1. Identify the management fun

1. Identify the management functions and how they are executed by a manager.

a. Planning – management function of determining in advance what a group should accomplish and how the goals are to be attained. Plans no matter how good they are cannot guarantee the success of any business enterprise. Action is required; the business enterprise must operate. Plans, however, focus action on purposes. Manager should execute planning by characterizing a sound basic strategy which must give due consideration and importance to the following factors:
* Condition obtaining at the time of the formulation of the plan and expected to prevail during its implementation.
* Attitudes of the personnel who are charged with its implementation.
* Problems that must be met and solved on the basis of priority and importance.
* Barriers to the successful execution of the plan.
* Alternative courses of action.
b. Organizing- a basic human activity; one that allows individuals to work collectively so as to achieve their individual and collective goals. For an organization to function effectively there must not only exist cooperation among the people within the group but it should be under the direction of the competent and efficient executive leader. Organization is the principal task of business managers. Without good organization, the physical assets of a business enterprise, its plants and offices, its tools and equipment, its supplies and materials cannot be used effectively. Without it too, the people employed by the business enterprise and responsible for its operation cannot perform the best of their skills and abilities. Organizing a business for efficient operation is the essential attribute for making this possible.
c. Staffing- is the management function which has to do with putting people in the framework of the organization. It is thus, the selection, inventory, appraisal, and training of people for enterprise activities. The staffing function necessarily starts with the specification of jobs to be done to accomplish plans, as these jobs are grouped and allocated to positions within the organizational structure. Among the important functions of the manager is help select, train and evaluate those individuals who can best help the organization to meet its goal. Business is not the management of things. It is the selection of people, the training of people, the supervision of people, and it is the development of people. Build better men and better men will build better business.
d. Directing- A term for describing the managerial function of running the affairs of the organization in the light of its chosen objectives. The greatest pre-occupation of a manager revolves around performance, proficiency, and productivity. This in turn, is the result of two factors; the competences of the work group multiply by its motivation. In a very real sense, the tasks of a manager are:
* Keep the organization in a state of continuous stability regardless of the conditions obtaining, that is, whether normal, adverse or in the presence of an emergency.
* Establish a system of moral values which guides his actions and behavior thereby setting a shining example to his subordinates and workers to follow and emulate.
* Establish a healthy climate of cooperation among all the personnel within the organization through proper encouragement and motivation.
* Keep close watch on company operations and performance.
e. Controlling- is one of determining how closely organizational plans and objectives are being achieved. Controls provides managers of business enterprises with an important tool for detecting and correcting deviation from these plans, for correcting errors in previous plans, and for developing more realistic plans in the future. The managerial function of controlling deals with the regulating and restraining of activities. It is the measurement and correction of the performance of activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the objectives of the business enterprise as well as the plans devised to attain them are being carefully executed and accomplished.

2. What are the key components in the study of Organizational Behavior? Describe how each is important to the study of OB.

a. Organizational Ethics- these are moral principles that define right and wrong behavior in organizations. What constitute right and wrong behavior in organization is determined by the public, interest groups, organizations, and the individual’s personal morals and values. To avoid chaos and destruction, and to make life in society possible, adherence to the practice of moral principles regulating human relations become necessary.

3. Explain the importance of HBO/OB to OD (Organizational Development).

Organizational behavior is not an instant invention of man. Instead, it is the product of several stages of inquiry into how people behave and how they can be managed to be more productive. Personalities, great and small, contributed to the development of Organizational behavior. If the organization is expected to survive, its actions must be in consonance with ethical behavior. Organizational Behavior benefits the organizational development through development of people skills, personal growth, enhancement of organizational and individual effectiveness, and sharpening and reinforcement of common sense.
Organizational behavior studies have become more important today than in previous years because corporations must learn to adapt to the rapidly changing business cultures that have stemmed from a competitive and fast-paced market. Organizational behavior was a topic that was not discussed until an employee’s behavior changed, productivity changed, or sales decreased. In today’s business world, managers are paying more attention to how employees react to situations rather than if they respond. They are beginning to view organizational behavior as an intricate piece of training and development of the workforce. Soft skills were never a part of management training and it was rare that managers were commended for having those skills. In the business world today, I feel organizational behavior is an essential tool for managing effective teams. If you can zone in on an employees’ personality, creativity, and adaptability, motivating that employee the way they need to be motivated is never a gray area and a guaranteed success.

With this knowledge managers can achieve a successful career. Since a manager needs to get his job done by the others, to have an organizational behavior skills become a valuable talent.

As the environment of business is always changing, the role of the managers has become more sensitive. In order to know how to handle a new workforce, and deal with the complication of the new environment, the supervisors need to develop their information about attitude and behavior of individuals, and groups in organization. Now we know not only the hard skills is important for get the job done, soft skills are helps managers to do their job more effectively and efficiently.
4. Describe positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction as tools for shaping an employee.

