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Asepsis
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Asepsis is the practice to reduce or eliminate contaminants (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) from entering the operative field in surgery or medicine to prevent infection. Ideally, a field is “sterile” – free of contaminants – a situation that is difficult to attain. However, the goal is elimination of infection, not sterility.
Contents
[hide]
* 1 Related terms
* 2 History
* 3 Methods
* 4 External links [edit] Related terms
Antiseptis is a term used sometimes as a synonym, but also applies to the uses of antiseptics. Antiseptics are agents that reduce or kill germs chemically and are applied to skin and wound surfaces. In contrast, disinfectants are chemicals applied to inert surfaces and are usually too harsh to be used on biological surfaces. Antibiotics kill specifically bacteria and work biochemically; they can be used externally or internally.
[edit] History
The first step in asepsis is cleanliness, a concept already espoused by Hippocrates. The modern concept of asepsis evolved in the 19th century. Semmelweis showed that washing the hands prior to delivery reduced puerperal fever. After the suggestion by Louis Pasteur, Lister introduced the use of carbolic acid as an antiseptic and reduced surgical infections rates. Lawson Tait went from antisepsis to asepsis, introducing principles and practices that have remained valid to this day. Ernst von Bergmann introduced the autoclave, a device used for the sterilisation of surgical instruments.
[edit] Methods
Today’s techniques include a series of steps that complement each other. Foremost remains good hygienic practice. The procedure room is laid out according to specific guidelines, subject to regulations concerning filtering and airflow, and kept clean between surgical cases. A patient who is brought for the procedure is washed and wears a clean gown. The surgical site is washed, possibly shaved, and skin is exposed to a germicide (i.e., an iodine solution such as betadine). In turn, members of the surgical team wash hands and arms with germicidal solution. Operating surgeons and nurses wear sterile gowns and gloves. Hair is covered and a surgical mask is worn. Instruments are sterilized through autoclaving, or, if disposable, are used once. Irrigation is used in the surgical site. Suture material or xenografts have been sterilized beforehand. Dressing material is sterile. Antibiotics are often not necessary in a “clean” case, that is, a surgical procedure where no infection is apparent; however, when a case is considered “contaminated,” they are usually indicated.
Dirty and biologically contaminated material is subject to regulated disposal.
[edit] External links
This template is misplaced. It belongs on the talk page: Talk:Sepsis.
Sepsis (in Greek S????, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. Septicaemia is sepsis of the bloodstream caused by bacteremia, which is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. The term septicaemia is also used to refer to sepsis in general.
Contents
[hide]
* 1 Epidemiology
* 2 Signs and symptoms
* 3 Definition of sepsis
* 4 Treatment
* 5 Related conditions/complications
* 6 References
* 7 See also
* 8 External links [edit] Epidemiology
In the United States, sepsis is the leading cause of death in non-coronary ICU patients, and the tenth most common cause of death overall according to 2000 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[1] Sepsis is common and also more dangerous in elderly, immunocompromised, and critically ill patients. It occurs in 1%-2% of all hospitalizations and accounts for as much as 25% of intensive care unit (ICU) bed utilization. It is a major cause of death in intensive care units worldwide, with mortality rates that range from 20% for sepsis to 40% for severe sepsis to >60% for septic shock.
[edit] Signs and symptoms
Symptoms of sepsis are often related to the underlying infectious process. When the infection crosses into sepsis, the resulting symptoms are tachycardia, tachypnea, pyrexia and/or decreased urination.
The immunological response that causes sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response causing widespread activation of inflammation and coagulation pathways. This may progress to dysfunction of the circulatory system and, even under optimal treatment, may result in the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and eventually death.
[edit] Definition of sepsis
Sepsis is considered present if infection is highly suspected or proven and two or more of the following systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria are met:[2]
* Heart rate > 90 beats per minute
* Body temperature < 36 (96.8 °F) or > 38 °C (100.4 °F)
* Hyperventilation (high respiratory rate) > 20 breaths per minute or, on blood gas, a PaCO2 less than 32 mm Hg
* White blood cell count < 4000 cells/mm³ or > 12000 cells/mm³ (< 4 x 109 or > 12 x 109 cells/L), or greater than 10% band forms (immature white blood cells).
