkrimendito. Humihingipo kami ng mgailangminuto ng inyongoras para sagutanangkuwestyonaryongito.Maramingsalamatpo.

Profile ng Tagasagot

Pangalan: _________________________________________________________________________
Address ng Tirahan: ________________________________________________________________
Edad: ____________________ Kasarian: _____ Babae _____ Lalaki
Trabaho: _________________ Kumpanya / Lugar naPinagtatrabahuhan: __________
Civil Status: _____ Single _____ May Asawa _____Byudo / Byuda _____HiwalaysaAsawa
May anak?_____ Meron _____ Wala Kung mayroonganak, ilananginyonganak? _________
1. Kayo ba ay nakatiraditosa Barangay 365?
* Oo
* Hindi
1.1. Kung hindi, anopoangginagawaniyodito?
* Ditoakonagtratrabaho
* Ditoangdaanankopapuntasatrabaho / paaralan
* Namimilisapalengke
* Namamasyal
* May dinaralawnakamag-anak o kaibigannaresidenteditosa barangay
* Iba pang dahilan: ___________________________________________________________________
2. Gaanokatagalnakayongnaninirahanditosa barangay? _________________________
3. Kayo ba ay permanentengresidentedito o panamantanlangnakatiralamang?
* PermanentengResidente
* PanamantalangNakatira
4. Bakitditoniyonapilingmanirahan?
* Mura angpabahay / muraangupasabahay
* Malapitsapinapasukangtrabaho o paaralan
* Malapitsalrt station at saibangmgasakayan ng pampublikongsasakyan
* Kumpletoangpangkalahatangserbisyo ng tubig, kuryente, gas, atbp.
* Maganda at ligtasangkapaligiran para tirahan
* Iba pang dahilan: _________________________________________________________
5. Ligtas at panatagbaangloobniyokapag kayo ay naglalakad o dumadaansamgakalyeditosa barangay sakahitanongoras?
5.1. Kapagmadalingaraw? (3:00 AM – 6:00 AM)
* Oo
* Hindi
5.2. Kapagumaga? (6:00 AM – 11:00 AM)
* Oo
* Hindi
5.3. KapagTanghali? (11:00 AM – 01:00 PM)
* Oo
* Hindi
5.4. KapagHapon? (01:00 PM – 06:00 PM)
* Oo
* Hindi
5.5. Kapag Gabi? (06:00 PM – 11:00 PM)
* Oo
* Hindi
5.4. KapagDisoras ng Gabi? (11:00 PM – 03:00 AM)
* Oo
* Hindi
6. Anoangmgapinakalaganapnakrimensainyong barangay?
* Pagnanakaw/Panghohold-up/Pang-iisnatch/Pandurukot
* Rape
* Illegal Drugs
* Pagpatay
* Pambubugbog
* Pagsagasa
* Iba pang krimen: __________________________________________________________
7. Gaanokadalas may mganangyayaringkrimensainyong barangay?
* Maramingbesessaisangaraw. Paki-saad kung mgailangbesessaisangaraw: ________
* Araw-araw
* May ilangbeseskadalinggo. Paki-saad kung mgailangbeseskadalinggo: _________
* Paminsan-minsan
8. Saanmadalasna may nangyayaringkrimen? ___________________________________________________________________________
9. Anoangmayroonsamgalugarnaiyon at nagigingpaboritoiyongpangyarihan ng krimen?
* Madilim
* Liblib
* Masukal
* Matao
* Iba pang dahilan: ____________________
10. Anosatinginniyoangmaaringgawin at ayusin para mabawasan kung hindi man ganapnamasugpoangkrimen?
* Paglalagay ng dagdagna poste ng ilaw
* Pagkakabit ng mga CCTV Camera
* Pagtatalaga ng maayosna terminal ng pampublikongsasakyan
* Paglipat ng mgalugarsakayan at babaan
* Pagtatanggal o paglipat ng mgatindahan at iba pang balakidsakalsada at sabangketa
* Pagsasa-ayosmgapampublikonglugartulad ng paaralan, palengke, atbp.
* Iba pang maaringgawin: ____________________________________________________