Positive reinforcement results when the occurrence of a valued behavioral consequence has the effect of strengthening the probability of the behavior being repeated. The specific behavioral consequence is called a reinforcer. An example of positive reinforcement might be a salesperson that exerts extra effort to meet a sales quota (behavior) and is then rewarded with a bonus (positive reinforcer). The administration of the positive reinforcer should make it more likely that the salesperson will continue to exert the necessary effort in the future.
Negative reinforcement results when an undesirable behavioral consequence is withheld, with the effect of strengthening the probability of the behavior being repeated. Negative reinforcement is often confused with punishment, but they are not the same. Punishment attempts to decrease the probability of specific behaviors; negative reinforcement attempts to increase desired behavior. Thus, both positive and negative reinforcement have the effect of increasing the probability that a particular behavior will be learned and repeated. An example of negative reinforcement might be a salesperson that exerts effort to increase sales in his or her sales territory (behavior), which is followed by a decision not to reassign the salesperson to an undesirable sales route (negative reinforcer). The administration of the negative reinforcer should make it more likely that the salesperson will continue to exert the necessary effort in the future.
As mentioned above, punishment attempts to decrease the probability of specific behaviors being exhibited. Punishment is the administration of an undesirable behavioral consequence in order to reduce the occurrence of the unwanted behavior. Punishment is one of the more commonly used reinforcement-theory strategies, but many learning experts suggest that it should be used only if positive and negative reinforcement cannot be used or have previously failed, because of the potentially negative side effects of punishment. An example of punishment might be demoting an employee who does not meet performance goals or suspending an employee without pay for violating work rules.
Extinction is similar to punishment in that its purpose is to reduce unwanted behavior. The process of extinction begins when a valued behavioral consequence is withheld in order to decrease the probability that a learned behavior will continue. Over time, this is likely to result in the ceasing of that behavior. Extinction may alternately serve to reduce a wanted behavior, such as when a positive reinforcer is no longer offered when a desirable behavior occurs. For example, if an employee is continually praised for the promptness in which he completes his work for several months, but receives no praise in subsequent months for such behavior, his desirable behaviors may diminish. Thus, to avoid unwanted extinction, managers may have to continue to offer positive behavioral consequences.

5. Are attitude and behavior the same? Explain your answer. Does behavior always follow from attitudes?

Attitude and behavior are two quite different things. Attitude is a person’s inner thoughts and feelings, while behavior is usually an outward expression of attitude, but the two are not always related.
Attitude- is more someone’s manner or disposition etc, with regard to someone or something. For example if someone is being negative they can have a ‘negative attitude’. It can also express an emotion. Someone can have a ‘threatening attitude’

For instance, psychopaths are people whose attitudes are composed of low morality. However, this does not mean that they always commit immoral acts. Psychopaths are usually intelligent, so they know that even though there will be no moral consequences for them, there will still be legal consequences to deal with. This knowledge, in addition to their attitude, governs their behavior

Compatibility between attitudes and behaviour

The same attitude may be expressed in a variety of ways. For example, having a positive attitude towards the Labour Party doesn’t necessarily mean that you actually become a member, or that you attend public meetings. But if you don’t vote Labour in a general election, people may question your attitude. In other words, an attitude should predict behaviour to some extent, even if this is extremely limited and specific.
6. What causes job satisfaction? Is it the same with job performance?

There are certain factors associated with job satisfaction. They are the following:

a. Salary- adequacy of salary perceived equity compared with others.
b. Work itself- the extent to which the job tasks are considered interesting and provide opportunities for learning and accepting responsibilities.
c. Promotion Opportunity- chances for further advancement.
d. Quality of Supervision- the technical competence and interpersonal skills of one’s immediate superior.
e. Relationship with co-workers- the extent to which co-workers are friendly, competent and supportive.
f. Working conditions- the extent to which the physical work environment is comfortable and supportive of productivity; and
g. Job Security- the beliefs that one’s position is relatively secure and continued employment with the organization is a reasonable expectation.

Job performance is different from job satisfaction because this is sets of standards required by the organization, in which it is possible, however, if the following conditions are met:

a. The capacity to perform- relates the degree to which the employees possess skills, abilities, knowledge, and experiences relevant to his job.
b. The opportunity to perform- depend on the work environment provided to the employee.
c. The willingness to perform- relates to the degree in which an employee desires and is willing to exert effort to achieve the goals.

7. What creates the Organizational Citizenship behavior of an employee?

Organ (1988) defined organizational citizenship behaviors as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization. By discretionary, we mean that the behavior is not an enforceable requirement of the role or the job description, that is, the clearly specifiable terms of the person’s employment contract with the organization; the behavior is rather a matter of personal choice, such that its omission is not generally understood as punishable” (Podsakoff & et al., 2000: 513). Smith &et al. (1983) were interested in predicting organizationally beneficial behavior that was not formally rewarded and could not be enforced by the organization in terms of formal role expectations or job requirements. Supervisors were then asked to rate how characteristic each behavior was of the employee. Factor analyses of these ratings indicated two factors.

The first factor, labelled Altruism, captured behavior directly intended to help a specific person in face-to-face situations. The second factor, labelled Generalized Compliance, represented impersonal behaviors such as compliance with norms defining a good worker.