Consensus definitions however continue to evolve with the latest expanding the list of signs and symptoms of sepsis to reflect clinical bedside experience.[3]
The more critical subsets of sepsis are severe sepsis (sepsis with acute organ dysfunction) and septic shock (sepsis with refractory arterial hypotension). Alternatively, when two or more of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria are met without evidence of infection, patients may be diagnosed simply with “SIRS.” Patients with SIRS and acute organ dysfunction may be termed “severe SIRS.”
Patients are defined as having “severe sepsis” if they have sepsis plus signs of systemic hypoperfusion; either end organ dysfunction or a serum lactate greater then 4 mmol/dL. Patient are defined as having septic shock if they have sepsis plus hypotension after an appropriate fluid bolus (typically 20 ml/kg of crystaloid).
The criteria for diagnosing an adult with sepsis do not apply to infants under one month of age. In infants, only the presence of infection plus a “constellation” of signs and symptoms consistent with the systemic response to infection are required for diagnosis (Oski’s Pediatrics, 2006).
[edit] Treatment
The therapy of sepsis rests on antibiotics, surgical drainage of infected fluid collections, fluid replacement and appropriate support for organ dysfunction. This may include hemodialysis in kidney failure, mechanical ventilation in pulmonary dysfunction, transfusion of blood products, and drug and fluid therapy for circulatory failure. Ensuring adequate nutrition, if necessary by parenteral nutrition, is important during prolonged illness.
A problem in the adequate management of septic patients has been the delay in administering therapy after sepsis has been recognized. Published studies have demonstrated that for every hour delay in the administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy there is an associated 7% rise in mortality. A large international collaboration was established to educate people about sepsis and to improve patient outcomes with sepsis, entitled the “Surviving Sepsis Campaign.” The Campaign has published an evidence-based review of management strategies for severe sepsis,[4] with the aim to publish a complete set of guidelines in subsequent years.
Early Goal Directed Therapy (EGDT), developed at Henry Ford Hospital by E. Rivers, MD, is a systematic approach to resuscitation that has been validated in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. It is meant to be started in the Emergency Department. The theory is that one should use a step-wise approach, having the patient meet physiologic goals, to optimze cardiac preload, afterload, and contractility, thus optimizing oxygen delivery to the tissues.[5]
In EGDT, fluids are administered until the central venous pressure (CVP), as measured by a central venous catheter reachs 8-12 cm of water (or 10-15 cm of water in mechanically ventilated patients). If the mean arterial pressure is less than 65 mmHg or greater than 90 mmHg, vasopressors or vasodilators are given as needed to reach the goal. Once these goals are met the central venous saturation (ScvO2), i.e. the oxgyen saturation of venous blood as it returns to the heart as measured at the superior vena cava, is optimized. If the ScvO2 is less than 70%, blood is given to reach a hemoglobin of 10 g/dl and then inotropes are added until the ScvO2 is optimized. Elective intubation may be performed to reduce oxygen demand if the ScvO2 remains low despite optimization of hemodynamics. Urine output is also monitored, with a goal of 0.5 ml/kg/h. In the original trial, mortality was cut from 46.5% in the control group to 30.5% in the intervention group.[5] The Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines recommends EGDT for the initial resuscitation of the septic patient with a level B strength of evidence (single randomized control trial).[4]
Most therapies aimed at the inflammatory process itself have failed to improve outcome, however drotrecogin alfa (activated protein C, one of the coagulation factors) has been shown to decrease mortality from about 31% to about 25% in severe sepsis. To qualify for drotrecogin alfa, a patient must have severe sepsis or septic shock with an APACHE II score of 25 or greater and a low risk of bleeding.[6] Low dose hydrocortisone treatment has shown promise for septic shock patients with relative adrenal insufficiency as defined by ACTH stimulation testing.[7]
Standard treatment of infants with suspected sepsis consists of supportive care, maintaining fluid status with intravenous fluids, and the combination of a beta-lactam antibiotic (such as ampicillin) with an aminoglycoside such as gentamicin.