Appendix B: Interview Questions

Pangalan:
Edad:
Trabaho/Ikinabubuhay:

MgaTanong:
1. Nakatirapoba kayo saBarangay 365?
2. Gaanokatagalnapokayongnakatirasa Barangay 365?
3. Satagalniyona pong nakatiradito, mayroonpobakayongnasaksihan o nabalitaang may nangyaringkrimenditosa barangaytulad ng pagnanakaw (panloob ng bahay o tindahan/ pagsnatch or hold-up/etc), paggamit o pagbebenta ng ilegalnadroga, pagsusugal, pag-aawaynahumahantongsasakitan o patayan, atbp?
4. Paanonangyayariangmgaito? Saansa barangay nangyayariangmgaito?
5. Mgaresidentebaangsangkotdito o tagalabas?
6. Lahatba ng krimennairereportsa barangay o pulis?
7. Kung hindinairereport, anoangnangyayari?

Appendix C: Request Letters

A. Request Letter to Ma’am Ma. Minerva Sinaguinan of the Manila Barangay Bureau

21 January 2014

MA. MINERVA SINAGUINAN
Officer-in-Charge
Records Section
Manila Barangay Bureau
Manila City Hall
Dear Ma’am:

We are 4th Year BS Architecture students at the Far Eastern University – Institute of Architecture and Fine Arts, conducting a study on the Rehabilitation of Barangay 365, Blumentritt, Manila as part of the requirements for our SPECIALIZATION 1 (Community Architecture) class under Arch’t. Melba A. Paual.The study involves examining the community’s physical environment, identifying the aspects of the physical environment that provide opportunities for criminal activities and analyzing how they compromise the safety of the community.

We would like to request for a copy of Barangay 365’s population statistics, socio-economic profile, crime profile, crime rate statistics and other data or information pertinent to our study. All information or document provided by your office would be strictly for academic purposes.

Thank you for taking the time to read our letter. We are earnestly praying to get a favorable response from you. If you have any questions, we may be reached through the numbers listed below.
B. Request Letter to P/Supt. Aldrine S. Gran, Officer-in-Charge of Police Station 3

21 January 2014

P/SUPT. ALDRINE S. GRAN
Officer-in-Charge
Police Station-3
Sta. Cruz, Manila
ATTN: ADMIN SECTION
We are 4th Year BS Architecture students at the Far Eastern University – Institute of Architecture and Fine Arts, conducting a study on the Rehabilitation of Barangay 365, Blumentritt, Manila as part of the requirements for our SPECIALIZATION 1 (Community Architecture) class under Arch’t. Melba A. Paual.The study involves examining the community’s physical environment, identifying the aspects of the physical environment that provide opportunities for criminal activities and analyzing how they compromise the safety of the community.

We would like to request for a copy of Barangay 365’s crime profile, crime rate statistics and other data or information pertinent to our study. All information or document provided by your office would be strictly for academic purposes.

Thank you for taking the time to read our letter. We are earnestly praying to get a favorable response from you. If you have any questions, we may be reached through the numbers listed below.
C. Request Letter to P/Supt. Isagani F. Genabe, Jr., District Director of the Manila Police District

24 January 2014

P/CSUPT.ISAGANIF. GENABE, JR.
District Director
Manila Police District, NCRPO
Dear Sir:

We are 4th Year BS Architecture students at the Far Eastern University – Institute of Architecture and Fine Arts, conducting a study on the Rehabilitation of Barangay 365, Blumentritt, Manila as part of the requirements for our SPECIALIZATION 1 (Community Architecture) class under Arch’t. Melba A. Paual.The study involves examining the community’s physical environment, identifying the aspects of the physical environment that provide opportunities for criminal activities and analyzing how they compromise the safety of the community.

We would like to request for a copy of Barangay 365’s crime profile, crime rate statistics and other data or information pertinent to our study. All information or document provided by your office would be strictly for academic purposes.

Thank you for taking the time to read our letter. We are earnestly praying to get a favorable response from you. If you have any questions, we may be reached through the numbers listed below.

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