8. How do we make judgment of others? Is it justifiable means of coming up for a decision?

When we see a new face, our brains decide whether that person is attractive and trustworthy within one-tenth of a second, the results of new research indicate. According to US psychologist, Alex Todorov, people respond intuitively to faces so rapidly, that their reasoning minds may not have time to influence the reaction.
“The link between facial features and character may be tenuous at best, but that doesn’t stop our minds from sizing other people up at a glance. We decide very quickly whether a person possesses many of the traits we feel are important, such as likeability and competence, even though we have not exchanged a
People’s fundamental judgment about faces did not change. Observers simply became more confident in their judgments as the duration lengthened.” However why the brain makes such snap judgments is not yet entirely clear. He also emphasized that the findings do not mean that a quick first impression cannot be overturned by the rational mind.
“As time passes and you get to know people, you, of course, develop a more rounded conception of them. But because we make these judgments without conscious thought, we should be aware of what is happening when we look at a person’s face.”
Meanwhile the aspects of a face that inspire such judgments remain undetermined. “We still don’t know the physical features of a face that lead to a particular trait inference. We know generally what makes a face attractive, such as its symmetry, the proportions of its parts and the like. But what is it about a face that makes you think its owner is an essentially competent person.

9. What are the stages of group development and the properties that make a group? Explain the properties of the group.

Groups are like people; they learn and they develop. How they evolve may be seen through a presentation of standardized sequence in the development of groups. The sequence consists of different stages as follows:

a. The forming Stage- The first stage of group development is the forming stage. There are various ways of forming groups. One way is that person getting appointed to a discipline committee. Another is that person who is helping to form a medical mission, and another is that person who is gradually becoming part of a choral group over a period of months.
In the forming stage, the initial entry of members to a group is primary concern. However, the specific concerns of the members consist of the following:
1. They are eager to learn what tasks they will be performing
2. How they can be benefit from group membership
3. What constitutes acceptable behavior and
4. What rules must be followed.
5.
10. How is a group different from a team? How will you create an effective team?

A team is internally organized, with specific goals and usually with specific roles for different members of the team. A group is just a collection of people with something in common, such as being in the same place or having a shared interest.

“A team is a small group of people with complementary skills and abilities who are committed to a common goal and approach for which they hold each other accountable.” Let’s pick this definition apart. The best size for teams is 7-12 individuals. Larger teams require more structure and support; smaller teams often have difficulty meeting when members are absent. Members have skills and abilities that complement the team’s purpose. Not all members have the same skills, but together they are greater than the sum of their parts. On teams, members share roles and responsibilities and are constantly developing new skills to improve the team’s performance. Teams identify and reach consensus on their common goal and approach, rather than looking to a leader to define the goal and approach. Most importantly, teams hold their members accountable. What does this mean in practical terms? When they experience conflict with a member, they speak to that member directly rather than to a supervisor. When a member isn’t performing to the level required, the team addresses the performance problem.
Now let’s look at how a group functions. A group can be defined as a small group of people with complementary skills and abilities who are committed to a leader’s goal and approach and are willing to be held accountable by the leader. A group supports the leader’s goals and the leader-dominated approach to goal attainment. A group drives individual accountability rather than shared accountability. Leadership is predominantly held by one person rather than the shared, fluid leadership on a team. In a group, the dominant viewpoint is represented; in a team, multiple, diverse viewpoints are represented. Decisions in a group are made by voting or implied agreement; decisions on a team are typically made by consensus.
So, would it be right to say that teams are good and groups are bad? Absolutely not. A better question to ask is: when do you use a group and when do you make the extra effort to develop a team? Let’s face it, groups are far easier to create than teams, so it makes sense to be a group when the following exist: the decisions and process are already determined, buy-in is not necessary, time is a critical factor and there is split or minimal management support for teaming. To form the group, identify a strong, effective leader and empower the person to recruit group members, formulate the goal and approach and drive decision making. This approach would be practical for short-term projects with outcomes already defined.
Teaming, on the other hand, should be used when you need broad buy-in for the best results, when no one person has the answer and when shared responsibility is important to the success of the goal. To achieve a real team is difficult and time-consuming. There is no magic bullet that will transform a group into a team overnight. It takes time to develop the skills to work well together and understand how to solve problems and make decisions effectively.

11. Describe the needs of a person and its relation to the attainment of a goal.

12. Describe the communication process. What are the barriers to communication process?
13. Define leadership. Is leadership and management the same? Explain your answer.

Leadership has been described as “a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.”
Leadership and management must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing. But they are necessarily linked, and complementary. Any effort to separate the two is likely to cause more problems than it solves.
* The manager administers; the leader innovates.
* The manager is a copy; the leader is an original.
* The manager maintains; the leader develops.
* The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people.
* -The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust.
* The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective.
* The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why.
* The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader’s eye is on the horizon.
* The manager imitates; the leader originates.
* The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it.
* The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person.
* The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing.