[edit] Related conditions/complications
* Infection is the invasion of normally sterile host tissues by a microbial pathogen.
* Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the blood. Bacteremia can occur in sepsis and other serious diseases such as infective endocarditis, bacteremic pyelonephritis or pneumonia and meningitis but it may also be a harmless and transient condition.
* Septic joint is an infection of a joint; it is associated with bacteremia and trauma.
* Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) can be the result of sepsis
* Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) leading to acute renal failure, can be the result of hypoperfusion of the kidneys in sepsis (i.e. not enough blood gets to the kidney and they stop working properly)
* Arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm; it can be the result of sepsis.
* Ileus or ischemic colitis can be the result (hypoperfusion) or cause of sepsis
* Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome can be the result of sepsis
* Meningitis, infection of the tissue that covers the brain and spinal cord, can be a complication or cause of sepsis
* Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone; it can be the cause or result of sepsis
* Endocarditis, infection of the inner surface of heart which is in contact with blood, can also be a complication or cause of sepsis
* Pyaemia – causes abscesses
[edit] References
1. ^ Martin GS, Mannino DM, Eaton S, Moss M. The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N Engl J Med. 2003 Apr 17;348(16):1546-54. PMID 12700374 Full Text.
2. ^ Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, Dellinger RP, Fein AM, Knaus WA, Schein RM, Sibbald WJ. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine. Chest. 1992 Jun;101(6):1644-55. PMID 1303622.
3. ^ Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, Abraham E, Angus D, Cook D, Cohen J, Opal SM, Vincent JL, Ramsay G; SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS. 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Crit Care Med. 2003 Apr;31(4):1250-6.
4. ^ a b Dellinger RP, Carlet JM, Masur H, Gerlach H, Calandra T, Cohen J, Gea-Banacloche J, Keh D, Marshall JC, Parker MM, Ramsay G, Zimmerman JL, Vincent JL, Levy MM; Surviving Sepsis Campaign Management Guidelines Committee. Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2004 Mar;32(3):858-73. Erratum in: Crit Care Med. 2004 Jun;32(6):1448. Correction of dosage error in text. Crit Care Med. 2004 Oct;32(10):2169-70. PMID 15090974.
5. ^ a b Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, Ressler J, Muzzin A, Knoblich B, Peterson E, Tomlanovich M; Early Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1368-77.
6. ^ Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, LaRosa SP, Dhainaut JF, Lopez-Rodriguez A, Steingrub JS, Garber GE, Helterbrand JD, Ely EW, Fisher CJ Jr; Recombinant human protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) study group. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2001 Mar 8;344(10):699-709. PMID 11236773 Full Text.
7. ^ Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C, Bollaert PE, Francois B, Korach JM, Capellier G, Cohen Y, Azoulay E, Troche G, Chaumet-Riffaut P, Bellissant E. Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. JAMA. 2002 Aug 21;288(7):862-71. PMID 12186604.
[edit] See also
* Meningococcemia
* Septic shock
* Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
[edit] External links
* Surviving Sepsis Campaign
* International Sepsis Forum
* Advances in Sepsis journal
* sepsis.com: [1]
* Medscape Sepsis Resource Center
Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sepsis”
Categories: Cleanup from June 2007 | All pages needing cleanup | Wikipedia articles needing context | Wikipedia introduction cleanup | Wikipedia articles that are too technical | Main pages with misplaced talk page templates | Infectious diseases | Medical emergencies | Intensive care medicine

Asepsis
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Unter Asepsis (griech. “Keimfreiheit”, wörtlich “ohne Fäulnis”) versteht man in der Medizin alle Maßnahmen zur Beseitigung von Krankheitserregern. Sie soll das Eindringen von Viren, Bakterien und Pilzen in den Organismus bei chirurgischen Eingriffen verhindern.
Maßnahmen zur Asepsis (“aseptische Kautelen”) sind unter anderem:
* Raumdesinfektion, wobei hier nur Grenzwerte erreicht werden können. Einen Raum, in dem Menschen arbeiten, kann man nicht völlig sterilisieren.
