1.1 INTRODUCTION The aim of o

The aim of organization study is to gain an organizational familiarization and in- depth knowledge of the functioning of various departments. The study was undertaken with the objective of understanding the working of a business organization. It gives clear idea about the functions and practices of various department heads, SWOT analysis, porters five forces model analysis etc. The organizational study is intended to access and to acquire the knowledge regarding the functional as well as the management aspects of the firm.
An os study has been conducted at TERUMO PENPOL LTD; TRIVANDRUM. This study is oriented towards understanding, how the company functioning. In practice, by interaction with the various departments in the organization. Blood Transfusion is an integral part of the Health Care delivery in any country. In fact it is the most important part of the health care system. Blood bag is a disposable bio-medical device used for collection, storage, transportation and transfusion of human blood and blood components. The system consists of a single or multiple bags connecting with tubing, needle, needle cover, clamp etc. The blood bags are made of plastic materials which are compatible with blood. Blood Bags can successfully replace the use of glass bottles for collection, storage, transportation and transfusion of blood and blood components since bottles require exhaustive cleaning, rinsing and autoclaving procedures and there are chances of breakage at any stage. Blood bags are most ostensibly serving the medical field in crucial hour. As the number of hospitals, nursing homes are increasing; the demand for the blood bags too is increasing tremendously. Blood bags cannot be advertised. The USP for these products is quality.
In March 2011, the company bought U.S. medical device company CaridianBCT for around $2.6 billion. It is the largest acquisition by a Japanese medical equipment maker and makes the company to the top of global blood transfusion market.
The main objectives are:
> To the study about the blood bag industry.
> To study about the history of the TPL, each department functions, its vision and mission.
> To study the organizational policies, procedures, practices and future plans of the firm.
> To evaluate the strength, weakness, opportunity and threats of the company.
> To analyze PORTER’S five force model of the organization which leads to the findings, Suggestions and conclusion.

This study familiarize with general working conditions of the organization with respect to departments, functions, authority and responsibility and procedures. The collection of data made through various methods. These are:

Primary sources
Primary data is the data which is collected by the researcher directly from his own observations and Interviews.
Sources of primary Data;
* Observation
* Interview with Managers, office staff and workers.

Secondary sources
Data from a secondary source is any data which has been collected by another researcher, whether it is a group of people or just one person. The data may have
originally been used for a different type of research, but we can manipulate it to fit our research, instead of using it as it was intended to be used.

Sources of Secondary Data;
* Data collected from Annual Reports of the company.
* Data collected from Department manuals.
* Data collected from Journals, Magazines, Brochures, and Websites.

The study helps to develop a practical knowledge about the working of the organization. It helps to get familiarized with the organizational procedures and understand company’s strategy for growth, which faces further expansion of capacity, modernization of processes, follow to strict quality assurance protocols and to boost efficiency in manufacturing.

> The information obtained is not complete and accurate, as confidential matters were not disclosed for the purpose of the study.
> The study has limited scope, as it aims an overall organizational study and not an in-depth study.
> The main limitation of the study was time constraint.
> Probable bias of the respondents: the secondary data provided for the study by the authorities may be biased. Errors might have been caused due to certain biases of the respondent.
> Difficulty in meeting with all the top level officials.

Blood product belongs to biological products and is a biological active preparation, which collects healthy blood as the raw material and then is made through biological process or separation and purification technologies. Blood products are irreplaceable in the application of medical emergency and prevention & treatment to some specific diseases. Blood bag is a disposable bio – medical device used for collection, storage transportation and transfusion of human blood components. Indian Research and Development organization is offering technology for the manufacture of disposable blood bag systems. The system consists of a single or multiple bags connecting with tubing, needle cover, clamp etc. The blood bags are made of plastic material, which are compatible with blood. Blood bags can successfully replace the use of glass bottles for collection, storage, transportation and transfusion of blood and blood components since bottles require exhaustive cleaning, rinsing and autoclaving procedures and there are chances of breakage at any stage. Further, use of disposable bags eliminates the possibility of any contamination. In recent times the blood bag has become a conspicuous item and essential need of hospitals and nursing homes to meet blood infusion emergencies. Blood bags are most ostensibly serving the medical field in crucial hour. As the number of hospital, nursing homes are increasing the demand for the blood bags too are increasing tremendously. A blood bag system comprises of a container holding an in-activator that inactivates micro – organism contained in blood, a container holding an anticoagulant and a connecting tube connected liquid – tightly to the container, wherein the activator contains as a main component a platinum compound capable of binding to nucleic acid of the micro – organism or an aqua complex of the platinum compound; and a tube for introducing a neutralizing agent to neutralize the in-activator which is connected with the container holding the in-activator.

Trend of Plasma Volume Collected in China, 2001-2008
Source: www.researcinchina.com

The increasing trend of Plasma Volume Collected in China from2001to 2008 is a good example to state the increasing requirement of blood bags, as blood bag requirement is directly proportional to blood product requirement.

Advantages of Indian Technologies;
* Low capital investment.
* High employment potential.
* Maximum use of local raw materials and manpower resources.
* Adaptable levels of sophistication.

Globally, approximately 75 million blood bags are collected annually [Source: WHO], Major blood bag manufacturers globally include Baxter Bioscience, USA; Bayer Corporation, USA and Octapharma AG, Switzerland. With the increasing global demand for blood bags and growth rate of its market being 15 percent annually the business for the potential investor is desirable and is expected to generate high returns from the business. The investor would need to set up highly standardized plant as the demand for these products largely depend on their quality. The blood bag manufacturing industry is now in a growth stage. It is now witnessing high customer traffic. This particular industry goes hand in hand with new technology. It also contributes a fair portion of revenue to the economy.