14. What is conflict and negotiation? How are they processed in an organization?

15. Is the BATNA Process similar or different from the Rational Decision Making? Explain your answer.

BATNA Process is similar to Rational Decision Making because they are both selecting alternatives among the array of choices given. Rational Decision Making is a method for systematically selecting among possible choices that is based on reason and facts. In a rational decision making process, a business manager will often employ a series of analytical steps to review relevant facts, observations and possible outcomes before choosing a particular course of action. While BATNA Process is critical to negotiation because you cannot make a wise decision about whether to accept a negotiated agreement unless you know what your alternatives are.

Your BATNA “is the only standard which can protect you both from accepting terms that are too unfavorable and from rejecting terms it would be in your interest to accept.”[2] In the simplest terms, if the proposed agreement is better than your BATNA, then you should accept it. If the agreement is not better than your BATNA, then you should reopen negotiations. If you cannot improve the agreement, then you should at least consider withdrawing from the negotiations and pursuing your alternative (though the costs of doing that must be considered as well).

Having a good BATNA increases your negotiating power. Therefore, it is important to improve your BATNA whenever possible. Good negotiators know when their opponent is desperate for an agreement. When that occurs, they will demand much more, knowing their opponent will have to give in. If the opponent apparently has many options outside of negotiation, however, they are likely to get many more concessions, in an effort to keep them at the negotiating table. Thus making your BATNA as strong as possible before negotiating, and then making that BATNA known to your opponent will strengthen your negotiating position.

16. Define organization culture and its characteristics.

Organizational culture is the sum total of an organization’s past and current assumptions, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it together, and is expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations. It is based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, express or implied contracts, and written and unwritten rules that the organization develops over time and that have worked well enough to be considered valid. Also called corporate culture, it manifests in (1) the ways the organization conducts its business, treats its employees, customers, and the wider community, (2) the extent to which autonomy and freedom is allowed in decision making, developing new ideas, and personal expression, (3) how power and information flow through its hierarchy, and (4) the strength of employee commitment towards collective objectives. It is termed strong or weak to the extent it is diffused through the organization.
It affects the organization’s productivity and performance, and provides guidelines on customer care and service; product quality and safety; attendance and punctuality; and concern for the environment. It extends also to production-methods, marketing and advertising practices, and to new product creation. While there are many common elements in the large organizations of any country, organizational culture is unique for every organization and one of the hardest thing to change.

Think about your own organization in providing answer to each question.

1st Topic: What is organizational excellence? How do you know when you see it?

1. What is human Behavior?

Human behavior refers to the physical actions of a person that can be seen or heard such as smiling or whistling. With his thoughts, feelings, emotions, and sentiments, the person exhibits behaviors similar or different when he is in or out of the organization.
2. What is an Organization and corporate culture?

Organization is a social group which distributes tasks for a collective goal. It is the collection of organs of scientific methods and artifacts of the almamater The word is derived from the Greek word organon, itself derived from the better-known word ergon which means “organ” – a compartment for a particular task.
Organizational culture is the sum total of an organization’s past and current assumptions, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it together, and is expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations. It is based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, express or implied contracts, and written and unwritten rules that the organization develops over time and that have worked well enough to be considered valid. Also called corporate culture, it manifests in (1) the ways the organization conducts its business, treats its employees, customers, and the wider community, (2) the extent to which autonomy and freedom is allowed in decision making, developing new ideas, and personal expression, (3) how power and information flow through its hierarchy, and (4) the strength of employee commitment towards collective objectives. It is termed strong or weak to the extent it is diffused through the organization.

3. Tell something about organizational change.

All significant organizational transformations require some level of corporate culture change. And all organizational culture change requires leaders to lead differently. In general, these changes are moving away from traditional command and control, where leaders set rigid requirements, lead through fear and people attend to the needs of their silos over those of the enterprise. Command and control cultures often limit employee satisfaction and performance, and promote conflict between silos that hurt both business results, service to the customer, and organizational change.
The direction organizational culture is slowly going-but needs to go in earnest to survive in the dynamic 21st Century marketplace-is toward co-creating. Simply stated, co-creating means “working together across boundaries in pursuit of Win-win-win outcomes.” By Win-win-win, we mean outcomes that are best for the larger systems (i.e., the enterprise and customer) as well as the smaller systems (you and me; or your department and mine). This requires an “up and out” leadership perspective, not the “down and in” turf-perspective many leaders, staff and their organizational cultures have.

4. Tell something about Organizational Conflict.

2nd Topic: Fostering excellence through building and enabling high-quality connections and generalized reciprocity (positive social capital)
1. What does excellence look like in organizations and in individuals?
2. If you were trying to assess excellence at work, what would you use as indicators?
3. What is reciprocity ring?

3rd Topic: Fostering excellence through the design of jobs
1. What are the most important features of jobs that drive effectiveness?
2. What could be done to redesign your job to make you more effective in it?

4th Topic: Job Crafting
1. What is job crafting and how does it related to job design?
2. What are the dimensions of job crafting?
3. How is job crafting done and what are its benefits to the individual and to the company?

5th Topic: Fostering excellence through the design of high performance teams
1. Evaluate your manager. What are his/her strengths and weaknesses?
2. How effective is your manager? Justify your assessment.