* Sterilisation (Keimfreimachung) aller medizinischen Instrumente und der Kleidung (Operationskittel, Handschuhe), Verwendung steril verpackter Einmalinstrumente und -kleidung. Man muss auch hier bedenken, dass es einige Sporenbildner und Viren gibt, die sich von den üblichen Sterilisationsverfahren nicht inaktivieren lassen.
* Raumluftsterilisation, auch “Laminar Flow” genannt, bedeutet, dass der Arbeitsbereich mit einer laminaren, von oben nach unten gerichteten Strömung steril filtrierter Luft durchströmt wird. Dies soll verhindern, dass Keime aufgewirbelt werden, bzw. werden diese am Boden gehalten. Die in dem Bereich arbeitenden Personen tragen partikelarme Kleidung sowie einen Mundschutz. In besonderen Fällen kann die ausgeatmete Luft laufend abgesaugt werden. Diese Technik stellt derzeit (2005) das Höchstmaß an Keimarmut dar, das erreichbar ist.
* Verhalten im Operationsaal: Hier gibt es einige Verhaltensregeln, die ebenfalls einer Verkeimung entgegenwirken sollen
Abzugrenzen von dem Begriff der Asepsis ist die Antisepsis, die keine vollständige Keimfreiheit, sondern nur eine Keimreduktion bedeutet.
Siehe auch [Bearbeiten]
* Hospitalismus
Alternative names Return to top
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)
Definition Return to top
Sepsis is a severe illness caused by overwhelming infection of the bloodstream by toxin-producing bacteria.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors Return to top
Sepsis is caused by bacterial infection that can originate anywhere in the body. Common sites include the following:
* The kidneys (upper urinary tract infection)
* The liver or the gall bladder
* The bowel (usually seen with peritonitis)
* The skin (cellulitis)
* The lungs (bacterial pneumonia)
Meningitis may also be accompanied by sepsis. In children, sepsis may accompany infection of the bone (osteomyelitis). In hospitalized patients, common sites of infection include intravenous lines, surgical wounds, surgical drains, and sites of skin breakdown known as decubitus ulcers or bedsores.
The infection is often confirmed by a positive blood culture, though blood cultures may be negative in individuals who have been receiving antibiotics. In sepsis, blood pressure drops, resulting in shock. Major organs and systems, including the kidneys, liver, lungs, and central nervous system, stop functioning normally.
A change in mental status and hyperventilation may be the earliest signs of impending sepsis.
Sepsis is often life-threatening, especially in people with a weakened immune system or other medical illnesses.
Symptoms Return to top
* Fever or hypothermia (low body temperature)
* Hyperventilation
* Chills
* Shaking
* Warm skin
* Skin rash
* Rapid heart beat
* Confusion or delirium
* Decreased urine output
Signs and tests Return to top
* White blood cell count that is low or high
* Platelet count that is low
* Blood culture that is positive for bacteria
* Blood gases that reveal acidosis
* Kidney function tests that are abnormal (early in the course of disease)
This disease may also alter the results of the following tests:
* Peripheral smear may demonstrate a low platelet count and destruction of red blood cells.
* Fibrin degradation products are often elevated, a condition that may be associated with a tendency to bleed.
* Blood differential — with immature white blood cells seen
Treatment Return to top
Septic patients usually require monitoring in an intensive care unit (ICU). “Broad spectrum” intravenous antibiotic therapy should be initiated as soon as sepsis is suspected.
The number of antibiotics administered may be decreased when the results of blood cultures become available and the causative organism is identified. The source of the infection should be discovered, if possible, which may mean further diagnostic testing. Sources such as infected intravenous lines or surgical drains should be removed, and sources such as abscesses should be surgically drained.
Supportive therapy with oxygen, intravenous fluids, and medications that increase blood pressure may be required for a good outcome. Dialysis may be necessary in the event of kidney failure, and mechanical ventilation is often required if respiratory failure occurs.
Expectations (prognosis) Return to top
The death rate can be as high as 60% for people with underlying medical problems. Mortality is less (but still significant) in individuals without other medical problems.
Complications Return to top
* Septic shock
* Impaired blood flow to vital organs (brain, heart, kidneys)
* Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Update Date: 8/8/2006
Sepsis is a serious but rare infection that is usually caused by bacteria. It occurs when bacteria, which can originate in a child’s lungs, intestines, urinary tract, or gallbladder, make toxins that cause the body’s immune system to attack the body’s own organs and tissues.