Terumo Penpol is India’s largest manufacturer of Blood Bags. The company is one of the largest producers of blood bags in Asia, other than Japan with a capacity of 10 Million Blood Bags. The company has come a long way since its beginning in 1987.In1985 Peninsular Polymers which was a pioneer in the field of manufacturing blood bags was set up by Mr. C.Balagopal, an EX-IAS officer and his brother Mr.C.Padmakumar. In July 1999 the company formally collaborated with Terumo Corporation, Japan. Terumo Corporation invested in the equity capital of the company and today it holds 74% with the balance 26% held by the promoters. The name of the company was changed to TERUMO PENPOL LIMITED on 01/10/99.
The company pioneered the manufacture of Blood Bags in India and then successfully launched a range of medical electronic products required for blood transfusion centers. Driven by its strong customer-focus and innovative spirit, the company has been the market leader ever since it introduced blood bags in India and then successfully launched a range of medical electronic products required for blood transfusion centers. Today, it is more than double the size of any other blood bag manufacturer in India. Not only does Terumo Penpol offer customers a wide range of Blood Bags and Blood Bank Equipment, but also offers tailor made products to meet specific requirements.
Terumo Penpol is India’s largest manufacturer of blood bags. The company is one of the largest producers of blood bags in Asia, other than Japan with a capacity of 13 million blood bags. Peninsular Polymer Ltd or Penpol was established in 1987. On 19th July 1991 Tokyo based Terumo Corporation has signed a contract to acquire 74% share of Peninsular Polymers Ltd. The new venture came to be known as Terumo Penpol Ltd. Terumo Penpol manufactures a wide range of blood collection systems and medical equipments required for blood banks and component centers.
The company has come a long way since its beginning in 1987. The company pioneered the manufacture of blood bags in India and then successfully launched a range of medical electronic product required for blood transfusion centers. Driven by its strong customer-focus and innovative spirit, the company has been the market leader ever since it introduced blood bags in India. Today, it is more than double the size of any other blood bag manufacturer in India. Not only does Terumo Penpol offer customers a wide range of blood bags and blood bank equipment, but also offers tailor made products to meet specific requirements.
Terumo Penpol is part of the multibillion dollar Terumo Corporation, a Japanese company having its presence in over 150 countries. Terumo has distinguished itself as a high quality manufacturer of medical products with 13 factories around the world. The company generates annual sales of about $2 billion and employs 7500 people worldwide. Terumo is pioneering products of future like implantable left ventricular assist system, artificial vessels, minimally invasive surgery devices, nano capsules and more.
The Blood Bag Factory (BBF) is situated at Puliyarakonam, a suburb of Trivandrum, and employees over 600 skilled people. In 1998, the production capacity was only 1 million bags per year. In 1996, the production capacity was 3 million bags.
Today TPL has a manufacturing capacity of 24 million bags per year. The bags are tested against parameter set out in ISO-3826, which provides for products that ensure safety of blood and blood components. They also offer resistance to breakage in centrifuge among other parameters. The blood bags are sold in over 60 countries across the world.
The Medical Systems Group was established in 1995. Medical Systems Group is engaged in the design and manufacture of specialized blood bag equipment and software aimed at improving the blood management systems and procedures in blood banks.
The manufacturing facility follows an integrated production system from raw materials to finished products, ensuring strict adherence to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). The production system ensures careful selection of materials/components, controlled production environment, comprehensive testing of all inputs, intermediate products and finished goods.

The main feature of the manufacturing facility is the flexibility it offers:
I. Flexibility in product features.
II. Flexibility in minimum order quantity.
III. Flexibility in delivery schedules.
Terumo Penpol has 700 customers all over India and its blood bags are sold in over 60 countries across the world and its Medical Equipment Division has more than 1900 installations to its credit. Terumo Penpol has its headquarters in Thiruvananthapuram and employs 766 people. The company has an experienced team of marketing and sales professionals covering the whole of India. The team is further supported by a well trained service group.
Terumo Penpol manufactures a wide range of blood collection systems and medical electronic equipment required for blood banks and component centers. At Terumo Penpol quality is a way of life. Utmost care and attention is given to each and every stage of production to ensure strict adherence to GMP and CE Mark standards.

* 1987: Terumo Penpol Ltd launches India’s first single blood bags.
* 1988: TPL launches India’s first double blood bags.
* 1993: TPL launches India’s first triple blood bags.
* 2001: TPL launches the Terumo Automatic Component Extractor (TACE) which helps to bring down the time required to separate blood components in blood banks by easy, fast and standardized method.
* 2004: TPL launches two products, thawing bath CB 100 and WB 100, for the safe and uniform thawing of fresh frozen plasma. It can maintain temperature at any set value between 4 degree Celsius and 37 degree Celsius.
* 2004: TPL launches the improved version of Donor station Compo safe DC 200, which increases comfort and safety to the donor and the phlebotomist.
* 2004: TPL introduced new Deep Freezer Compo safe DF-40, which is designed for the storage of plasma and preserving the labile factors during shelf life.
* 2005: TPL introduces blood bag with safety features that assure protection from blood borne diseases.
* 2006: TPL introduces Compo safe Semi- Automatic Expresser SAE 500 that helps standardize the red cells/ packed cells by retaining selected volume of plasma with RBC in double and triple blood bags.
* 2006: TPL launches new 80 degree centigrade Deep Freezer, which is designed as fast freezer for the preparation of fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate.
* 2007: TPL won the state level award instituted by PRS( Public Relation Society of India) for the best company promoting corporate social responsibility activities among the industries in Kerala
* 2008: TPL’s new West blood Bag Plant building was inaugurated by Mr. Kenji Sekine (President Transfusion Business, Terumo Corporation). With this expansion project, TPL has doubled its production capacity which is presently 13 million.
* 2008: TPL organized a mega blood donation camp in association with All Kerala Blood Donors Society, Club 25, Kerala Sports Council and SBT as part of the programs in connection with world health day. Out of the 217 donors who attended the camp, blood was collected from 107 donors by the blood banks of Medical College Hospital, Regional Cancer Centre, and SreeChitiraThirunal Institute for Medical Sciences.
* 2009: TPL has won the Outstanding Safety Performance Award in the category of medium size industries other than chemical and engineering (0.5 million to 1.5 million man hours worked ) instituted by the Kerala Chapter of National Safety Council of India.
The Mission of TERUMO PENPOL is;

‘Better Ways to Better Healthcare’

Their perception is that today’s best will be replaced by something still better tomorrow. They mean to go on and on in their quest to create better ways to better healthcare.

To become a world class medical device manufacturer adopting customer first approach in all business processes.
> To maintain high quality products meeting customers and requirements.
> To design all products in accordance with international standards.
> To ensure high quality at all the stages of the supply chain.
> Terumo Penpol will contribute to society through health care.
Terumo Penpol is committed to continuously review and improve the effectiveness of the quality management systems. The quality management system of Terumo Penpol is certified according to ISO9001:2000, 1SO 13485, European Standards EN 46001 and European Medical Device Directive 93/42/EEC.

> Ensuring strict compliance to good manufacturing practice.
> Improving the product quality through continuous technological up gradation.
> Enhancing the product performance by sustained analysis of customer feedbacks.
> Maintaining high degree of quality awareness among employees through periodic training programs.
> Awarded the national award for best research and development efforts in industry from government of India for the year 1995.
> Won the top exporters award for medical disposable and surgical items for the year 1995.
> Won the second best award for medical disposable and surgical items for the year 1996.
> Won the top exporters award for medical disposable and surgical items for the year 1997.

3.8 Voluntary Blood Donation Services
> The solution is to increase the number of regular voluntary donors in India. So their main aims are:
> To create awareness and educate the public on the need for regular and voluntary blood donation
> To safe guard the interest and welfare of the blood donors.
> To promote voluntary blood donation among all sections of society.
> To reach out to peripheral rural areas so as to make them self-sufficient `rural blood donor forums.

> Donor Motivation Seminars, Blood Grouping Sessions.
> Publication and Distribution of Promotional Material on Voluntary Donation.
> Networking of existing Forums and Institutions.
> Annual Conferences/Workshops to promote Voluntary Blood Donation.
TPL has a wide range of products. It consists of blood bags, urine bags, blood bag equipment; blood bag management software etc.TPL is an ISO 9000 company for manufacturing and marketing blood bags. The most important quality of maintaining the
quality of blood is the container in which it is stored. TPL’s blood bag reaches a customer after undergoing 41 physical and biological tests that ensures safety in use. Its product range consists of single bag, double bag, triple bag, quadruple bag, triple and quadruple bag with SAGM-2.