6th Topic: Fostering excellence through motivation and rewards

1. What is performance management?

Performance management is the current buzzword and is the need in the current times of cut throat competition and the organizational battle for leadership. Performance management is a much broader and a complicated function of HR, as it encompasses activities such as joint goal setting, continuous progress review and frequent communication, feedback and coaching for improved performance, implementation of employee development programmes and rewarding achievements. The process of performance management starts with the joining of a new incumbent in a system and ends when an employee quits the organization. Performance management can be regarded as a systematic process by which the overall performance of an organization can be improved by improving the performance of individuals within a team framework. It is a means for promoting superior performance by communicating expectations, defining roles within a required competence framework and establishing achievable benchmarks.

2. What kind of rewards will you use?

You have many options for motivating workers to perform well in your organization. For example, job rotation and job enrichment bring in additional challenges and experience. You also can motivate your employees by offering training courses that enhance their skills and knowledge. Your leadership style can also motivate your employees.
The following rewards will be use in my organization:
* Performance-Based Incentives
You can enhance you employees’ motivation is by defining their tasks and attaching compensation-based incentives to a certain levels of performance. Among varied types of performance-based incentive plans, yearly bonus compensation is fairly common. Many organizations operate such a program for their employees, particularly mid-tier management employees, where employees receive a percentage of their annual salaries as a bonus. For more on-hands employees, such as those working on the factory floor or ground sales teams, you can adopt commissions, spot bonuses, output bonuses or suggestion incentive programs.
* Employee Recognition
You also can use nonmonetary rewards to motivate employees. For example, employee recognition fulfils the psychological needs and desires of employees. Schemes such as “sale person of the month” or “employee of the year” certificates help boost morale as you recognized the employee for his outstanding efforts. Appreciative feedback from supervisors and managers also serve as employee recognition and helps to boost morale. Holding seminars, exhibitions and workshops and encouraging employees to participate and then awarding the employee for participation in these events also derives motivation and recognition for employees involved.
* Ownership Options
Many times, because executives and upper-tier management are responsible for the organization’s foremost affairs, incentive plans at this level involve a higher sense of goal congruency between these employees and the organization. Therefore, you can adopt profit-sharing and stock options, using the element of ownership to motivate and enhance the employee’s performance. Employees who believe they are part owners of the company may become more efficient and productive because they believe the company’s successes are their own.
* Considerations
The major goal of an organization’s reward system is to keep its employees motivated so that they continually perform better at their tasks. The theories of motivation by various experts such as Herzberg and Maslow state one thing synonymously: The physiological and psychological needs and desires of employees must be met and maintained to keep them motivated. Therefore, try to keep your employees’ needs and desires in mind when designing your organization’s reward systems. Core characteristics of a robust reward system include both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators.
7th Topic: Fostering excellence through organizational culture
1. What is organizational culture?
2. What necessitates a cultural change in the organization?

8th Topic: Managing Crisis (Cultivating compassion through leadership)

1. What is Crisis?

Crisis do not discriminate based on a company’s size or notoriety, and they can hit when a company least expects them. They come in many forms – strikes, layoffs, product recalls or allegations of misconduct, but while some of these may seem small, every crisis has the potential to damage the reputation of a company.
Regardless of the severity of the situation, crises pose a serious threat to companies – not only to their reputation but their fiscal health as well. The factor that determines how a company will withstand a crisis is its ability to respond to the crisis. “The public forgives accidents, but it doesn’t forgive a corporation if its response to the public is inadequate. Once a crisis occurs, the company is suddenly a target for the media, who are acting on behalf of the public to find out the answers to the important questions about their own safety. One substantial barrier the company must overcome is the public’s perception, because it is a well-known fact in the public relations field that perception is, indeed, reality.

2. What is the role of a leader during crisis?

A sequence of sudden, unplanned and unexpected events leading to instability in the organization and major unrest amongst the individuals is called as crisis.
Crisis generally arises on a short notice and causes major disturbances at the workplace.
Leaders and managers play an extremely important role during crisis.
* One should lead from the front. Show confidence and steadiness. Take complete charge of the situation.
* Managers should have full control on the employees. They should know what is happening around. Any issue neglected in the initial stage might be a major concern later. Problems must be attended immediately. One should not ignore even minor issues or wait for someone else to take the initiative. Any issue left unattended might lead to crisis and major unrest later.
* One should be alert at the workplace. A leader should be able to feel the early signs of crisis and warn the employees against the negative consequences of the same. It is his duty to take precautionary measures to avoid an emergency situation. A leader should be able to foresee crisis. Such a stage is also called as Signal Detection.
* Leaders must try their level best to prevent crisis. Encourage effective communication at the workplace. Let employees discuss issues amongst themselves and come to the best possible alternative to overcome crisis.
* Ask the employees not to panic at the time of crisis. Encourage them to face the tough times with courage, determination and smile. Make them work as a single unit. It is the duty of the leader to provide a sense of direction to the employees.
* The leaders should interact with the employees more often. Let them feel that you are there for them. Impart necessary crisis management trainings to the employees.
* Planning is essential to avoid emergency situations. Learn to take quick decisions. Make sure everyone at the workplace is well informed about emergency situations.
* Identify the important processes and systems which should keep functioning for the smooth running of the organization. Develop alternate plans with correct and accurate information.
* Don’t let negativity creep in the organization. Motivate the employees to believe in themselves and the organization. It is essential to trust each other during such situations. Take strict action against those spreading rumours and trying to tarnish organization’s image.
* Don’t avoid stakeholders, external parties and most importantly media. Come out, meet them and explain the whole situation. Ignoring people makes things worse. Develop strong partnerships with external parties and ask for help.
* Never lose hope. Be a strong pillar of support for your team members. They should be able to fall back on you.
* Leaders should strive hard to come out of tough times as soon as possible. Learn to take risks. Clarify the roles and responsibilities of the individuals during this time.
* Once the organization is out of crisis, it is the leader’s duty to communicate the lessons learnt so that employees do not commit same mistakes again. Work hard and relive your organization’s image. Adapt well to changes and new situations.
9th Topic: Fostering excellence through Organizational Design

