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Executive Summary
Research Methodology
Global Senario
Senario of Retailing of India
Major Player
Trends in Present Retail Market
Technology in Retail Market
Future Trends
Change in Retailing

Executive Summary

Demographics continue to show a positive report to spur retailing growth. Consumers aged 20-45 years is emerging as the fastest growing consumer group and the mean age of Indians is now pegged at 27, a mean age that reinforces spending across all the retailing channels of grocery, non-grocery and non-store.

The government stance of protecting local retailers and prohibiting 100% foreign direct investment in retailing continued in 2005, restraining international retailers’ entry. However, there was gradual economic reform, giving way to easier and faster franchising agreements as well as the loosening of zonal regulations on retail expansion, thus stimulating retailing.

Non-store retailing is expected to continue its fast-paced growth from a miniscule base. Across all channels, growth in retailing is expected to be boosted heightened competition during the forecast period due to the growing.

The present study was undertaken with the main objective of examining the current practices of Supply Chain Management followed in Process Operation Industry and comparing them with the best practices.
The other objectives are:
* To study the degree of Operation
* To identify the status of Information Technology implementation in these Companies

Effective supply-chain management is a powerful tool for business transformation
* it can dramatically increase a company’s profitability while simultaneously improving customer service.
* While today’s competitive environments are forcing businesses in this direction, the steps to take are often not evident.
* Problems of Operation management can be complex, and their solution requires special knowledge and experience.


Management is creative problem solving. This creative problem solving is accomplished through four functions of management
* Planning
* Organizing
* Staffing
* Directing
* Controlling
The intended result is the use of an organization’s resources in a way that accomplishes its mission and objectives.
Planning is the ongoing process of developing the business’ mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. Planning includes both the broadest view of the organization, e.g., its mission, and the narrowest, e.g., a tactic for accomplishing a specific goal.
Organizing is establishing the internal organizational structure of the organization. The focus is on division, coordination, and control of tasks and the flow of information within the organization. It is in this function that managers distribute authority to job holders.
Staffing is filling and keeping filled with qualified people all positions in the business. Recruiting, hiring, training, evaluating and compensating are the specific activities included in the function. In the family business, staffing includes all paid and unpaid positions held by family members including the owner/operators.

India’s retail market which is seen as THE GOLDMINE by global players has grabbed attention of the most developed nations. This is no wonder to the one who knows that the total Indian retail market is US $350bn. (16, 00,000 crore INR approx.) of which organized retailing is only around 3 percent i.e. US $8bn (36,000 crore INR approx).
“Retailing includes all activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for personal, non-business use. A retailer or retail store is any business enterprise whose sales volume comes primarily from retailing.” Retail is India’s largest industry, accounting for over 10 per cent of the country’s GDP and around eight per cent of the employment. Retail industry in India is at the crossroads. It has emerged as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries with several players entering the market.
The presence of 15million kirana stores brings into light the very fact that the Indian retail industry is highly fragmented/ unorganized. Retailing in India is gradually inching its way toward becoming the next boom industry, organized retailing in particular. The whole concept of shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. Modern retail has entered India as seen in sprawling shopping centers, multi-storeyed malls and huge complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof.
The future of Indian retailing may even witness the concept of 24 hour retailing. Even though this concept has been in existence in few retail segments like pharmaceuticals and fuel, it still remains to be a challenge for other segments like food and groceries, apparel etc to adopt this trend.
Although the organized retailing in India is coming up in a big way, it cannot simply ignore the competition from the conventional stores because of various factors like reach, extending credit facility and other intangible factors like the human touch which are provided only by the conventional stores.

The urban retail market has been embracing various new formats and the malls turned out to be the trend setters by promising the concept of shoppertainment. The trends in the rural market also have been changing from the old Haats and Melas to the rural malls like ‘Chaupal Sagar’ launched by ITC, DCM Shriram Groups one-stop shopping destination called ‘Hariyali Bazaar’, Godrej groups agri store ‘Adhar’ etc.

Introduction to Operation Management
Operations management is an area of business that is concerned with the production of good quality goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective. It is the management of resources, the distribution of goods and services to customers.
APICS The Association for Operations Management also defines operations management as “the field of study that focuses on the effectively planning, scheduling, use, and control of a manufacturing or service organization through the study of concepts from design engineering, industrial engineering, management information systems, quality management, production management, inventory management, accounting, and other functions as they affect the organization”.
Additionally, The Operations Management Body of Knowledge (OMBOK) Framework defines the scope of operations management and the activities and techniques that are a part of the operations management profession.
Operations also refer to the production of goods and services, the set of value-added activities that transform inputs into many outputs. Fundamentally, these value-adding creative activities should be aligned with market opportunity for optimal enterprise performance.

Operations as a Transformation Process
Inputs ? Transformation ? Output
Operations management is about the way organizations produce goods and services. Everything you wear, eat, sit on, use, read or knock about on the sports field comes to you courtesy of the operations managers who organized its production. Every book you borrow from the library, every treatment you receive at the hospital, every service you expect in the shops and every lecture you attend at university all have been produced.
This definition reflects the essential nature of Operations Management; it is a central activity in organizing things. Another way of looking at an operation is to consider it as a transformation process.
Operations are a transformation process; they convert a set of resources (INPUTS) into services and goods (OUTPUTS). These resources may be raw materials, information, or the customer itself. These resources are transformed into the final goods or services by way of other ‘transforming’ resources – the facilities and staff of the operation.
* Raw Materials
An obvious example is a cabinet maker, who takes some wood, cuts and planes it, and then polishes it until a piece of furniture is produced.
* Information
A tourist office gathers and provides information to holiday makers, and assists in advising on places to stay or visit.
* Customers
At an airport, you are one of the many resources being processed. The operation you are involved in is about processing your ticket and baggage, moving from ticket desk through the customs and duty-free areas, to deliver you to the awaiting plane.
Extending the process…
If we add a few more parts to the transformation process, we can see the key elements that operations managers need to consider. Operations is about designing services, products and delivery systems;
1. Managing and controlling the operations system.
2. Finding ways to improve operations.