1. Blood Bags & Accessories
2. MSG (Medical Systems Group) PRODUCTS
3. Storage Equipment for Blood Banks
4. Blood Collection Devices

* Blood bag and accessories
* Blood bag collection devices
* Storage equipment for blood bank
* Blood processing devices
* Portal ( blood bank management software)
* Portable donor couch
* Tube scalar
* Plasma expresser
* Blood weighing scale
* Platelet agitator incubator
* Safello urine bag
* Mini blood storage cabinets
* Deep freezers
* Terumo automatic components extracting
* Refrigerated centrifuge
* Limugrated 3 PL
* Limugrated 3 PC
* Trima Equipment and Accessories.
* TrimaDisposibles.
The TERUMO Blood Bag systems are high quality products designed for optimum blood management during collection, separation, preservation and transfusion. Various types of blood bag systems with improved storage period of blood and blood components are available.
A new range of Blood Bags provides the Blood Banks with a large choice of safety features. Carl Walter and W.P. Murphy, introduced the plastic bags for blood collection in 1950, a system which replaced the previously used blood bottles .Terumo Penpol uses K72 PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) as raw material for blood bags. This contributes to their high quality, stability and tensile strength. Plasticizers aid in converting highly brittle PVC resin into softer flexible compounds. The use of plasticizers for increase in softness and flexibility. DEHP (Diethyl hexyls phthalate) Preferred plasticizer for medical grade PVC.
Types of Blood Bag
* Single Blood Bags
Single bags are mostly used for the collection and transfusion of whole blood. The anticoagulant used is CPDA
* Double Blood Bags
Double bags are primarily used to separate blood into two main components, packed red cells and plasma. The two bags are called as primary bag (used to collect blood), and transfer bag (used to transfer the separated component after centrifugation) respectively.
* Triple Blood Bags
They are used for whole blood collection followed by separation into three components, packed red cells, plasma and platelets. The triple bag kit contains one primary bag and two transfer bags (for platelet and plasma).

* Quadruple Blood Bags
Quadruple bags are used for components reparation into packed red cells, plasma, platelets. The kit contains one primary bag and three transfer bags (plasma, platelet, and Buffy).

* TAB (Top and Bottom) blood bag
Thus, during component separation process, the top and bottom components (plasma and packed red cells) move simultaneously into their respective transfer bags, leaving the Buffy layer in the primary bag.

* Penta Blood Bags
The Penta blood bag system contains 5 bags It is designed for pediatric / multiple
Transfusion it reduces the risk of multiple donor exposure to pediatric patients.

* Top & Bottom BB with Leukocyte filter for CRC
The Inline filter bag is incorporated into the Quadruple bag system . The filter is encased into a soft plasticized PVC housing which minimizes the possibilities of bag damage during storage, transport and centrifugation

B. PORTIA (Blood Bank Management Software)
PORTIA significantly improves safety, productivity, quality and cost effectiveness enabling solution to problems inherent in conventional blood management methods. It is available in single and multi-user versions. It also gives the details of
Blood Bags which the company producing. Details regarding the Blood Bags are available as a database which includes the capacity volume of blood bags.

Setting up of Blood Banks
Setting up or modernizing a blood bank requires a lot of time, investment and effort on the part of the person in-charge. It spans across a wide range of complex activities starting from preparation of the project proposal to ensuring uninterrupted day-to-day functioning of the Blood Bank. Each of the activities requires expertise without which the cost and time involved can shoot up to very high levels. TERUMO PENPOL Limited has over 17 years of experience in Blood Banking. During these years the company has interacted with many Blood Bank professionals and manufacturers from across the world; and understands the operations of a Blood Bank. This knowledge, combined with the expertise of a team of highly trained managers, engineers and blood bank professionals, help Terumo Penpol in providing the best solution to the blood banking needs. Terumo Penpol helps to set up a fully functional blood bank that not only conforms to Drug Rules but also to GMP as well as International Standards.

Occupational exposure to blood remains a serious concern during the blood donation process. In order to address the safety issues concerning the blood bank personnel, we have introduced a range of features in our blood bags. The sampling and safety features are available on all configurations of blood bags.

Blood Sampling Arm
This simple design eliminates the need for cut and drip sampling.
Needle Injury Protector
Reduces the risk of needle stick injury from both donor and sampling needles .It provides immediate shielding of needle on withdrawal from vein.
Luer Adapter and Tube Holder
Facilitates safe in-line sampling. The unique LUER adapter needle provides for a safer sample collection using vacuum tubes. It reduces the risk of needle stick injury from sampling needle.

Pre-donation Sampling Bag
Our skin houses millions of bacteria commonly called as skin flora which can cause contamination of the collected blood on entering through the needle during Phlebotomy. Ideally 25ml of blood to be diverted to achieve.

A. Fig 3.1
Process at Blood Bank
Source: http://www.terumopenpol.com
C. MSG (Medical Systems Group) PRODUCTS
> Tube sealer
Radio frequency sealing quality, easy separation of tube segments after sealing procedures as hermetic seal hence no contamination , no warm up time required.

> XS1010
The XS1010 model heavy-duty radio frequency bench top sealer provides wide, reliable, snap-apart seals. This lightweight compact tube sealer conserves space in the
work area and has international safety certification of EN61010-1.It produces hermetic seal by waves minimizing contamination and haemolysis of blood and blood components and the sealing head is easy to clean.

* Heavy duty radio frequency bench top sealer ensures wide, reliable, snap-apart seals.
* Minimizes haemolysis of blood in tube segments.
* Produces a hermetic seal preventing chances of contamination.
* No warm up time required.
* Compatible with the tubes of various manufacturers.
* No variation in seal quality due to voltage fluctuation.
* Splash guard provided (optional).

> Plasma Expresser
Highly sensitive electronic sensor to prevent contamination uniquely designed clamp mechanism ensures fast clamping at reduced power; micro-processor based automatic collaboration for different type of tube and bag.

* Uniquely designed compression plates exert uniform pressure on the blood bag ensuring minimum layer disturbance for efficient separation.
* Same efficiency of separation across different brands of blood bags.
* Powder coated mild steel cabinet.
* Optimum performance ensured by Switch Mode Power Supply.
* No contamination in separated components due to voltage fluctuation.
* Compliance with international safety standards ensuring safety to users.

> Platelet Agitator Incubator
Ensure agitator at constant speed of 70+/-5 cycles/min .digital temperature monitor, unique airflow system maintains uniform temperature range. The Compo safe PA/PI200 is designed to meet all international safety requirements of EN60601-1. This product stores platelet concentrates in continuous motion at controlled temperature. Digital temperature control monitor coupled with a unique air circulation system maintains. Incubator at a uniform temperature of 22+- 2ºC within the Incubator chamber as per FDA recommendation. There are visual indications and audio alarms for temperature variation, open door and agitator failure.PA/PI200 Platelet Agitators come in two options: 24 and 48 bag capacities.

* The flat bed agitator stores platelet concentrates in continuous motion at controlled temperature.
* Helps increase platelet viability, post transfusion recovery and preservation of platelet morphology.
* Agitation at constant speed of 75 +/ – 5 cycles/min.
* No need for periodic calibration due to the digital temperature sensor used.
* Provision for connecting external remote alarm.
* Visual indications and audio alarms for abnormal conditions like temperature deviation, door open and agitator failure.
* Compliance with international safety standards ensuring safety to users.