1. What is an Organizational Design?

The framework, typically hierarchical, within which an organization arranges its lines of authority and communications,and allocates rights and duties. Organizational structure determines the manner and extent to which roles, power, and responsibilities are delegated, controlled, and coordinated, and how information flows between levels of management.
A structure depends entirely on the organization’s objectives and the strategy chosen to achieve them. In a centralized structure, the decision making power is concentrated in the top layer of the management and tight control is exercised over departments and divisions. In a decentralized structure, the decision making power is distributed and the departments and divisions have varying degrees of autonomy. An organizational chart illustrates the organizational structure.

2. What changes, in any, would you advise?

This is not a science fiction it is a process. Simply try to implement these advices, and you can find how much easy can be the process.
* Always try to timely detect all possible sources of organizational changes. Read more in Analysis: Main Forces Driving Changes and Sources of Organizational Changes.
* Starting with a business model redesign first to find all possible sources and all possible improvements. Read more in Business Model as an Improvement Tool.
* Look at previous failures to find more sources. Read more in Improvement – Consequence of Failure.
* Find all possible sources of resistance and try to eliminate them or eventually to reduce their effects on the process. Read more in Change Reality: How Resistance Impact On Implementation? And Factors that Causes Resistance to Organizational Change.
* Make a clear plan for implementation with all responsibilities, timelines and expected results.
* Do not forget to observe the implementation process and always when there is a need of change something changes it.
* Always try to empower people to create short-term wins that will build momentum and will tell the people that success is visible.
* Do not forget to celebrate the success of the implementation of the process. However, celebrating can be used also in the middle of the project after successfully finished some of the phases of implementation. In such a way again you can build momentum.
* Do not forget to measure the results and compare them with the results that were planned to be achieved.
3. Do you have anything new or distinctive?

4. What should you say to the shareholders about values?

10th Topic: Managing Change (Positive emotions and resilience)

1. Tell something about the topic.

Here are some rules for effective management of change. Managing organizational change will be more successful if you apply these simple principles. Achieving personal change will be more successful too if you use the same approach where relevant. Change management entails thoughtful planning and sensitive implementation, and above all, consultation with, and involvement of, the people affected by the changes. If you force change on people normally problems arise. Change must be realistic, achievable and measurable. These aspects are especially relevant to managing personal change. Before starting organizational change, ask yourself: What do we want to achieve with this change, why, and how will we know that the change has been achieved? Who is affected by this change, and how will they react to it? How much of this change can we achieve ourselves, and what parts of the change do we need help with? These aspects also relate strongly to the management of personal as well as organizational change.

The employee does not have a responsibility to manage change – the employee’s responsibility is no other than to do their best, which is different for every person and depends on a wide variety of factors (health, maturity, stability, experience, personality, motivation, etc). Responsibility for managing change is with management and executives of the organisation – they must manage the change in a way that employees can cope with it. The manager has a responsibility to facilitate an deniable change, and all that is implied within that statement, especially to understand the situation from an objective standpoint (to ‘step back’, and be non-judgemental), and then to help people understand reasons, aims, and ways of responding positively according to employees’ own situations and capabilities. Increasingly the manager’s role is to interpret, communicate and enable – not to instruct and impose, which nobody really responds to well.