Operations Management is all about providing customers with products and services.
You survive by giving customers with what they want
* Every Product or Service is really a bundle of different attributes.
* Product, place, price, performance, quality, timing, service, etc.
* Customers are looking for a bundle of characteristics
* Total bundle provides the level of value customers deem appropriate
* Buying products with the attributes they want at the lowest price possible
* Attributes
* Price
* Quality
* Image
* Performance
* Safety
* Place – distribution
* Time – delivery, availability
* How do you decide which product to produce?
* How do you find out what attributes your product should have?
* How do you get those attributes into your product?
* What process?
* What resources do you need?
* Where do you get those resources?
Examples of Operations Decisions
Operations managers must make decisions on three levels
* Strategic
* Tactical
* Operating
* Longer term decisions
* Usually made at the senior management level
* Product and service strategy
* Competitive priorities
* Positioning strategy
* Location, capacity
* Long term partnerships
* Quality system and overall approach to quality
* Medium term decisions
* Tactical in nature
* Made by middle and senior managers
* Process design
* Technology management
* Job design and workforce management
* Capacity management
* Facility location
* Facility layout

* Shorter term decisions
* Made at middle and lower management levels
* Forecasting
* Materials management
* Inventory management
* Aggregate planning
* Master production scheduling
* Production control
* Scheduling


The word ‘retail’ is derived from the French word ‘retaillier’ meaning ‘to cut a piece off’ or ‘to break bulk’. In simple terms it involves activities whereby product or services are sold to final consumers in small quantities. Although retailing in its various formats has been around our country for many decades, it has been confined for along time to family owned corner shops.
Englishmen are great soccer enthusiasts, and they strongly think that one should never give Indians a corner. It stems from the belief that, if you give an Indian a corner he would end up setting a shop. That is how great Indians retail management skill is considered.
The Facts
Retailing in more developed countries is big business and better organized that what it is in India. Report published by McKinsey & Co. in partnership with Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) states that the global retail business is worth a staggering US $ 7 trillion. The ratio of organized retailing to unorganized in US is around 80 to 20, in Europe it is 70 to 30, while in Asia it comes to around 20 to 80.
In India the scenario is quiet unique, organized retailing accounts for a mere 5% of the total retail sector. Although there are around 5 million retail stores in India, 90% of these have a floor space area of 500 sq.ft. or less. The emergence of organised retailing in India is a recent phenomenon and is concentrated in the top 20 urban towns and cities.
The Reason
This emergence of organized retailing has been due to the demographic and psychographic changes taking place in the life of urban consumers.
Growing number of nuclear families, working women, greater work pressure, changing values and Lifestyles, increased commuting time, influence of western way of life etc. have meant that the needs and wants of consumers have shifted from just being Cost and Relationship drive to Brand and Experience driven, while the Value element still dominating the buying decisions.
Global Scenario
Retail stores constitute 20% of US GDP & are the 3 rd largest employer segment in USA.
China on the other hand has attracted several global retailers in recent times. Retail sector employs 7% of the population in China. Major retailers like Wal-Mart & Carrefour have already entered the Chinese market. In the year 2003, Wal-Mart & Carrefour had sales of US $ 70.4 Crore & US $ 160 Crore respectively.
The global retail industry has traveled a long way from a small beginning to an industry where the world wide retail sales is valued at $ 7 x 10 5 Crore. The top 200 retailers alone accounts for 30 % of the worldwide demand. Retail turnover in the EU is approximately Euros 2,00,000 Crore and the sector average growth is showing an upward pattern. The Asian economies (excluding Japan) are expected to grow at 6% consistently till 2005-06.
On the global Retail stage, little has remained same over the last decade. One of the few similarities with today is that Wal-Mart was ranked the top retailer in the world then & it still holds that distinction. Other than Wal-Mart’s dominance, there’s a little about today’s environment that looks like the mid-1990s. The global economy has changed, consumer demand has shifted & retailers’ operating systems today are infused with far more technology than was the case six years ago.
Scenario of Retailing in India

Retailing is the most active and attractive sector of last decade. While the retailing industry itself has been present since ages in our country, it is only the recent past that it has witnessed so much dynamism. The emergence of retailing in India has more to do with the increased purchasing power of buyers, especially post-liberalization, increase in product variety, and increase in economies of scale, with the aid of modern supply and distributions solution.
Indian retailing today is at an interesting crossroads. The retail sales are at the highest point in history and new technologies are improving retail productivity. though there are many opportunities to start a new retail business, retailers are facing numerous challenges.

“Right Place, Right choice”
Location is the most important ingredient for any business that relies on customers, and is typically the prime consideration in a customer’s store choice. Locations decisions are harder to change because retailers have to either make sustainable investments to buy and develop real estate or commit to long term lease with developers. When formulating decision about where to locate, the retailer must refer to the strategic plan:

* Investigate alternative trading areas.
* Determine the type of desirable store location
* Evaluate alternative specific store sites

The primary goal of the most retailers is to sell the right kind of merchandise and nothing is more central to the strategic thrust of the retailing firm. Merchandising consists of activities involved in acquiring particular goods and services and making them available at a place, time and quantity that enable the retailer to reach its goals. Merchandising is perhaps, the most important function for any retail organization, as it decides what finally goes on shelf of the store.