Sepsis can be frightening because if it is untreated, it can lead to serious complications that affect a child’s kidneys, lungs, brain, and hearing. But by learning to recognize the symptoms, you can help your child get treatment and fully recover.
Sepsis can affect a person of any age, but it is more prevalent in young infants whose immune systems have not developed enough to fight off overwhelming infections and people whose immune systems are compromised from conditions such as HIV.
If your infant has a rectal temperature of 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius), seems lethargic, uninterested in eating, or seems to be having difficulty breathing, it’s a good idea to call your child’s doctor. In an older child, the symptoms of sepsis may include a fever (an oral temperature at or above 99.5 degrees Fahrenheit [37.5 degrees Celsius]); your child may also seem lethargic, irritable, and may complain that his or her heart feels like it’s racing.
If your child’s temperature is normal, but you’re still concerned, it’s a good idea to call the doctor.
What Is Sepsis?
Sepsis occurs when the body’s normal reaction to inflammation or a bacterial infection goes into overdrive. With sepsis, the bacteria create a toxin that causes a widespread inflammation of the body’s organs and causes rapid changes in a person’s body temperature, blood pressure, and dysfunction in the lung and other organs.
Babies under the age of 2 months are more susceptible to sepsis because their immune systems have not yet developed enough to fight off some serious infections. It is also more prevalent in people of all ages whose immune systems are compromised by chronic illnesses and conditions like HIV.
Signs and Symptoms of Sepsis
Sepsis in newborns produces few concrete symptoms, though symptoms can vary widely between from child to child. Frequently, these babies suddenly aren’t feeling well or “just don’t look right” to their caretakers.
Some of the more common signs or symptoms of sepsis in newborns and young infants include:
* disinterest or difficulty in feeding
* fever (above 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit [38 degrees Celsius] rectally) or sometimes low, unstable temperatures
* irritability or increased crankiness
* lethargy (not interacting and listless)
* decreased tone (floppiness)
* changes in heart rate – either faster than normal (early sepsis) or significantly slower than usual (late sepsis, usually associated with shock)
* breathing very quickly or difficulty breathing
* periods where the baby seems to stop breathing for more than 10 seconds (apnea)
* jaundice
Older children who have sepsis might have a fever (an oral temperature above 99.5 degrees Fahrenheit [37.5 degrees Celsius]), vomit, and complain of feeling like their hearts are racing. A child with sepsis may have started with an infection such as cellulitis that seems to be spreading and getting worse, not better.
What Causes Sepsis?
Bacteria are almost always the cause of sepsis in newborns and infants. Bacteria such as E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Salmonella, and Group B streptococcus (GBS) are the more common culprits in sepsis in newborns and infants younger than 3 months.
Premature babies receiving neonatal intensive care are particularly susceptible to sepsis because their immune systems are even more underdeveloped than other babies, and they typically undergo invasive procedures involving long-term intravenous (IV) lines, multiple catheters, and need to breathe through a tube attached to a ventilator. The incisions a young infant gets for catheters or other tubes can provide a path for bacteria, which normally live on the skin’s surface, to get inside the baby’s body and cause the infection.
In many cases of sepsis in new babies, bacteria enter the baby’s body from the mother during pregnancy, labor, or delivery. Some pregnancy complications that can increase the risk of sepsis for a newborn include:
* bleeding
* maternal fever
* an infection in the uterus or placenta
* premature rupture of the amniotic sac (before 37 weeks of gestation)
* rupture of the amniotic sac very early in labor (18 hours or more before delivery)
* a long, difficult delivery
Some bacteria – GBS in particular – can be acquired by the newborn as the child is being delivered. At least one out of every five pregnant women carries the bacterium for Group B streptococcus in her vagina or rectum, where it can be passed from mother to child during delivery.
Diagnosing and Treating Sepsis
Because symptoms of sepsis can be vague in infants, laboratory tests play a crucial role in confirming or ruling out sepsis. These lab tests may include:
* Blood tests (including red and white blood cell counts) and blood cultures may be taken to determine whether bacteria are present in the blood.
* Urine is usually collected by inserting a sterile catheter into the baby’s bladder through the urethra for a few seconds to remove urine; this will be examined under a microscope and cultured to check for the presence of bacteria.
* A lumbar puncture (spinal tap) may be performed, depending on the baby’s age and overall appearance. A sample of cerebrospinal fluid will be tested and cultured to determine if the baby has possible meningitis.
* X-rays, especially of the chest (to make sure there isn’t pneumonia), are sometimes taken.
* If the baby has any kind of medical tubes running into his or her body (such as IV tubes, catheters, or shunts), the fluids inside those tubes may be tested for signs of infection as well.
Sepsis, or even suspected cases of sepsis in infants, is treated in the hospital, where doctors can closely watch the infection and administer strong antibiotics intravenously to fight the infection.
Typically, doctors start infants with sepsis on antibiotics right away – even before the diagnosis is confirmed. If more symptoms of sepsis begin to appear, they usually start them on IV fluids to keep them hydrated, blood pressure medication to keep their hearts working properly, and respirators to help them breathe.
Can Sepsis Be Prevented?
Although there’s no way to prevent all types of sepsis, some cases can be avoided, namely the transmission of Group B streptococcus bacteria from mother to child during childbirth. Pregnant women can have a simple swab test during the 35th and 37th weeks of pregnancy and again just before the birth to determine if they carry the GBS bacteria.
If a woman tests positive for GBS, she can receive intravenous antibiotics during labor.
Women are at higher risk of carrying GBS if they have a fever during labor, if the amniotic sac ruptures prematurely, if they have prolonged labor, or if they had other children with sepsis or other diseases triggered by GBS, such as pneumonia or meningitis. A woman with one of these risk factors can receive intravenous antibiotics to lower her risk of transmitting the bacteria to her child.
Immunizations routinely given to infants today include vaccinations against certain strains of pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b that can cause sepsis or occult bacteremia, an infection of the blood.
When to Call Your Child’s Doctor
Because the symptoms of sepsis can be very difficult to identify in newborns and young infants, it’s a good idea to call your child’s doctor or seek emergency medical care if your baby shows any of the following symptoms:
* difficulty or continued disinterest in feeding
* fever (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit [38 degrees Celsius] and above rectal temperature) in newborns and young infants
* labored or unusual breathing
* change in skin color (paler than usual or mildly bluish)
* listlessness or lethargy
* change in the sound of the baby’s cry or excessive crying
* change in baby’s muscle tone – either seeming too stiff or especially floppy
* a slower or faster heart rate than usual
* bulging or fullness of the “soft spot” on the baby’s head
* any type of behavior or appearance that concerns you
These signs and symptoms don’t necessarily mean your baby has sepsis, but infants who are younger than 3 months should be checked out immediately to ensure that nothing else is wrong.
Reviewed by: Barbara P. Homeier, MD
Date reviewed: June 2005
Asepsis Training Stradis Healthcare can provide your kit in any format with any content that you require for your procedures. Because our kits are customizable, many of our customers have the packages divided according to how the content will be used. For example, your package may have two sections that can be cut apart. The first would contain the “non-sterile” shoe covers, masks, hair covers and scrub items. The second section would contain all the “sterile” materials such as gowns, gloves, drapes, towels, gauze, etc.

Our customers frequently include items they once purchased in bulk packaging to help them control inventory and reduce the chances they may run out of a needed item. This is particularly true of items that are only used for procedures requiring asepsis. Remember, the more you place in the pack, the less you have to worry about running short. Some items that our customers find useful to include in their packs are extra gauze, towels and tubing. Many also use the light handle covers for controls on certain types of instruments should they need adjusting during the procedure. You may find that you’ll need to adjust your kits several times to find the optimal combination for your needs. That’s the beauty of our system ? our trained sales professionals are always available to make changes and suggestions to make your life easier.

This overview of asepsis technique is likewise designed to make your life a little easier. It is divided into five sections:
* General Rules of Asepsis
* Before You Begin
* The Scrub
* Operatory Preparation
* Patient Preparation