11th Topic: Managing yourself (Building on your strengths and strengths of others)

1. Tell something about the topic.

Good influencers look, sound, and act convincing. Take steps to increase your confidence, improve your ability to empathize with others, and build trusting relationships.
* Building Self-assurance
People will place greater trust in your ideas if you communicate with confidence. Learn how to increase your poise and self-assurance, develop the ability to recover quickly from your mistakes, and build on your personal strengths.
* Emotional Intelligence
The ability to manage oneself and to build better relationships with others is vital for a successful influencer. Be aware of your own emotions, be sensitive to the feelings of others, and always act with honesty and openness.
* Creating Trust
People are more likely to be influenced by an individual they trust. Build a reputation for trustworthiness by speaking from a position of knowledge, keeping your promises, supporting others when they are in difficulty, and working through differences.
* Looking the Part
The way you present yourself in your dress and in your body language affects the way people perceive you and react to you. Make a good impression by dressing to match the business culture you work in and by emanating confidence.
12th Topic: Organizational Change and Revitalization

1. Tell something about the topic.
Change is actually not such a bad thing. Change helps us keep current with the times. It motivates us to improve on previous processes. Change even encourages us to challenge ourselves.
Ask yourself several questions to help evaluate your organizational situation:
* Does your organizational structure (by-laws, policies, procedures, mission statement, etc.) seem outdated and not reflective of current needs?
* Are people confused more than before about how to accomplish tasks in your organization?
* Do team members have a hard time understanding their responsibilities and how they should effectively communicate with each?
* Do others perceive your group as one that accomplishes very little but has lots of potential?
* Is there internal conflict about the roles and responsibilities of team members?
If you answered “yes” to any of these then it may be time to scrap what you have now (ie: tear down the McDonald’s building) and begin again anew. This may be painful…but it also may be necessary. What is the result of not changing? Regardless of your situation, change is not easy.
Facilitating Organizational Change
Not to be alarmed. Change is inevitable. It’s what keeps us current with the times. When you feel it is time to take stock in your organization, whether that be updating your organizational by-laws or mission statement, improving the programs and services you provide, or, creating a dramatic shift in your organization’s purpose, there are a few strategies for making sure the change is welcomed and sticks.
* Bring the Team On-board.

As you engage in the change process (perhaps adjusting your organizational structure, or, developing new procedures) encourage open, honest involvement of other group members. Team members may need some poking and prodding. Let them begin to participate at their own pace.
* Share the Vision.
If it’s only “your vision,” “your change,” “your idea,” you’ll likely struggle with your team. You may create an “us vs. them” mentality…. whether you mean to or not. Help people see the vision come alive. Share the new ideas but lose ownership yourself. Help them make decisions related to the change. Be open to their new ideas and encourage their creativity. Remember “People Support What THEY Help To Create!”
* Take Baby Steps. Change Takes Time
Often, people want things to be different overnight. I recently visited a school where I had previously done some work. I was amazed at how much they had accomplished in a short period of time. They got it done one step, one day at a time. Collaboratively plan, take action and evaluate.
* Different is Good.

Suppose we had a baseball team. During the first team practice, everyone argues about whom should be the pitcher…they all want to do it! How effective would the team be?

What if we evaluated the team players/members and fielded our team based on strengths and weaknesses. We discover somebody who is a “big picture” person and they become the catcher because that person needs to stay awake at all times and constantly communicate with the pitcher and team members. Then we find somebody with a long, accurate strong arm…someone who can get rid of the ball quickly. They run over to play third base. Before you know it, everyone is playing a unique position based on his or her talents and skills.

Different perspectives allow our team to be more effective, more creative and more adaptable to change. Involve people in the change process who have fresh perspectives or are open to learning. Different is good!
* Communicate Openly, Honestly and Often

Simplicity is important. You’ve probably heard the story of the five-year-old girl who is told that the family will soon move to a new neighbourhood. On “moving day” she locks herself in the bathroom in hopes of not having to move from her comfortable, familiar home. Deep down inside, her fear was that the family would move and she would have to leave all of her toys and personal belonging in the old house in order to move to the new one. She was obviously upset and angry because nobody communicated the change effectively and explained that she would not have to “give up” her toys. Your goal is to communicate with team members so that they know what is happening. Communicate effectively and in simple terms.
Case # 2 ARE WORKPLACE ROMANCES UNETHICAL
A large percentage of married individuals first met in workplace. A 2005 survey revealed that 58% of all employees have been in office romance. Given the amount of time people spend at work, this isn’t terribly surprising. Yet office romances pose sensitive ethical issues for organizations and employees. What rights and responsibilities do organizations have to regulate the romantic lives of their employees?

Take the case of former General Electric CEO Jack Welch and Suzy Werlaufer. The two me while Werlaufer was interviewing Welch for Harvard Business Review article, and Welch was still married. Once their relationship was out in the open, some accused Werlaufer of being unethical for refusing to disclose the relationship while working on the article. She eventually left the journal. Other accused Welch of letting his personal life get in the way of the interest of GE and its shareholders. Some even blamed for a drop in GE stock.

Welch and Werlaufer didn’t even work for the same company. What about when two people work together in the same work unit? Chicago advertising firm Tasha, started dating Kevin, one of her account supervisors. Their innocents banter turned into going out for drinks, and then dinner, and soon they were dating. Kevin and Tasha’s bosses were in house competitors. The problem: Sometimes in meeting Kevin would make it seem that Tasha and him were on the same side of important issues even when they weren’t. In response, Tasha’s Boos began to isolate her from key projects. Tasha said, “I remember times when I would be there all night photocopying hundreds of pages of my work to show that (Kevin’s) allegations (of her incompetence) were unfounded. It was just embarrassing because it became a question of my professional judgment.”