Pricing is a crucial strategic variable due to its direct relationship with a firm’s goal and its interaction with other retailing elements. The importance of pricing decisions is growing because today’s customers are looking for good value when they buy merchandise and services. Price is the easiest and quickest variable to change.


“Consumer the prime mover”
“Consumer Pull”, however, seems to be the most important driving factor behind the sustenance of the industry. The purchasing power of the customers has increased to a great extent, with the influencing the retail industry to a great extent, a variety of other factors also seem to fuel the retailing boom.


Scale of operations includes all the supply chain activities, which are carried out in the business. It is one of the challenges that the Indian retailers are facing. The cost of business operations is very high in India.

* Unorganized market: Rs. 583,000 crores
* Organized market: Rs.5, 000 crores
* 5X growth in organized retailing between 2000-2005
* Over 4,000 new modern Outlets in the last 3 years
* Over 5,000,000 sq. ft. of mall space under development
* The top 3 modern retailers control over 750,000 sq. ft. of retail space
* Over 400,000 shoppers walk through their doors every week
* Growth in organized retailing on par with expectations and projections of the last 5 Years: on course to touch Rs. 35,000 crores (US$ 7 Billion) or more by 2005-06

Major players

– Food and grocery
– Fashion
– Others
– Food world
– Shoppers’ Stop
– Vivek’s
– Subhiksha
– Westside
– Planet M
– Nilgris
– Lifestyle
– Music World
– Adani- Rajiv’s
– Pyramid
– Crossword
– Nirma-Radhey
– Globus
– Life spring
Let us look at the evolution process:

Detailing reasons why Indian organized retail is at the brink of revolution, the IMAGES-KSA report says that the last few years have seen rapid transformation in many areas and the setting of scalable and profitable retail models across categories. Indian consumers are rapidly evolving and accepting modern formats overwhelmingly. Retail Space is no more a constraint for growth. India is on the radar of Global Retailers and suppliers / brands worldwide are willing to partner with retailers here. Further, large Indian corporate groups like Tata, Reliance, Raheja, ITC, Bombay Dyeing, Murugappa & Piramal Groups etc and also foreign investors and private equity players are firming up plans to identify investment opportunities in the Indian retail sector. The quantum of investments is likely to skyrocket as the inherent attractiveness of the segment lures more and more investors to earn large profits. Investments into the sector are estimated at INR 2000 – 2500 Crore in the next 2-3 years, and over INR 20,000 Crore by end of 2010.
Few of India’s top retailers are:
1. Big Bazaar-Pantaloons: Big Bazaar, a division of Pantaloon Retail (India) Ltd is already India’s biggest retailer. In the year 2003-04, it had revenue of Rs 658.31 crores & by 2010; it is targeting revenue of Rs 8,800 Crore.
2. Food World: Food World in India is an alliance between the RPG group in India with Dairy Farm International of the Jardine Matheson Group.
3. Trinethra : It is a supermarket chain that has predominant presence in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh. Their turnover was Rs 78.8 Crore for the year 2002-03.
4. Apna Bazaar: It is a Rs 140-crore consumer co-operative society with a customer base of over 12 lakh, plans to cater to an upwardly mobile urban population.
5. Margin Free: It is a Kerala based discount store, which is uniformly spread across 240 Margin Free franchisees in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Wholesale trading is another area, which has potential for rapid growth. German giant Metro AG and South African Shoprite Holdings have already made headway in this segment by setting up stores selling merchandise on a wholesale basis in Bangalore and Mumbai respectively. These new-format cash-and-carry stores attract large volumes from a sizeable number of retailers who do not have to maintain relationships with multiple suppliers for all their needs.


(Create awareness)
* New retailers driving awareness
* High degree of fragmentation
* Real estate groups starting retail chains
* Consumer expecting ‘value for money’ as core value

(Meet customer expectations)
* Consumer-driven
* Emergence of pure retailers
* Retailers getting multi-locational and multi-format
* Global retailers evincing interest in India
(Back end management)
* Category management
* Vendor partnership
* Stock turns
* Channel synchronization
* Consumer acquisition
* Customer relation’s management

* Aggressive rollout
* Organized retail acquitting significant share
* Beginning of cross-border movement
* Mergers and acquisitions


Hypermarket: It is the largest format in Indian retail so far is a one stop shop for the modern Indian shopper.
* Merchandise: food grocery to clothing to spots goods to books to stationery.
* Space occupied: 50000 Sq .ft. and above.
* SKUs: 20000-30000.
* Example: Pantaloon retail’s Big Bazaar, RPG’s Spencers (Giant).
Supermarket: A subdued version of a hypermarket.
* Merchandise: Almost similar to that of a hypermarket but in relatively smaller proposition.
* Space occupied: 5000 Sq. ft. or more.
* SKUs: Around 10000.
* Example: Nilgiris, Apna Bazaar, Trinethra.
Convenience store: A subdued version of a supermarket.
* Merchandise: Groceries are predominantly sold.
* Space occupied: Around 500 Sq. ft. to 3000 Sq. ft.
* Example: stores located at the corners of the streets, Reliance Retail’s Fresh and Select.