> Mini blood storage cabinets
Small capacity which is ideal for small-450ml blood bags power saver ideal for remote location with frequent power failure.

> Deep Freezer
Two models available- 400c and 800c high durability due to high impact epoxy coating to resist scratches and rusting. Insolating sub lids to minimize cold or during lid opening, clean fitter indicator light warns of fitter clogging. Audible and visual power failure claims CFC free refrigerants and insulation.

> Refrigerated Centrifuge
Programmable memory for standard runs, Reduced maintenance with brushless induction drive, Acceleration and declaration profiles.
> Limuguard III-PL
To remove leukocytes and micro aggregates from up to ten units platelet preparation. Only polyurethane fitter is used for highest bio-compatibility. Unique air vent for convenient air removal.

> Terumo Automatic Component Extractor
A highly flexible automatic blood component extractor for the standardized processing of centrifuged blood according to good manufacturing process. The device is designed to be used with all common standard bag systems. Its top angled press with press position detection ensures high stability of layers during extraction. It gives high quality, non contaminated products with maximum component yield and viability with a reduction in leukocytes through Buffy method.

> Donor couch
It is designed for the comfort of the donor and the phlebotomist. Design is based on haemoid dynamic principles (head high foot low position into head low foot high position).

> Blood collection monitor
Ensures better quality blood than that collected using manual mixing methods. Clamp programmed volume, uniformed oscillation for optimum mixing ensuring higher yield of components.

> Safello urine bag

Conformity to ISO-8669 international standard for urine bag. Leak proof no return value to prevent back flow of urine to minimize the risk of infection.

> Portable donor couch
Puts the voluntary donor where it belongs. Easy conversion from head high foot low position to head low foot high position, no power requirements.

Fig 3.2 Fig3.3
– D601
Making blood donation a safe Blood Collection
and comfortable experience… made simpler ….

Fig3.4 Fig3.5
TUBE SEALER- XS 1010 Portable Tube Sealer – LM100

Fig 3.6 Fig 3.7
Plasma Expresser – E300 Portable Sealer – LM100

Fig 3.8 Fig 3.9
Compo Scale CS300 E300 Interface with CS300
Fig 3.10 Fig 3.11

The organization is working in three regions which includes corporate office and logistics office at Sasthamangalam, blood bag manufacturing unit at Puliyarakonam, and medical systems group at General hospital Jn:, Trivandrum.
The organization has the following department that functions effectively with a vibrant group of employees with the help of whom the organization is able to shape up its future. The different departments that functions are:

1. Production Department
2. Production & Engineering Department
3. Production Planning & Control Department
4. New Product Development Department
5. Maintenance Department
6. Accounts and Finance Department
7. Purchase Department
8. Stores Department
9. Quality Assurance Department
10. Export Department
11. Logistic Department
12. Marketing Department
13. Personnel and Administration Department
14. Human Resource Development Department
15. Corporate Social Responsibility
16. Medical System Group

Fig 4.1
Organization structure

The policy of production department is to manufacture medical product as per the international standards strictly in compliance with specifications laid down in the standard operating procedures with minimum possible wastage of resources.
Production Process involves;
* Selection of raw materials
* Formulation
* Processing
A .Raw materials used:
* Plasticizers
* Deoxidized oils
* Stabilizers
* Lubricants
* Other additives
B. Formulation
This is a critical aspect that involves careful selection of raw materials and proportions to be used to achieve the range of desirable properties. It can be done by experiments followed by various studies.

C. Processing

Blood bags are made by welding together extruded plastic sheets. The bags are subjected to autoclave sterilization at high temperatures and pressures and freezing temperatures in the blood banks. They should also withstand processes like centrifuging, used to separate the various components of blood. Various parts like connecting tubes,
needles, outlet ports, special flow-regulating valves, filters, safety features and sampling ports go into these bags, which are filled with an anticoagulant solution that prevents blood from clotting.
Processing Steps:
1. PVC Sheet Extrusion
The raw materials for sheet extrusion are compounded PVC pellets. A single screw extruder is used for the continuous process. The major zones of the extruder are feed zone, meeting zone, recompression zone, adapter zone and the dry zone.

2. PVC Tube Extrusion
The raw materials for tube extrusion are PVC compounded materials. The inner diameter of tube is 3mm and outer diameter is 4.5mm. After extrusion serial number is printed on the tube.

3. Injecting molding
The outlet port is manufactured through injection molding. The raw material used is PVC pellets.

4. In process testing of sheet
This is done to confirm quality before being used in manufacture of blood bags .The test on tube involves chemical test and element test. The test on sheet also includes chemical test and element test.

5. Tube and compounding assembling
In tube assembling component of tube are broken off at junction which have cuts provided at the stumping stage. Breaking of component is done as per the specifications for each capacity and type of bag.

6. Weldingbag sealing
First the sheet is assembled with one embossed surface and plane surface facing the inside of the bag to be made. Thus both the inside and outside are embossed as well as plane surface, then between the parallel arranged sheet. Then tube and sheet are ready for sealing.

7. New Process
This stage is relatively new in the TPL’s blood bag production process. Two major reasons contributed to the creation of new process stage- sticking and leakage. Leakage is tested by passing filtered air with the help of specially designed machine. To avoid sticking of bag air is injected into the bag as per the standard set by Q.A. Less amount of air leads to sticking and more air effects the smooth flow of blood. Care is taken to ensure right quantity of air is injected. This stage provided an added advantage by different bags of different thickness and volume to be produced at same time.

8. Labeling of bags
The labeling should be perfect. There are two types of labels Pressure Sensitive Plastic Label (PSPL) and Heat Sensitive Plastic Label (HSPL). The latter one has certain advantages over the other. It has a plastic coating, which prevents shrinkage after sterilization. HSPL is exposed to 118 C and therefore is not destroyed during centrifugation. PSPL is provided only to a few old customers, who prefer it as it is cheaper. Majority of the labels are HSPL. Prior to use the batch number are printed.

9. Preparation of anti coagulant solution
Anticoagulant solution is the one, which prevents clouting of blood. Every blood bag should contain this solution in the required quantity, i.e., 14% of the net capacity of the bag. The solution is prepared at TPL by using inspected chemical like adenine (preservator), citric acid, citro phosphate, etc. from the QC Department. Four types of
solutions are prepared, namely- CPDM, CPD, SAGM, ACD. CPDM preserves blood for 35 days, CPD for 42 days. SAGM preserves blood for 42 days and has an additive to preserve blood cells.

10. Filling
The solution in collection tank is re-entered to sub tanks of capacity of 50liter each. From this the solution is channeled to blood bags via nozzles. Sample of the solution from nozzle is taken for testing. During the process of mixing, filtration, collecting, filling, the solution is least exposed to air to prevent contamination. The bags filled with the solution are sent for packing.
11. Packing
Polypropylene covers are used for PVC blood packing. Packing is done manually. Bags are inserted and the tube with needle, holding assembly and donor tubes are coiled into the packet. Coiling is different for Single, Double and Multiple bags. Packing of bag is followed by sealing. Sealing is done manually or automatically.

12. Sterilizing
* Packed bags are now brought in for sterilization. It consists of two processes.
* Auto claving
* Drying

13. Final inspection
Pinch off, leak, weld leak stopper leak, transfusion leak, needle blend damages, label rejection, CPDA stain color change and other defects are checked.