These examples show that while workplace romances are personal matters, it’s hard to keep them out of the political complexities of organizational life.

1. Do you think organizations should have policies governing workplace romances? What would such policies stipulate?

I certainly prescribe to the view that there should be policies governing romance in the workplace. I firmly believe there should be policies governing workplace romance and some of the pointers are given below as to how the policies should be framed.
a. Romance should be put to a complete full stop in the work place and there should be a policy that anyone behaving in a promiscuous manner should be dealt with in the strictest possible way.
b. Behaviour between colleagues should be restricted to formal, there should not be too much of informal discussions in the office.
c. Strict rules to maintain office decorum should be observed.
d. Dressing should also be formal in the office, clothes which show too much of skin should not be allowed.
e. Romancing in the office leads to personnel not working during office hours but wasting time in extra curricular activities
f. It spoils the morale of the office
g. Discipline is hampered
h. It encourages rivalry between staff
i. Jealousy and other vices are promoted and team spirit is hampered.

2. Do you think romantic relationships would distract two employees from performing their jobs? Why or why not?

Office relationships do distract others from their duties. Those involved in the relationship are almost always obvious about it. The ‘meetings’ throughout the office, the notes, calls and breaks spent together are just part of the problem. In order to have that time together, their work must, necessarily, suffer. Others have to take up the slack. Others usually have to ‘cover’ for their ‘missing in action’ co-workers when the bosses come ’round.

Well, practically it distracts you from the job that you do, I have experienced that. But as time goes by you get to know that you need to maintain a proper balance between your personal and professional life as if either of these is giving problems, both will get affected. You should always maintain a high profile professionally, now I know that its not so easy but in order to prove yourself that you can be good at work no matter what is going on in your personal life and it’s important too as you have to do your job for which you are getting paid.

The company is not going to listen to your personal problems as they hired you to do their job nothing else, I know if you are upset about something related to the person you are in a relationship, you are bound to be less concerned about what you are doing and then you commit mistakes that is what I did… And if that person is at office then without any cause you will stay sharp and concerned about that person as whenever she/he talks to someone else you get a feeling what if something starts between them and this “what if” question is a very deadly thing as you are possessive about the person you love and that’s good but the truth is that without your knowledge this concern takes the form of jealousy and then the problem starts.

It is very important in a relationship specially if its inside office to give each other required amount of space as this helps in keeping a balanced and healthy relationship.

3. Is it ever appropriate for a supervisor to romantically pursue a subordinate under his or her supervision? Why or why not?

I will say that more often than not, a relationship of this kind will indeed be considered inappropriate in the context of employment. On my opinion, as a result of a private relationship between a supervisor and a subordinate, the supervisor has placed him/herself in a position where he/she cannot perform the duties as required by the Supervisory position. It is not appropriate for a supervisor to do such a task. It will cause problems to where other peers will feel that the person is getting preferential treatment from that supervisor.

It could also be considered sexual harassment and if she/he was up for promotion, they could say it was due to you. This is creating a “hostile work environment” and is subject to criminal and civil penalties. Many companies frown upon it. In some companies, it is grounds for dismissal. Couple problems have no place in a business. There should be this ethics and organization politics play in the life of the supervisor. Here are the guidelines: 1) don’t be overly eager to socialize with subordinates or superiors; 2) use common sense. Don’t do anything while socializing that will later cause problems; (3) Be yourself. Don’t try to put on a false front to impress your boss or other superiors; (4) Don’t try to use your rank when socializing with subordinates; (5) Don’t make any work-related promises to subordinates while socializing; and (6) Don’t date or become romantically involved with subordinates.
4. Some companies like Nike and Southwest Airlines openly try to recruit couples. Do you think this is a good idea? How would you feel working in a department with a “couple”?

Bad idea – suppose the company goes bust. I’d be uncomfortable as you wouldn’t know their agenda and you would be the odd one out. It really feels very awkward to know that both of you are in the same place worked on a department.

If they’re in different departments, the situation is still ok. At least, they’re not constantly bumping into each other or clashing over roles & responsibilities. The demarcations are clear, there are lesser chances of an over-lap & hence relatively easier to “do your own thing”.

Appraisals, tiffs with seniors, all these are sore points. If one of them is appreciated & gets a hike/promotion & the other is neglected professionally, it’ll affect their personal equation back home too. And God forbid if it happens to be the woman who is being applauded at work & the man degraded. The sulking partner, quite understandably, won’t be able to get over his failure & not be able to rejoice in the spouse’s success. The successful partner, if it’s the wife, would feel guilty for her success & would be torn between celebration & sorrow.

Plus the social interaction gets limited for both. If either one of them is the suspicious, overly jealous kind, then it’s the end of all ‘harmless recreations’ for the other partner.

Also, any emergencies at home would affect both of them equally which would mean absence of two employees at a time. The worst part is when support each other primarily because they’re married & not because of the virtue of the idea in question. That by itself limits healthy discussion of issues & thereby the solution we as a group might chance upon. There is bound to be too much subjectivity in every situation.