Department store: A retail establishment which specializes in selling a wide range of products without a single prominent merchandise line and is usually a part of a retail chain.
* Merchandise: Apparel, household accessories, cosmetics, gifts etc.
* Space occupied: Around 10000 Sq. ft. – 30000 Sq. ft.
* Example: Landmark Group’s LifeStyle, Trent India Ltd.’s Westside.
Discount store: Standard merchandise sold at lower prices with lower margins and higher volumes.
* Merchandise: A variety of perishable/ non perishable goods.
* Example: Viswapriya Group’s Subiksha, Piramal’s TruMart.
Specialty store: It consists of a narrow product line with deep assortment.
* Merchandise: Depends on the stores
* Example: Bata store deals only with footwear, RPG’s Music World, Crossword.
MBO’s: Multi Brand outlets, also known as Category Killers. These usually do well in busy market places and Metros.
* Merchandise: Offers several brads across a single product category.
Kirana stores: The smallest retail formats which are the highest in number (15 million approx.) in India.
* Merchandise: Mostly food and groceries.
* Space occupied: 50 sq ft and even smaller ones exist.
Malls: The largest form of organized retailing today. Located mainly in metro cities, in proximity to urban outskirts.
* Merchandise: They lend an ideal shopping experience with an amalgamation of product, service and entertainment, all under a common roof.
* Space occupied: Ranges from 60,000 sq ft to 7, 00,000 sq ft.
* Example: Pantaloon Retail’s Central, Mumbai’s Iorbit.

The percentage of organized retail per sector wise is very miniscule and this does not mean that there is stagnation of growth because if we look at the following table we can clearly observe the burgeoning pace of growth happening in all the sectors of Indian retailing.

The organized retail industry is growing at 25- 30 percentage and is expected to reach the mark of 1, 00,000 crore INR by 2010 from the present figure of 35,000 crore INR approx. With such a mouth watering figures the organized retailing has been attracting many players and even persuading the existing retailers to expand and experiment with newer formats. This can also be substantiated by looking the estimation of the organized retail space to be around 72 million sq ft. by the end of 2007. The present players and their retail formats details are presented below:

Trends in Present Retail Market:
New Product Categories:
For a long time, the corner grocery store was the only choice available to the consumer, especially in the urban areas. This is slowly giving way to international formats of retailing. The traditional food and grocery segment has seen the emergence of supermarkets/grocery chains (Food World, Nilgiris, Apna Bazaar), convenience stores (ConveniO, HP Speedmart) and fast-food chains (McDonalds, Dominos).
It is the non-food segment, however that foray has been made into a variety of new sectors. These include lifestyle/fashion segments (Shoppers’ Stop, Globus, LifeStyle, Westside), apparel/accessories (Pantaloon, Levis, Reebok), books/music/gifts (Archies, MusicWorld, Crosswords, Landmark), appliances and consumer durables (Viveks, Jainsons, Vasant & Co.), drugs and pharmacy (Health and Glow, Apollo).
Increasing competition in the retail market:
New entrants such as Reliance, Bharti Enterprises and the AV Birla group will compete against well-established retailers, such as Pantaloon Retail, Shoppers’ stop, Trent, Spencer’s and Lifestyle stores. Foreign retailers are keenly evaluating the Indian market and identifying partners to forge an alliance with in areas currently permitted by regulations. With an estimated initial investment of USD 750 million, Reliance is planning to launch a nationwide chain of hypermarts, supermarkets, discount stores, department stores, convenience stores and speciality stores. These 5,500 stores will be located in 800 cities and towns in India.
Increase in Private Labels:
With the emergence of organized retail and modern retail formats, private labels have been gaining significance. They enhance the profitability levels of product categories, increase retailers’ negotiation powers and create consumer loyalty. More retailers are introducing their own brands in all categories including Food & Groceries, apparel, accessories, footwear. These own brands also do not have to manage intermediaries since retailers maintain oversight of the supply chain.
The label penetration is in a huge rise. Private Label penetration has been on a rise. It is mainly growing among FMCG products in most supermarkets with groceries accounting for 45.9%
Expanding to Tier II and III cities:
Indian retailers are planning to extend operations into Tier II and Tier III cities as heightened IT offshoring activity in these locations have increased consumers’ disposable income. The population in these cities is typically well educated and willing to purchase goods and services. Some major retailers, like Globus, Reliance Retail and Pantaloon, have already begun building a retail presence in Tier III cities before many retailers have finalized their Tier II retail operations.
Foray into Retail Agri-Business:
India’s most prestigious business houses and global retailers are planning to enter retail agri-business. Market entrants plan to invest in the entire value chain, moving goods “from the farm to the fridge at home.” Viewed as India’s next “Sunrise Sector,” retailers are employing contract farming as a means of boosting their ventures. Contract farming enables farmers to access land, manpower and farming skill without having to purchase land. Of the total Cultivable land of 400 million acres in India, contract farming represents 7 million acres thus indicating a tremendous opportunity. For pure corporate contracts between farmers and companies, only 2,00,000 acres are used.
Experimenting with formats:
Selecting the right retail format is essential in modern retailing. The difference between urban and rural customers is one of the reasons why multiple formats are required in India. Local conditions and insights into buying-behaviour shape the format choice. No single format will be suitable for an all India strategy and selecting the relevant format is the key success factor.
Technology in Retail:
Over the years as the consumer demand increased and the retailers geared up to meet this increase, technology evolved rapidly to support this growth. The hardware and software tools that have now become almost essential for retailing can be into 2 broad categories.
Customer Interfacing Systems:
Bar Coding and Scanners
Point of sale systems use scanners and bar coding to identify an item, use pre-stored data to calculate the cost and generate the total bill for a client. Tunnel Scanning is a new concept where the consumer pushes the full shopping cart through an electronic gate to the point of sale. In a matter of seconds, the items in the cart are hit with laser beams and scanned. All that the consumer has to do is to pay for the goods.
Payment through credit cards has become quite widespread and this enables a fast and easy payment process. Electronic cheque conversion, a recent development in this area, processes a cheque electronically by transmitting transaction information to the retailer and consumer’s bank. Rather than manually process a cheque, the retailer voids it and hands it back to the consumer along with a receipt, having digitally captured and stored the image of the cheque, which makes the process very fast.
Internet is also rapidly evolving as a customer interface, removing the need of a consumer physically visiting the store.


ERP System
Various ERP vendors have developed retail-specific systems which help in integrating all the functions from warehousing to distribution, front and back office store systems and merchandising. An integrated supply chain helps the retailer in maintaining his stocks, getting his supplies on time, preventing stock-outs and thus reducing his costs, while servicing the customer better.
CRM Systems
The rise of loyalty programs, mail order and the Internet has provided retailers with real access to consumer data. Data warehousing & mining technologies offers retailers the tools they need to make sense of their consumer data and apply it to business. This, along with the various available CRM (Customer Relationship Management) Systems, allows the retailers to study the purchase behavior of consumers in detail and grow the value of individual consumers to their businesses.
Advanced Planning and Scheduling Systems
APS systems can provide improved control across the supply chain, all the way from raw material suppliers right through to the retail shelf. These APS packages complement existing (but often limited) ERP packages. They enable consolidation of activities such as long term budgeting, monthly forecasting, weekly factory scheduling and daily distribution scheduling into one overall planning process using a single set of data
The major reasons behind the development of new trends are:
* Scalable and profitable Retail models are well established for most of the categories
* Rapid Evolution of New-age Young Indian Consumers
* Retail Space is no more a constraint for growth
* Partnering among Brands, retailers, franchisees, investors and malls
* India is on the radar of Global Retailer Suppliers
The concept of 24hr. retailing in India has been present only in very limited formats like the pharmaceuticals (Apollo) and fuel retail outlets (H.P, Reliance etc.) and the other retail formats used to operate only till the early hours of the night. But because of the changing lifestyles and the buying habits of the consumers the retailers have been extending their operating hours till late nights.
Most of the Indian retail formats though capable of operating their formats round the clock do not choose to do so because of the non feasibility of the idea at present taking in conjunction the customers’ readiness. For instance if any of the hyper market or supermarket is functioning during the night the retailer has to bear the extra costs of electricity, labor and maintenance if the number of footfalls are less very low during the late nights which otherwise would be profitable to him. Anyways, the shopping time of the consumer is considerably increasing. Moreover, in India most of the retailing is all about food and groceries. It might not be a rational prediction that all the consumers will step into the retail outlet at midnights to buy food and groceries.
This problem can be overcome by implementing the idea in places which have a floating population even during the nights like railway stations and bus stations. However with the upcoming culture of malls and the changing lifestyles of the people one can design a small part of the store or a mall for a new 24/7 retail format which consists of the essential products like medicines, fruits and vegetables, groceries and some other FMCG products and test market it. Once if the sales start showing some consistent positive figures and if the crowd increases then the store can come in a bigger way to reach out to their customers.
The other option for trying the concept of 24hr retailing is that the retailer can have a mobile outlet which can place itself in the areas which have substantial night traffic for the sales to happen. And once the people are to the 24hr shopping then the retail plans can be altered accordingly.

Rural Vs Urban Retail Trends
India’s largely rural population has also caught the eye of retailers looking for new areas of growth. ITC launched the country’s first rural mall ‘ Chaupal Sagar’ , offering a diverse product range from FMCG to electronics appliance to automobiles, attempting to provide farmers a one-stop destination for all of their needs. There has been yet another initiative by the DCM Sriram Group called the ‘ Hariyali Bazaar’ , that has initially started off by providing farm related inputs and services but plans to introduce the complete shopping basket in due course. Other corporate bodies include Escorts, and Tata Chemicals (with Tata Kisan Sansar) setting up agri-stores to provide products/services targeted at the farmer in order to tap the vast rural market.
Commenting on the Rural Retailing chapter in INDIA RETAIL REPORT 2005, Mr. Adi B. Godrej, Chairman, The Godrej Group (India’s one of the leading corporate majors) said that his group had also launched the concept of agri-stores named ‘Adhaar’, which served as one-stop shops for farmers selling agricultural products such as fertilisers & animal feed and also providing farmers knowledge on how to effectively utilise these products. “There are 8 stores already operating in Maharashtra and Gujarat and further expansion is very much on the cards. He added.
FDI could indeed do a lot in this sector as entry of international retailers would bring in the required expertise to set the supply chain in place which would result in elimination of wastage, better prices and quality for consumers and higher income for farmers besides of course farm produce retailing getting a facelift, said Mr. Godrej.
Tapping the fresh farm produce sector, the group plans to take its recently launched retail concept – Nature’s Basket – to newer cities steadily. Godrej Group’s Agro and Food division, Godrej Agrovet Ltd. (GAVL) operates the format, selling a variety of vegetables, fruits and herbs – both local and exotic thereby introducing the concept of ‘farm-to-plate’ to urbanites. Godrej plans to open four more Nature’s Basket stores in Mumbai before taking them national. Setting up cost of a store is about INR 5-10 million and per stores sales are expected in the range of INR 30- Rs 50 million a year.
Interestingly, the world’s largest corporation, Wal-mart, also had its roots in rural America. Unlike many other retailers who started from urban centres and then trickled down to rural areas, Wal-mart had started from rural areas and then came closer to cities over a period of time. Many more such concepts are likely to be tested in the future as marketers and retailers begin to acknowledge that the rural consumer is more than a ‘poor cousin’ of the urban counterpart. The IMAGES KSA Report avers that these concepts are likely to go a long way in bringing a huge untapped population within the purview of organized retailing, thereby, increasing the size of the total market