14. Foil packing, Cartooning and Dispatching
The foil package for the blood bag is three layer packs;
* External polyester
* Middle aluminum
* Internal polyethylene
Fig 5.1
Production Flow Chart

Production and engineering department is concerned with the introduction of new machines and new technologies for manufacturing in the factory. The introduction of machines, technologies is done carefully so as to minimize risk involved.

New machine introduction
PED refers 3 processes before introducing new machines;
* Installation Qualification
* Operational Qualification
* Performance Qualification
It is a Japanese term with the meaning continuous improvement. It followed in Terumo Penpol for improving the quality of finished product. It is practiced in PED with participation of employees in production department.

Production Planning and Control can be viewed as the nervous system of the production operation. This function aims at efficient utilization of materials resources, people and facilities in any undertaking through planning, co-ordination and controlling the production activities that transforms the raw materials into finished products or components as a most optimum manner. Production planning and control comprises the planning, routing, scheduling, dispatching and follow up function in the productive process. Terumo Penpol has a blood bag manufacturing plant at Puliyarakonam with a capacity of 11 million. The present capacity utilization is 10.5 billion. Terumo Penpol
has a well functioned production planning and control department.

The major function of production planning department are:
* Coordination with marketing activities.
* Production planning i.e. preparation of yearly, monthly, weekly and daily production schedules.
* Finalize production planning
* Preparation of work order system
* Revise plan when production activities cannot confirm to original plans and when revisions in scheduled production are necessary because or rush orders.
* Keeping up-to-date records scheduled and in process.
The important production control functions are:
1. Inventory control
2. Reduction of idle time

The future of every organization depends upon the successful launch of new innovative products and services although new product development is a key competitive capability for manufacturers worldwide, many companies are unable to launch a new product on a timely basis. They have a well functioning NPD department it is the policy of NPD division to enhance customer satisfaction by designing, developing, and manufacturing products meeting quality standards and making them available to customers on schedule.
* Designing and developing products meeting quality standards
* Empowering personnel’s with the right knowledge, technique and tools
* Put together a working environment conducive to creativity, efficiency and team work.
* Developing business through products and services which are new i.e. not in existence now.
The policy of maintenance department is to upkeep all production machines and utility equipments by periodic maintenance and providing utility services.
Quality Assurance Procedure
* Preventive Maintenance
* Breakdown Maintenance
* Environmental Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance
Purpose to conduct preventive maintenance of utility equipment to support daily production activities. Operating procedure of all the preventive maintenance other than GMP requirement are detailed and recorded in each department.
Preventive Maintenance is planned on the basis of the following:
* Machinery manufacturer’s recommendations available with the firm in the form of instruction manual.
* Analysis of Breakdown.
* Experience gained by maintenance staff.
Maintenance Department prepares schedule for the Preventive Maintenance of utilities equipment for a period of one year. At the end of one year and considering the information received from breakdown analysis, if necessary changes are incorporated in the maintenance procedure. For carrying out certain Breakdown and Preventive
Maintenance activities, services are sought from external agencies. Service done to equipments are filed equipment wise.

Breakdown Maintenance
The purpose of bring down the machine/equipment to efficient working condition in the shortest possible time. According to information received from various departments find out the machine/equipment on which Breakdown Maintenance is to be carried out. All maintenance activities are recorded in respective machine history records. Frequency of maintenance requirement is also recorded. Breakdown Maintenance which cannot be attended on regular working days and which are not so critical shall be postponed to holidays.

Environmental Monitoring
Control of environment in a clean room area is essential to keep the bio-burden at a low level, so that the microorganism can be excluded during processing and packaging of sterile products. Sterile products is of high quality standards and purity, must be free from microorganism, particulate matter, etc. All components and processes involved in the preparation of this should be clean and selected to eliminate, as far as possible, contamination of all type. Environmental cleanliness is of primary importance to control microbes and particulate matters in air. Thus conditioned monitoring of operating environment is essential. Following procedure outline the method to be followed for testing – filters, UV lamp efficacy, fumigation, pest control, painting of all the manufacturing areas and factory premises.
Fig 5.3
Maintenance Department

Finance is the life blood of any business. Organizations should understand the importance of finance as a component of the strategic decision-making process. TERUMO PENPOL has a well functioning finance department.
Department policy
The policy of Finance Department is” to ensure provisions of timely finance to various departments, without any delay and as per plan and to exercise necessary financial controls and to maintain and record all financial transactions of the organization accurately, systematically and to provide all statutory reports and returns to concerned statutory agencies, and to provide internal information reports on time to management and measuring organization performance and for decision making.”

* Plan and manage fund flow, cash flow to cover critical expenses, purchases and statutory obligation of the company.
* Attend to all bank matters liaison with bank and financial institutions.
* To scrutinize all payments and approve the same.
* To collect dues to the company in time.
* Compliance of internal audit report.
* Preparation of balance sheet and monthly profit and loss account.
* Effective financial control.
* Budget preparation & Preparation of annual accounts.
* Attending to income tax, central excise and sales tax.
* Accounting executive general capital accounting, depreciation statement.
* Maintenance of updated capital asset register check, verify and ensure proper and correct purchase accounting and journal accounting.
* Analysis of creditors accounts to check out various unsettled advances.


The various functions of finance department are:

* To provide financial assistance to the various departments.
* Relation with bank and financial institutions.
* To collect money from debtors.
* To maintain accounting records.
* To comply with various statutory formalities.
* To provide management information.

Fig 5.4
Process of Accounts and Finance Department


An average commercial enterprise disposes of more than half of its income on materials, supplies and services. A five percent saving in material costs in a business organization can thus equate with an increase in turnover of 25%. Effective purchasing is therefore the key to the overall profitability of a business. The Purchase department in TPL coordinates all purchasing activities. The policy of the purchase department is to provide materials/services to the quality and the delivery as acceptable to the requisitioned, procuring them at economical or convenient terms and to maintain good professional business relationship with sub-contractors.

The main activities of Purchase Department include:
* Purchase order execution
* Receipt of materials
* Bill passing and release of payment

Purchase Order
Based on the approval of subcontractor the purchase executive prepares the purchase order in favor of the selected subcontractors with all relevant purchase date. PO is prepared in six copies. The requisitioned is expected to check his copy of the PO and if any discrepancies are observed regarding specifications, quality, delivery dates in the order purchase department is to be notified. PO is maintained in three series for raw materials, consumables and capital goods. The orders are normally send by post but to local subcontractor it may be handled over personally.

Receipt of materials
After the PO is placed the sub contractor are contacted through phone, fax or letter to confirm the receipt order. The subcontractor dispatches the materials are agreed. If deemed necessary remainders are end a week before due date of dispatch. The dispatch
details are entered in material dispatch register. This is maintained for a period of two years. To cover transit insurance, weekly statement of dispatch is prepared and sent to insurance companies. Dispatch documents are obtained from the subcontractors if the payment is through bank. Prior to taking delivery the consignment are checked for any damage or loss. If any damage or loss occurred the insurance company will immediately informed and the insurance survey is arranged. A claim is lodged on insurance company if there is any actual damage. Then the consignment is collected and delivered to the stores.

Bill passing and release of packing
The particulars in the invoice are compared with that of purchase order discrepancies, if any is noted on the reverse of the invoice then concerned purchasing executive is informed comparing the invoicesbill with the purchase order and it is ensured that the bill can be passed on the receipt of accepted GRN. Such invoices is recorded in the Invoice Catalogue Register and kept in pending bill file. As soon as GRN copies are received from stores it is in warded in GRN Control Register. The information of purchase invoices no: and bill amount is registered on the reverse of the invoice having appropriate GRN. Endorsement for passing the bill is made on the reverse side of the bill. Such passed bill and corresponding GRN are forwarded to finance department as per agreement mentioned in the purchase order the request for the payment are duly signed by purchase executive and is
sent to finance department, to the release of payment on the due date. After releasing the payment the finance department returns the second copy of the request for filling in the payment details.
Sound stores management is a key to the running of every profitable and efficient organization. The policy of the store is to store and preserve materials in good condition by maintaining optimum level of inventory, issue the same to the user and manage the finished goods till it is dispatched to the customer.

* Receipt and storage of materials
* Issue of materials
* Preservation
* Receipt and sale of scrap
* Packaging of finished goods

Issue of materials
All the sections in various departments are given separate requisition book. Based on the requirement the requisition is made by the concerned department. The stores assistant based on FIFO approves all the requisition. The items kept for issue will be verified by the stores clerk and signed by the stores in charge. After taking store copy of receipt note material is transferred to the plant by stores assistant. Items to outsiders are given with a material movement pass.

Dispatch of finished goods
Junior executive who intimates the marketing office regarding daily stock position by fax generates daily stock position of finished goods from computer. Marketing office furnishes in return the details of finished goods to be distributed by dispatch advice note. The superior directs the head load worker to load goods batch wise as per Performa invoice. Goods are taken to the lorry – base by trolley and thereafter manual loading into
the truck should be done. The vehicles in which bags are loaded should be free from dust and should be clean. Goods loaded are counter checked by invoice. A non-returnable
material pass is prepared for the quantity to be dispatched by superior. Materials movement pass is handed over to the security
Fig 5.5Stores Department

In manufacturing, quality control or quality assurance is a set of measures taken to ensure that defective products or services are not produced, and that the design meets performance requirements. It includes the regulation of the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products and components; services related to production; and management, production, and inspection processes.

The policy of the QAD department is to ensure quality by adopting high standard of testing with respect to pharmaceutical standards. ISO
Department policy

standards in house specification and to develop the implement system for imposing quality as per quality objectives of the company. The firm has a well equipped QAD at the factory assuring the quality of finished goods as well as raw materials.

Functional areas of QAD
* Quality control
* Quality assurance

Quality control: This section deals with final inspection of goods i.e. whether the finished goods passed or failed the quality checks.
Their inward inspection includes:
* Inspection of PVC pellets
* Inspection of PP cover
* Inspection of blood bags labels
Their pharmaceutical inspection includes:
* Inspection of water for injection
* Inspection of citric acid and Inspection of adenine
* Inspection of mono basic sodium phosphate
* Inspection of sodium citrate
QC checks sample of raw materials and they have to approve its quality before production. Inspection of solution is done before they are filled into the bags.
Quality Management System
Terumo Penpol has implemented QMS considering all aspects of personnel inputs, apt technology and machinery for various operations. Functions such as NPD, production engineering, purchase and stores, QAD, production, maintenance, HRD and marketing are smooth functioning. QMS is applicable for any sourced operation or process that Terumo Penpol may engage from time to time.

More than 65% of Terumo Penpol sales come from the export market. Terumo’s market share comes around 20-25% of the world market Terumo Penpol exports goods to more than 82 countries of the world.99% of the export constitute blood bags and 1% constitutes equipments.
* Achieve excellence in customer service by providing
* Timely and accurate information
* On time deliveries for all orders
* Technical and promotional support
Means of export
95% of the company’s export is through Sea and the rest is through air.
Export incentives
The practice of giving export incentives is virtually universal, and India is no exception. Terumo Penpol enjoys a number of export incentives such as:
* DEPB (Duty Entitlement Pass Book)
* EPCG (Export Promotion Capital Goods)
Sales return
Sales return owing to quality complaint is taken as per procedure for product recall. For sales return other than quality complaint prior approval from Executive director is obtained.

Customer complaint handling
Complaints related to product should be communicated to quality assurance department or export department. Complaint is forwarded to the quality assurance department for blood bags for the study of complaints .within 24 hours of the receipt of
complaint DM is authorized to replace defective bags free of cost to the customers immediately on receipt of the complaint. If the complaint is of biological nature QAD should arrange four testing of bags in house / by external agencies if necessary. If the analysis of the quality complaint shows that there is a batch problem. QAD should within 24 hours inform LC for the product recall .Market returned products are delivered to the store fresh stock will be supplied free of cost to the customer.

Service complaint
All the customer complaint other than product quality complaint is termed as service complaint. All this include:
1. Short supply 2. Dispatch of wrong products 3. Non receipt of dispatch document
4. Discrepancies in invoicing /dispatch documents 5. Damages in outer packing over
6. Delay in delivery
Export Department Fig 5.7


* Order processing
* Delivery status updating to customers.
* Dispatch orders.
* Exports shipmen of documentation.
* Export incentives.
* Verification and passing of freight bills.

Manager In logistics
* Overall responsibility for sourcing of all products marketed by Terumo Penpol.
* Overall responsibility for warehousing and distribution.
* Handling of service complaints.
* Effecting delivery to customer on schedule.
* Develop and establish genuine alternative subcontract for supply and servicing and to evaluate them appropriately
* Monitoring and implementing corrective action at depot.
* Preparation and submission of tender document.
* Issue of intends and convening contract review.
* Updating information on sales on a daily basis.
Senior Executives
* Updating of stocks of traded goods in the computer.
* Maintaining the depots stock record.
* Submitting of weekly and monthly stock statement and total stock statement on time.

* Registering purchase requisitions.
* Maintaining purchase order register, bill passing register, checking of all purchase bills and passing them arranging payments and maintenance of
* all registers and reports concerned Collection of dates and calculation of incentives
* Preparation of tender document and arranging to send them on time
* Registering purchase orders customers and maintaining records
* Preparation of statement relating to monthly marketing review meetings
* Typing of all kinds of correspondence statements and mailing them on a daily basis.
* Communication with customers/depots.

Fig 5.8
Logistic Department
The policy of marketing department is to achieve excellence in customer service by providing timely and accurate information, on time deliveries of all orders, technical and promotional techniques.

Major functions of marketing department
* Deciding price and discount revisions as appropriate from time to time.
* Handling of the enquiries (both domestic and export) generated.
* Issuing of the delivery order.
* Coordinating with various other departments (finished products, finance, and quality) for the proper execution of the order received.
* Collection of payment towards of the order executed.
* Conducting regular customer surveys.

Domestic market is divided into six zones
* South 1(Kerala, Tamil Nadu)
* South 2( Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka)
* East
* West
* North
* Gujarat
Manager Marketing. The products of Terumo Penpol can be sold only to 3000 licensed blood banks of the country. Out of these 3000 blood banks 490 blood banks do component separation. Now the company’s major focus is on them because they use multiple bags, which is profitable to the company. Not only that the competition for multiple bags are very less compared to single bags

Fig 5.9
Supply Chain of TPL

Terumo Penpol has depots in five major cities of India including metros. The depots are located at:
* Delhi
* Chennai
* Kolkata
* Gujarat
* Thiruvananthapuram

From these depots goods are transmitted to distributors and from there to final customers. These depots may sometimes have sub depots.

Sales promotion techniques
Development follows the various sales promotion techniques such as direct mail campaigns, website, sales persons and also market research. But the most important techniques are medical exhibitions and conferences

Product Group
* Blood Bags
* Blood Equipments(MSG)
* Equipments directly import from Terumo
Main competitors

At present the main competitor of Terumo Penpol is J Mithras Industries, Delhi. The other competitors are HLL, Polimedicure, Eastern Medi Kit, and certain local companies of North. But the competitors are not matches for Terumo Penpol on account of its high quality.

Market Share

TPL is concentrating on both International and Domestic market. Once TPL was the leaders in Market Share, but now they are concentrating on profitability
Fig 5.10 Marketing Department
The work force is an instrument in the organization and the personnel manager provides and shapes that instrument. This instrument work force consists of human beings of varying types with complex and changing needs and values. The personnel manager assists the organization in adapting changes in mix and values. He searches for programs that have overlapping interest for both the employees and the organization. Production department is functioning in an organization under an efficient personnel manager.

* To meet the manpower requirement.
* To carry out the administrative function of the factory in asystematic manner.
* Preparation of payroll document.
* Salary disbursement.
* Responsible for company vehicle.
* Handling of inward and outward letters.
* Selection of security staff.

> Permanent: – Whose work is permanent in nature and whose appointment is duly confirmed by the management after he has completed his probationary period. Probationers: – Is one who is provisionally employed with the view to give permanent employment by the company management
> Temporary: – Temporary workmen include a person who is employed for work which is temporary in nature and likely to be ended with in a limited period.
> Substitute: – Is a workmen who is appointed in the post of permanent workman
or probationer who is temporarily absent on account of any reason.
> Casual:-Is a person who is on a work of casual in nature, irrespective of the length of the period of work.
> Apprentice Trainee: – Is one who is engaged for any length of period for the purpose of learning any work with or without stipend or any allowances as maintained in the contract of appointment.

Industrial relation means the relation between any employee and management. In Terumo Penpol a good industrial relations is maintained through negotiations between management and group of employees, commonly known as collective bargaining, that determine the conditions of employment. The result of collective bargaining procedure is called collective bargaining agreement. These agreements contain settlements regarding wage structure, allowance; leave facility, rights and responsibilities of employees, disciplinary procedure etc….
There have been four collective bargaining agreements in TPL. They are from
> 1990 —- 1992

> 1992 —- 1995

> 1995 —- 2001

> 2001 —- 2006

> 2006 —- 2011

There are four trade unions they are:
* TP Employees Union (TPEU)
* TP Employees Sang (TPES)
* TP Employees Association (TPEA)
* TP Employees Congress (TPEC)
TPEU was the first in the company, this was split into three unions TPES, TPEA, TPEC.

Every workmen recruited by the management shall unless otherwise specifically mentioned in the appointment order, be on probation for a period which shall be 12 months initially subject to extension for a maximum period of 12 months if demand specific for any reason which shall be communicated in writing to the workman not less than 30 days from the date of expiry of initial probation.

The working time will be as per the notice exhibited on the respective notice board. The period and hours of work for all workmen for each shift shall be exhibited on notice board. The management or the competent authority has the right to require a workman or a group of workmen to work extra time during any day beyond the prescribed hours of work during any week beyond the 48 hour subject to the provision of any law and on payment of overtime wages.

It is the duty of every employee that he/she should attend the office 5min before the office time starts. The working time is fixed at 09.00hrs to 17.30hrs with 30minlunch break between 13.00-13.30hrs. It is the duty of every staff to endorse there porting time and sign the attendance register at the front office.

There are two types of shifts ie, general and relay shift. As most of the employee is ladies the general shift is from 8.30 am to 05.00pm. The relay shifts are for gents from 6am to 2 pm, 2pm to 10pm and 10pm to 6am. Inspections are carried from 4pm to 12
midnight. The workers are provided with transportation facilities at early morning and night. Attendance is registered through punch card system.

The thought that participation of workers in management is inevitable in the process of decision making for higher productivity in micro and macro level and for the smooth functioning of industrial democracy has gained much strength. It is because of the realization that labor is not only the factor of production, but also the sensitive human element. In TPL workers participation in management is through the following:
* Works committee
* Safety committee
* Canteen committee
* Recreation committee
* Welfare fund committee

Grievance procedure
All grievances shall be handled in accordance with the procedure laid down:
* The workman in person will first take up grievance with his immediate supervisor.
* If the workman is not satisfied with decision of the immediate supervisor or fails to receive an answer from him within 7 days, he will take the grievance to the next immediate superior officer.
* If the decision of the officer is not satisfactory the workman will present his grievance to the department head in writing in the grievance note duly signed by the worker.
* If the decision of the head of the department is not satisfactory the workman will present a copy of the grievance to the head of the personnel department.
The head of the personnel department or any person authorized by him or by the management will take the final decision and inform the in written format. Any representation regarding a grievance which does not comply with the provision of these rules shall not be considered.
Welfare facilities
The workers are granted with all statutory welfare facilities as per Factories Act1948, Drugs Act and ESI. There is a highly subsidized canteen which gives 75%subsidy for the workers. Festival allowances provided to workers during festivals.

Canteen Facility
A fully-fledged canteen is functioning within the factory premises. External team on contract basis undertakes the canteen. The contract is usually for one year, which is decided on the basis of quotation, which is fixed by management. Building, furniture, utilities, water, gas, etc are provided by the organization. The payment is made as two sections, payment of 1stto 15thon 20thof current month and payment of 16thto 30thon 10th of next month. Other allowances like P.F, E.S.I, V.R.S, etc are also provided to the team. Employees are provided coupons, which are available atRs.2.50, Rs.40 and Rs.50. The coupons are provided on Mondays, Tuesdays and Saturdays unto 25th of each month. An employee’s price menu is fixed and displayed in canteen. Employer’s contribution is 3/4thand employee’s contribution is 1/4th.
A canteen committee is functioning at Terumo Penpol, which constitutes 4trade union representatives, 2 management representatives and representatives of Personnel and Administrative Department. Committee checks the functioning of the canteen, employee satisfaction, etc. A complaint register is maintained at the canteen, for employee’s to register complaints. The canteen committee does monthly review of complaint register.
Healthy measures inside the factory
The company provides certain dress codes to worker in which they are covered from head to toe except eyes. The dress is usually blue in color and consists of pajamas, jubbahs, masks, Glovers, and rubber slippers. The quality of personnel and administration department enhances the reputation of the organization so far as its external stakeholders are concerned. Terumo Penpol has a well managed personnel and administration department.

Fig 5.11 Personnel and Administration Department

Organizations have proclaimed their human resources to be their “most valued asset”. Human capital is a critical factor in promoting competitiveness as it provides the required knowledge, skills and capabilities for developing competitive strategies. The role of the human resource function is to deliver the human competencies i.e. the internal capability required to achieve the organization’s objectives. TERUMO PENPOL has a well functioning HRD department. The main function of HRD department is hiring, induction, training and performance appraisal in resonance with the quality policy and organizational goals.

> Head of the Department
* Recruitment of executives/managerial categories as authorized by the management.
* Administration of performance appraisal awarding increments, performance rewards, promotion and grievance redresses of employees.
* Planning, organizing and conducting training as per the training plan and policy.
* Initiating organizational development activities to bring the manpower in line with the management vision.
> Executive HRD
* Responsible for generating all the MIS reports
* Preparation of appointment orders and other office orders.
* Coordinating with placement consultant and other internal and external customers of HRD department as and when needed.
* Assisting HOD (HRD) in day to day functions.

Fig 5.12
Source: Department Journal
The major functions of HRD departments are:
Recruitment, Training, Performance appraisal

Recruitment means searching for and obtaining potential candidates insufficient numbers and quality so that the organization can select the most appropriate people to fill its job needs. The two main aims of recruitment are the attraction and retention of the interest of suitable applicants, and the projection of a positive image of organization to those who comes to contact with it.
* To ensure that the organization has adequate competencies in all functional areas to meet its objective and goals. The sources of recruitment are:
* Notification press or advertisement
* Campus interviews
* Natural transfer and promotion
* Reference by consultancy or professional bodies
* Employee referrals

Recruitment is one of the most important activities of HRD. Recruiting the right person for the right job ensures better productivity and lesser hassles. Recruitment will be done on the basis of manpower budget. Manpower budget for a financial year will be prepared by HOD (HRD) at the time of preparation of business plan of the organization.
HOD (HRD) will consult the divisional head and the budget and planning department for preparation of manpower budget. HOD should forward the number of requisitions and initiate the process of recruitment if the position is budgeted. If it is not special approval from the management should be obtained. Recruitment will be done through internal database, recruitment agencies, campus recruitment, advertisement etc. Selection process involves written test, group discussion and interview. After short listing the candidates, an interview panel will be determined and they will conduct the interview. Interview panel contain s subject expert, department head, HR representative
and divisional head. HRD dept will send the interview details along with names, proposed salary and responsibility to the MD through ED for the comments or approvals. The appointment order will be prepared and issued based on this. On resignation an exit interview is conducted by the HOD (HRD).

Training is very important for learning and development. HR department should plan, organize and conducting training programs as per the training plan, policy and needs.

* Identify the training needs.
* Upgrade knowledge and skills.
Build up a line of competent confident people and to prepare them for more responsible jobs.
Training is done based on the identified training needs by the reporting officer and by the associates. Training is done through administering psychometric tests. Training calendar is prepared on the basis of the identified training needs and cultural needs of the organization. The training calendar depicts the training plan for the year. Based on this a monthly calendar is prepared. Mainly there are two types of training:
> Internal Training
> External Training

* Internal Training
Induction training is an internal training. It is given to newly appointed employees. In this training they provide details regarding company products, market, and demand trends, marketing strategies, quality policies, administrative policies and rules etc. Internal training is given to executives on periodically. The main methodologies used are case studies brain storming, debates group discussions, lectures and illustrations etc.

* External Training
It includes overseas training and training conducted by training institutes. Overseas training is a part of company’s business. Duration of training can be from one week to one year. Good manufacturing practice training is imparted to all the employees once in every six month recruited for manufacturing activities. During these training personnel
will be made avail of general GMP requirements observed in the pharmaceutical industry. Training imparted covers the requirements, personal hygiene and behaviors, entry procedures after training a feed back is collected. It gives an idea about the program, faculty, and the way the program conducted. Training officer maintains training history card. Once the training program is over, after one month the concerned reporting officer of each program will provide a feedback to HRD dept. concerning his assessment about individual improvement of performance after attaining the training program.

Appointed workmen, unless specified in the order will be on probation for a period of 12 months. The duration can be extended if seemed necessary, but to be communicated to the workmen in writing not later than 30 days from the expiry of initial probation. No payment of compensation on account of such termination is necessary. When a permanent workman is promoted to another post he will be on probation of a minimum of 12 month with a possible extension of 6 months which will be communicated to the concerned person within 30 days of expiry of the initial probation.

It is management’s discretion to decide as to a vacancy should be filled in by promotion or by fresh outside recruitment. If promotion is decided, the criteria for promotion will be suitably for the post, efficiency, skill conduct, seniority etc… Of the workman in the lower post.
Record of service
The management maintains a record of each workman. Separate records are maintained for permanent and temporary workman, staff and executives. The company maintains the record of service will workman is terminated or leaves the job.
Every workman is liable to be transferred from one post to another, from one branch to another, or from one place to another place, etc. Workman may also be transferred to other subsidiary establishment of the company whether at present existing or that may be established in future.


Subject to the terms and conditions in the order of appointment, workmen may resign his job, but the resignation can come into effect only on accepting the same by the management or company without prior notice given in writing to the competent authority.

The management under such a situation issues a notice of retrenchment to the workman on prescribed time before the actual process. This process is however not practically possible due to clauses in the industries that safeguard a workman’s labor. Also the political scenario here is not flexible enough to stern actions against the labor community.

Termination of employees
A workman may be discharged of terminated from work at anytime by the management if he is found physically or mentally unfit for the job he is engaged in.

Dealing with cases of misconduct
* Written charge sheet issued to worker as well as put on notice board
* A chance is given to each worker to explain his part.
* If the worker has no explanation within the stipulated time the management proceeds with the course of action.
* If the worker has explanation, it is submitted and seen if it is satisfactory
* If not satisfactory, action is taken.
* It is satisfactory, the punishment is withdrawn.
* Management may entrust an enquiry committee for the same.
* Then the committee is liable to furnish an enquiry report having the proof of incidents under concern.
* The management takes action according to the findings in the enquiry report.

To know the performance level of each person to the required level. This help to reward or to take corrective measures.

Performance appraisal is done for all executives and managers. Assessing the performance of associates is very important for the associates and reporting officers to know where he stands in performance. A midyear review will be done in the month of September and final assessment will be done in the month of March. Performance of trainee and probationers will be assessed once in every six month. All the associates will be assessed annually. The decision related to training, rewards, promotion etc will be decided based on this assessment. For this process key result area will be fixed for every executive. Competencies or potential of associate also will be measured during end year assessment. The rating of associates should be based on guidelines. Based on the marks there are four types of rating such as outstanding, very good, good and below average.

Exit Management
When an employee decided to exit, detailed exit interview is conducted by HRD and recorded in a form. Exit interview is conducted mainly for analyzing the reasons of resignations and issues regarding salary. This helps the employer to improve the working conditions

Fig 5.13
Human Resource Development Department
TERUMO PENPOL Limited business units have Environment,
Health, Safety and People policies that are appropriate to their operations.TPL serves the community by complementing the growth & success of business with contribution towards the social, environmental and financial aspects of the society. At TPL, CSR is targeted for-Feel good factor for Employees, customer satisfaction, brand visibility, recognition and awareness and environmental sustainability.
Statutory compliance is also fulfilled. It includes-Employees State Insurance, Provident Fund, Gratuity Scheme, Round a clock canteen with 75-percentage subsidy, etc. