A Comparative Analysis of Wast

A Comparative Analysis of Waste Management Practices on Plant Boxes along Ayala Boulevard
A Case Study presented in partial fulfillment of the
course requirements of G-SCI 03

Proponents:
Cayabyab, Ma. Jasephine P.
Colis, Ruby P.
Cortez, Renee Rose A.
Estrella, Mieralor C.
Juan, Ivan Hubert C.
Tepase, Noriel Liezel Ann B.

Presented to:
Prof. Rosario M. Belmi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The accumulation of waste on plant boxes along Ayala Blvd. is a persistent problem, yet largely unaddressed. The present study collected information on relative waste volume on either side of Ayala Blvd., through observation and interviews, and collected information on waste management from sanitation personnel. It was found lant boxes along the TUP side of Ayala Blvd. had, more often than not, less waste accumuation throughout the day than the PNU side.In addition, it was also revealed that the waste management of Ayala Blvd. was handled by different agencies, coming from City and National governmets. The study also proposes several measures to address the problem mentioned.
INTRODUCTION
Environmental pollution has been the main problem since early times and it grows together with the excessive growth in developing countries. The most visible of the types of pollution is probably waste pollution which is generated in large amounts every day. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is an inevitable byproduct of human activity. Population growth and economic development lead to enormous amounts of solid waste generation by the dwellers of the urban areas (Karishnamurti and Naidu, 2003). Urban MSW is usually generated from human settlements, small industries and commercial activities (Singh et al., 2011). In majority of countries most of the smaller units do not have any specific technique of managing these wastes. These wastes pose a threat for health and also they may have long term effect on environment (Pattnaik and Reddy, 2009).
The plant boxes along Ayala Boulevard serve a decorative purpose – they provide shade for passersby and beautify the otherwise boring stretch of road. This purpose however is defeated when one looks up close. These plant boxes have been turned into centers of pollution by the same people they were meant for.
The plant boxes today are now more like waste bins, accumulating large amounts of waste. Although street sweepers regularly clean the sidewalks, the planters are for the most part unmaintained.
The problem, while serious has been largely ignored. This prompted us to conduct the present study to identify key contributors to waste accumulation and compare waste management practices on the planters along both sides of Ayala Blvd.

Objectives
The study was conducted with the following goals in mind:
1. Compare the relative volume of waste accumulation in plant boxes along either side of Ayala Blvd.
2. Identify key contributors to the waste accumulation in plant boxes along Ayala Blvd.
3. Collect information on waste management practices along Ayala.
4. Propose possible solutions to improve waste management along Ayala.
Scope and Limitations
1. The study was conducted in a short stretch of Ayala Blvd., from Ayala cor. Taft Avenue, to Ayala cor. San Marcelino St.
2. Observations and interviews were conducted over the course of three days (Sept. 22, 23, and 24) at three different times of the day (6:30, 11:30, and 2:30).
3. The study includes interviews from relevant persons such as passersby, security guards of both TUP and PNU, street vendors, and sweepers.

METHODOLOGY
The study was conducted according to the following schematic diagram.

Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of the Methodology
Initial Observation
Two sites of plant boxes along Ayala Boulevard were identified for the study. The first study area was the plant boxes along Philippine Normal University, while the second was along the Technological University of the Philippines. The plant boxes today are now more like waste bins, accumulating large amounts of waste. Although street sweepers regularly clean the sidewalks, the planters are for the most part unmaintained. This prompted the researches to conduct a study to identify the key contributors to waste accumulation and compare the waste management practices on the plant boxes along both sides of Ayala Blvd.
Data Collection
At three times (6:30, 11:30 and 2:30) over three consecutive days (September 22-24), the observation were conducted. The researchers conducted ocular observation and documentation of the two sites. They also conducted an interview from the passersby, security guards, street vendors and street sweepers on both sites.
Observation and Documentation
An ocular investigation was done in the location for three consecutive days (September 22, 23 and 24) at three times of the day (6:30am, 11:30am and 2:30pm).
During the first day at 6:30am, the number of people, primarily students, passing the two sidewalks were of the same number. The relative waste on the plant boxes are greater in the PNU side compared to the UP side. The number of street sweepers cleaning in the PNU side is lesser (2) compared to the TUP street sweepers (3). In terms of duration of cleaning, TUP street sweepers are faster than the other.
On the second day at the same time, the same observation on the accumulation of waste in the plant boxes was recorded. The number of street sweepers cleaning in both sides is in the same number but the TUP street sweepers were relatively faster than the PNU side.
On the last day, the number of people passing the PNU side is smaller since it is a Wednesday and there were no classes in PNU. However, the accumulated waste on the planters is still greater in the PNU side. There were observed dead animals on the planters of the PNU sidewalk. There were three cleaners in the TUP side while only one on the PNU side.
DAY/TIME PNU TUP Day 1 6:30-6:45
* 2 cleaners
* Mabagal maglinis
* Mas madaming kalat
* Halos pareho lang ng dami ng taong dumadaan * 3 cleaners
* Mabilis maglinis
* Mas kaunti ang kalat
* Halos pareho lang ng dami ng taong dumadaan 11:30-11:45 * Maraming kalat at basura. Puro plastic at mga balat ng pinagkainan ang makikita sa mga planters.
* May patay na aso sa pangalawa sa huling planters. * Mas maraming dumadaan, puro estudyante.
* Kunti at maliliit na basura lang ang makikita.
* Amoy ihi
* May trash bin (box) sa side ng TUP building 2:30-2:45 * Hindi masyadong madumi.
* Amoy ihi
* Yung mga planters walang masyadong kalat (konting candy wrappers lang etc.) * Hindi masyadong madumi.
* Amoy ihi
* Yung mga planters walang masyadong kalat (konting candy wrappers lang etc.) Day 2 6:30-6:45
* 2 cleaners
* Mabagal maglinis
* Mas madaming kalat
* Halos pareho lang ng dami ng taong dumadaan * 2 cleaners
* Mabilis maglinis (may TUP janitor na naglilinis ng harap ng university)
* Mas kaunti ang kalat
* Halos pareho lang ng dami ng taong dumadaan 11:30-11:45 * May garbage bag sa bandang dulo pero kalat kalat pa rin ang mga basura.
* Kung ano ang mga basurang nakita noong umaga, yun at yun parin. Nadagdagan pa nga.
* Konti lang ang dumadaang tao. * May mga garbage bag ang bawat vendor at may dalawang trash bins (boxes).
* Maraming dumadadaan na tao. Pinakamarami ang mga estudyante.
* Malinis linis ang bawat planter. 2:30-2:45 * Yung tapunan ng basura nasa mismong planters.
* May patay na aso dun sa may dulong planters * Hindi masyadong madumi.
* Amoy ihi
* Yung mga planters walang masyadong kalat (konting candy wrappers lang etc.) Day 3 6:30-6:45 * 1 cleaner
* Mabagal maglinis – kakaumpisa pa lang pero matatapos na yung cleaners sa TUP side
* Mas madaming kalat – may mga patay na hayop(aso at pusa) at dumi (ng tao) sa mga planters
* Wala halos dumadaan (walang pasok ang PNU) * 3 cleaners
* Mabilis ang paglilinis
* Mas kaunti ang kalat
* Mas maraming dumadaan kumpara sa PNU side 11:30-11:45 * Amoy ihi
* Maraming dumadaang tao puro estudyante.
* Nagkalat sa baba ang mga basura dahil sa puno na ng kalat ang ibang planters. * Marami-rami ang taong dumadaang tao halos puro estudyante rin.
* May mga konting kalat lang sa mga piling planters.
* May mga trash bins (boxes) at may mga garbage bag ang bawat vendor. 2:30-2:45 * 1 cleaner
* Yung tapunan ng basura nasa mismong planters.
* May patay na aso dun sa may dulong planters * Hindi masyadong madumi.
* Amoy ihi
* Yung mga planters walang masyadong kalat (konting candy wrappers lang etc.)
Interview
The interview was conducted for three consecutive days (September 22, 23 and 24) every 6:30-6:45 in the morning. The subject interviewees are street sweepers assigned at Ayala Ave which includes the Technological University (TUP) and Philippine Normal University (PNU) sidewalks.
The following questions are used in the interview:
1. Regular po ba kayong naglilinis ng sidewalk lalo na po yung mga planters?
2. Napapanatili po ba ang kalinisan dito?
3. Sa inyo pong palagay, sino po ang karaniwang nagpapakalat ng lugar?
4. Kanino pong panukala ang paglilinis ng mga sidewalk at planters, sa barangay o city hall?
According to the interviewees, they are regularly cleaning the area excluding Sunday which serves as their rest day. Interviewees from both sides of the road said that cleanliness along the sidewalks including the plant boxes is not maintained within the day. The TUP street sweepers pointed out that the primary contributor of waste in the area the trees because of their falling leaves while the PNU street sweepers pointed out the scavengers as the primary contributor in the accumulation of waste. The street sweepers of both sides agreed that students also take a big part in the waste accumulation with the reason that students are frequently passing the area. The interviewees cleared that they are working under the Manila city government.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Relative Waste Volume
Time Observation Day 1 The plant boxes on the TUP side was substantially cleaner than those on the PNU side. The TUP plant boxes were kept free from waste while the PNU plant boxes accumulated a larger volume of waste. Day 2 The waste volume in PNU plant boxes, while constant, was still greater than those of TUP plant boxes, which were relatively free from waste. The waste volume did not increase noticeably. Day 3 A similar observation was noted on the last day of observation, although the waste volume on the PNU side was significantly less than the earlier two days.
Interview
With Passers-by
Questions Response PNU TUP A B C A B C Palagi ka bang dumadaan dito? Anong napapansin mo pag dumadaan ka dito?
Ano ang maimumungkahi mong solusyon para mabawasan ang kalat sa planters?

Sa tingin mo sino ang kadalasang nagkakalat? “Oo. Palagi. Marumi super.”
“Dapat maglagay ng basurahan. Tapos dapat may magbabantay.”

“Yung mga dumadaan na tao. Estudyante at mga trabahador. “Hmm. Opo. Ayun ang daming basura.”

“Maglagay sana ng trash bins at dapat may naglilnis palagi.”
“Mga pulubi kasi sila naman ang tumitira dyan eh.” “Oo naman. Naku ang kalat.”
“Basurahan kasi pag walang makitang basurahan sa may planters sila nagtatapon.”

“Mga estudyante at mga pulubi.” “Opo. Medyo okay naman.”
“Signage at mga trash bins.”
“Students.” “Palagi po. May mga konting kalat.”

“May maglilinis tapos dapat may basurahan.”
“Mga dumadaang tao usually students.” “Oo. Medyo makalat.”

“Basurahan at may magbabantay.”

“Estudyante’t mga dumadaan.” With Street Vendors
Questions: Vendor 1 Vendor 2 Vendor 3 Ano pong masasabi nyo sa mga planters?
May mga napapansin po ba kayong naglilinis dito?

Sino sa tingin nyo ang kadalasang nagkakalat dito? “Minsan madumi’t makalat.”
“Meron. Nandito yung mga streetsweepers kapag umaga.”

“Mga estudyante.” “Okay naman. Malinis-linis.”
“Napapansin lang naming silang maglinis tuwing umaga.”

“Students. Sila lang naman din ang palaging nadaan dito eh.” “Hmm. Malinis naman kahit papano. Naglalagay kasi kami ng sarili naming basurahan.

“Sa umaga may naglilinis. Sa hapon mayroon din dapat.”

“Yung mga dumadaang tao. Mga trabahador at mga estudyante rin.”
With Street Sweepers
QUESTION PNU TUP Regular po ba kayong naglilinis ng sidewalk lalo na po yung mga planters? Araw-araw kaming naglilinis pwera na lang pag Linggo, day-off namin. Daily talaga kami naglilinis, bale ang Sunday lang ang day-off namin. Napapanatili po ba ang kalinisan dito? Sa araw lang pero pagdating sa gabi madumi na. Hindi eh kasi kung malinis maghapon yan eh di wala kaming wawalisin na ganyan. Sa umaga malinis yan. Syempre kapag tapos na ang trabaho namin uuwi na kami. Yung kalahating araw pagkatapos naming maglinis puro kalat na ulit yan lalo na yung mga dahon. Sa inyo pong palagay, sino po ang karaniwang nagpapakalat ng lugar? Yung mga scavenger. Palagi silang andyan tapos dumudumi pa sila dyan. Saka yung ibang estudyante, tapon sila ng tapon ng kung anu-ano, mga balat ng candy ganyan. Hindi naman lahat ng estudyante, yung iba lang. Yung una puno, ang ikalawa, sa totoo lang mga estudyante kasi walang disiplina. Makikita mo pagkadaan mo malinis yan tapos pagdaan namin ulit pagbalik namin, mga baso at kung ano-ano pa. Ang dumadaan lang naman dito lagi eh puro estudyante. Kapag nakita nilang malinis, sige tapon lang ng tapon. Kanino pong panukala ang paglilinis ng mga sidewalk at planters, sa barangay o city hall? Under kami ng city hall. Sa city hall kami, government employee kami. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
For the purposes of this study, the following conclusions were formulated.
1. On relative waste volume: Observations agree with interviews that the TUP side of Ayala had less waste accumulation throughout the day than the PNU side
2. On key contributors: interviews with all relevant persons agree that passersby, students in particular, were the largest contributors to waste accumulation. Other contributors are scavengers and trees.
3. On waste management practices: the sidewalks are cleaned every morning, however interviewees agree that this is insufficient.
For the purposes of the study, the following measures are recommended:
1. Better student involvement/awareness through the NSTP program. Since this is the primary channel through which the students interact with the community through the University, it would be an important driving force towards student awareness of the current problem.
2. Coordination with key offices. The National government, whose agencies ae directly involved with the maintenance of the sidewalks in major roads must be notified of this pressing problem. Proposals to increase maintenance personnel may be done.
3. Further study, especially on soil quality. The effect of solid waste on soil quality in smaller areas of land has not yet been extensively documented. A further study on the sol quality of the planters along Ayala Blvd. is recommeded.
APPENDIX
Photographs from Observation

Photographs taken from PNU side plant boxes
(Sept 22, 23, 24)
Photographs taken from TUP side plant boxes
(Sept 22, 23, 24)

Meeting with Prof. Cristeta Dumadong, Community Partnership and Extension Office

“Leaving a Legacy,” according to Prof. Dumadong