The above chart makes it clearly evident why the rural retail market has been attracting the big giants to invest in it.
Urban Trends
The urban retailing has been experimenting with many formats like the supermarkets, hypermarkets, specialty stores, multi branded outlets etc. and of latest it seems to be embracing the trend of mall culture. It is a rich man’s world too, with multi-screen cinemas, restaurants, games and branded shops – well out of the reach of many of the country’s one billion people. But India’s middle-classes, widely travelled and with deep pockets, are flocking to malls.
India’s organized retail industry accounts for just 3% of the country’s total retail sales, though it is poised to grow by 97% per year in the next five years to a staggering $24bn. Fuelling this growth are India’s sprawling shopping malls, which are increasingly challenging High Street stores, corner shops and village markets alike. Just five years ago, there were shopping arcades but no malls. Today there are nearly 100 big shopping malls in the country, more than half of them in Delhi and Mumbai alone. And in two years there will be 360 malls across the country. More than 20 are in various stages of development in Delhi and Mumbai. Among them is India’s biggest shopping mall, Ambi, which is being built in Gurgaon, near Delhi. Spread over 3.2 million square feet, it is set to become a virtual town, where multi-screen cinemas, recreational facilities for adults and children, food courts and branded outlets will fill the space. It will have exclusive showrooms of international brands, where, according to the developers, customers will have to shop by prior appointment. Analysts comment that this is just the beginning and this is going to experience a ‘sea change’ once the platform is opened up for the FDI.


A SWOT analysis of the Indian organized retail industry is presented below:

1. Retailing is a “Technology-intensive” industry. It is technology that will help the organized retailers to score over the unorganized retailers. Successful organized retailers today work closely with their vendors to predict consumer demand, shorten lead times, reduce inventory holding and ultimately save cost. Example: Wal-Mart pioneered the concept of building competitive advantage through distribution & information systems in the retailing industry. They introduced two innovative logistics techniques – cross-docking and EDI (electronic data interchange)
2. On an average a super market stocks up to 5000 SKU’s against a few hundred stocked with an average unorganized retailer. This will provide variety in products (required breadth & depth for consumers)
3. As a consequence of high volumes, procurement will be direct from the Manufacturer. Hence, merchandise can be offered at lower costs.
1. Less Conversion level: Despite high footfalls, the conversion ratio has been very low in the retail outlets in a mall as compared to the standalone counter parts. It is seen that actual conversions of footfall into sales for a mall outlet is approximately 20-25%. On the other hand, a high street store of retail chain has an average conversion of about 50-60%. As a result, a stand-alone store has a ROI (return on investment) of 25-30%; in contrast the retail majors are experiencing a ROI of 8-10%
2. Customer Loyalty: Retail chains are yet to settle down with the proper merchandise mix for the mall outlets. Since the stand-alone outlets were established long time back, so they have stabilized in terms of footfalls & merchandise mix and thus have a higher customer loyalty base.
1. The Indian middle class is already 30 Crore & is projected to grow to over 60 Crore by 2010 making India one of the largest consumer markets of the world. The IMAGES-KSA projections indicate that by 2015, India will have over 55 Crore people under the age of 20 – reflecting the enormous opportunities possible in the kids and teens retailing segment.
2. Organized retail is only 3% of the total retailing market in India. It is estimated to grow at the rate of 25-30% p.a. and reach INR 1,00,000 Crore by 2010.
3. Percolating down : In India it has been found out that the top 6 cities contribute for 66% of total organized retailing. While the metros have already been exploited, the focus has now been shifted towards the tier-II cities. The ‘retail boom’, 85% of which has so far been concentrated in the metros is beginning to percolate down to these smaller cities and towns. The contribution of these tier-II cities to total organized retailing sales is expected to grow to 20-25%.
4. Rural Retailing: India’s huge rural population has caught the eye of the retailers looking for new areas of growth. ITC launched India’s first rural mall “Chaupal Saga” offering a diverse range of products from FMCG to electronic goods to automobiles, attempting to provide farmers a one-stop destination for all their needs.” Hariyali Bazar” is started by DCM Sriram group which provides farm related inputs & services. The Godrej group has launched the concept of ‘agri-stores’ named “Adhaar” which offers agricultural products such as fertilizers & animal feed along with the required knowledge for effective use of the same to the farmers. Pepsi on the other hand is experimenting with the farmers of Punjab for growing the right quality of tomato for its tomato purees & pastes.
1. If the unorganized retailers are put together, they are parallel to a large supermarket with no or little overheads, high degree of flexibility in merchandise, display, prices and turnover.
2. Shopping Culture: Shopping culture has not developed in India as yet. Even now malls are just a place to hang around with family and friends and largely confined to window-shopping.
3. Cultural Variation leads to variation in merchandise in India at different geographical locations.
Challenges in Retail
The following are the key areas that may pose a threat to those retail companies that ignore the impacts of giving less importance to manage their demand and supply: –
* Forecasting and Inventory Management for JIT replenishments of products.
* Peak Season Demand Handling.
* Order Management in case of retailers with multiple outlets.
* Warehouse Management in case of multiple outlets.
* Introducing new products.
* Handling variety of items.

Proposed Supply Chain Strategies for Retail Industry

Supply Chain Strategies in Retail
Bulk-Breaking: Orders can be done in smaller lots with a good understanding with the supplier. This can be achieved by following ways: –
* Spatial Convenience: Strategically locating the outlet with distribution networks and warehouses located proximally.
* Supplier holds inventory.
Vendor Managed Inventory: In this case, the vendor himself is given the responsibility to handle the inventory. A space for the vendor is rented in the outlet, and he takes care of the shelves and the space. It is a 2-way agreement wherein the vendor gets the space to market his product by interacting one-to-one with the customers.
Point of Sale Information System: As soon as one stock keeping unit moves out of the store when purchased by a customer, the information readily flows to the supplier.
* He is given access to the inventory database.
* A re-order point can be imposed based on consumption pattern and the supplier is asked to fill the shelf upon inventory reaching the re-order point.
SRM – Supplier Relationship Management:
* Relationship with supplier should not be a marriage of convenience. Supplier has to act in ways more than what is required.
* By providing special offers, discounts and incentives, the supplier savors the relationship. This also serves as a promotion strategy for the outlet.
Competitive Areas of Importance
Stock filling is taken care of at both customer end (end product) and at the end of shelves at the shop. Reaching the customer at the right time and constant check on stocks and making sure right quantity is ordered at the right time.
* Safe and reliable transport at as much low price as possible.
* Constant contact with distribution teams (trucks, trains, etc.) and track where material is.
* Partnership with transportation firms so that cost and transport can be shared if the shipment does not occupy the whole truck space.
Procurement: (Vendor’s side points to take care)
* Strong Relationship
* Information sharing and updating plan change
* Combine vendors by minimizing transportation cost
* Choose vendors in proximity
* Optimum lot size taking vendors into confidence
Line should run smoothly without delays due to ordering and transportation (fulfillment and logistics have to be met first).
Model in Detail
Integrated Demand Management:
* The sales in the outlet is kept track of bill after bill hour after hour.
* Store register work is made online and paper work is done with.
* Forecasting made with data on past consumption and present market trend.
* Optional forecasting is made in case of seasonal requirements.
* Periodic offers and incentives are made available to the customers to generate demand.
Tips For Controlling Retail Inventory
Part of the answer to the “buying problem” is inventory control. In fact, the biggest reason retail businesses fail is that they lack inventory control. However, when employed aggressively against competitors, effective management of your inventory can be a lethal weapon. Imagine doubling your inventory turnover rate (certainly not far-fetched with proper control): you could sell product at half the normal margin and still gross the same amount of dollars in a given time period. Inventory control has been used to take down many competing retailers.
Like much of the new technology available to business owners, Management Information Systems (MIS) is still evolving, and along the way it becomes both more sophisticated and less expensive. MiS tools can be implemented to gain a significant advantage over competitors. However, it is critical that you understand the uses and goals of an inventory management system before implementing. Possibly the best examples of inventory management come from big retailers. To put it simply: Kmart neglected inventory control and failed, and Wal-Mart concentrated on becoming the leading edge of inventory control and is now one of the world’s largest companies.
It is a common misconception among small retailers that only industry giants like Wal-Mart can use MIS effectively. Sam Walton himself began as a small retailer, but one of his most advantageous assets was his deep understanding of inventory control’s importance.

MIS is commonly regarded as a daunting system to implement by those with limited experience in this highly-technical area, however it is critical to understand exactly what MIS can accomplish. Although internal hires are available, MIS is made greatly accessible to the small retailer by consulting companies. The basic goal of a point-of-purchase inventory control system is to provide information on profitability, status, and rate of sale for every item a retailer stocks, instantly. These metrics can then be used to improve inventory turnover and return on investment.
Once an MIS infrastructure is established, it makes sense for the retailer to integrate vendors into the system. Vendors are subject to an incentive to keep their inventory on store shelves, and systems are available which provide vendors with sales and stock information directly from the point of sale system. Providing your vendors with timely information and making them responsible for maintaining inventory your overall efficiency is improved as your own workload is diminished. The net impact on your business is increased turnover rates and fewer runs on inventory.

Anything that results in making the chain between Vendors, Retailers and Customers more efficient also results in additional profit. FRID, an example of an electronic recognition system, enables tracking of items via a computer chip embedded in the product or packaging, which is detected at various stages along the distribution process. Product information obtained in this way is uploaded instantly to the inventory control system, which reduces the time spent in receiving and stocking and allows for a more efficient shipping process. It is imperative for retailers to be aware of inventory performance and its effects on profitability.
Inventory control is not, however, the answer to all questions. Inventory controls systems can tell you how the inventory in stock is performing. It doesn’t tell you that new products you should carry. Buying is a great area of opportunity, especially for the small retailer who is close to customers and much more responsive to their demands than is the national chain.
Of course, inventory control is not the ultimate solution to retailers’ problems. For example, inventory control tells you what products are performing well, but it can’t tell you what new products to stock. Inventory control is a great way for small retailers to act like one of the big guys, and gain an advantage over other small competitors.

Primary Data
Operations are classified into 3 functions below:

* Management Function
* General Merchandise
* Inventory & Credit Management

Management is creative problem solving. This creative problem solving is accomplished through four functions of management
* Planning
* Organizing
* Staffing
* Directing
* Controlling
The intended result is the use of an organization’s resources in a way that accomplishes its mission and objectives.
Planning is the ongoing process of developing the business’ mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. Planning includes both the broadest view of the organization, e.g., its mission, and the narrowest, e.g., a tactic for accomplishing a specific goal.
Organizing is establishing the internal organizational structure of the organization. The focus is on division, coordination, and control of tasks and the flow of information within the organization. It is in this function that managers distribute authority to job holders.
Staffing is filling and keeping filled with qualified people all positions in the business. Recruiting, hiring, training, evaluating and compensating are the specific activities included in the function. In the family business, staffing includes all paid and unpaid positions held by family members including the owner/operators.
Directing is influencing people’s behavior through motivation, communication, group dynamics, leadership and discipline. The purpose of directing is to channel the behavior of all personnel to accomplish the organization’s mission and objectives while simultaneously helping them accomplish their own career objectives.
Controlling is a four-step process of establishing performance standards based on the firm’s objectives, measuring and reporting actual performance, comparing the two, and taking corrective or preventive action as necessary.
Managerial levels and hierarchy
The management of a large organization may have three levels:
1. Senior management (or “top management” or “upper management”)
2. Middle management
3. Low-level management, such as supervisors or team-leaders
4. Foreman
5. Rank and File
Top-level management
* Require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills.
* They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets.
* Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature
* Their decisions are made using analytic, directive, conceptual and/or behavioral/participative processes
* They are responsible for strategic decisions.
* They have to chalk out the plan and see that plan may be effective in the future.
* They are executive in nature.

Middle management
* Mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of certain managerial tasks.
* They are responsible for carrying out the decisions made by top-level management.

Lower management
* This level of management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out.
* Lower-level managers’ decisions are generally short-term ones
* Foreman / lead hand
* They are people who have direct supervision over the working force in office factory, sales field or other workgroup or areas of activity.
* Rank and File
* The responsibilities of the persons belonging to this group are even more restricted and more specific than those of the foreman.

General Merchandise
In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. In retailing, products are called merchandise. It is an art and science of displaying merchandise within store, it is about implementing effective design, ideas to educate customer, create desire and finally increase store traffic and sales volume.
* Home Lien Items
* Electronic Items
* Mobile Zone
* Furniture
* Star Sitara
* Opticians
* Men, Ladies and Kids wear
* Foot Wear
* Music
* Toys
* Stationery

Inventory & Credit Operations (Using JETRMS Software)
Inventory Management
Inventory Management and Inventory Control must be designed to meet the dictates of the marketplace and support the company’s strategic plan. The many changes in market demand, new opportunities due to worldwide marketing, global sourcing of materials, and new manufacturing technology, means many companies need to change their Inventory Management approach and change the process for Inventory Control.
Despite the many changes that companies go through, the basic principles of Inventory Management and Inventory Control remain the same. Some of the new approaches and techniques are wrapped in new terminology, but the underlying principles for accomplishing good Inventory Management and Inventory activities have not changed.
The Inventory Management system and the Inventory Control Process provides information to efficiently manage the flow of materials, effectively utilize people and equipment, coordinate internal activities, and communicate with customers. Inventory Management and the activities of Inventory Control do not make decisions or manage operations; they provide the information to Managers who make more accurate and timely decisions to manage their operations.
The basic building blocks for the Inventory Management system and Inventory Control activities are:
* Sales Forecasting or Demand Management
* Sales and Operations Planning
* Production Planning
* Material Requirements Planning
* Inventory Reduction
The emphases on each area will vary depending on the company and how it operates, and what requirements are placed on it due to market demands. Each of the areas above will need to be addressed in some form or another to have a successful program of Inventory Management and Inventory Control.
JETRMS Software is classified in to 6 operations which controls the Inventory, Credit and Security management
Inventory & Credit Operations
> Employee Management System
> Scanning System
> Smart System
> Vendor Management System
> Security Management System
Employee Management System
* Employee Details
* Margin Tracking
Smart System
* Daily Sales Report
* Billing Report
* Total Discount & Revenue Reports

Scanning System
* Product Discount
* Product Pricing Decision
* Product Management

Vendor Management System
* Inventory Management System
* Purchasing Order Management
* Invoice Purchasing Order System

Security Management
* Soft checks

* Hard checks
7 P’s of Services
* Product- refers to the merchandise i.e. the range of clothes.
* Supplementary services -include a component of fashion, life style and Ambient shopping as an addition to the core product.
* Today, customers buy experiences and not brands or products.

Cost plus price and Percentage method pricing:
* Most widely used technique to price apparels.
* Ex:- COLOR PLUS and IN-HOUSE brands like those of SHOPPER’S STOP or WESTSIDE use this technique.

3rd P : PLACE
Apparel Retailing Business is driven by one crucial factor:
* Location
> Approachable
> Parking
* Print medium.
* Loyalty programs
* In-store Visual merchandising

* Every second a customer spends inside the store has to be viewed as Moment of Truth
* “People” is that aspect of the marketing mix which adds tangibility to the service of creating an experience

* Managing Appearance of the building & Location
* Maintaining Temperature , Music, Lighting and Fragrance inside the store
* Availability of services like Prams, Wheel Chair, Valet Parking etc
* Stylish Stocking of Merchandise
For a start, these retailers need to invest much more in capturing more specific market. Intelligence as well as almost real-time customer purchase behavior information. The retailers also need to make substantial investment in understanding/acquiring some advanced expertise in developing more accurate and scientific demand forecasting models. Re-engineering of product sourcing philosophies-aligned more towards collaborative planning and replenishment should then be next on their agenda. The message, therefore for the existing small and medium independent retailers is to closely examine what changes are taking place in their immediate vicinity, and analyze Whether their current market offers a potential redevelopment of the area into a more modern multi-option destination. If it does, and most commercial areas in India do have this potential, it would be very useful to form a consortium of other such small retailers in that vicinity and take a pro-active approach to pool in resources and improve the overall infrastructure. The next effort should be to encourage retailers to make some investments in improving the interiors of their respective establishments to make shopping an enjoyable experience for the customer.
As the retail marketplace changes shape and competition increases, the potential for improving retail productivity and cutting costs is likely to decrease. Therefore, it will become important for retailers to secure a distinctive position in the marketplace based on value, relationships or experience.

R ~ Rain check
E ~ Establishment
T ~ Trade
A ~ Affiliated Chains
I ~ Investment Oppt
L ~ Low Price Guaranty

Finally, it is important to note that these strategies are not strictly independent of each other; value is function of not just price, quality and service but can also be enhanced by Personalization and offering a memorable experience. In fact, building relationships with customers can by itself increase the quality of overall customer experience and thus the perceived value. But most importantly for winning in this intensely competitive marketplace, it is critical to understand the target customer’s definition of value and make an offer, which not only delights the customers but also is also difficult for competitors to replicate.


Secondary information –
Books on operation Management:
Basics of Operation Management: Study Guide
Fundamentals of Operation Management by John T Mentzer

http://www. Operation management.in/scm/bullwhip.htm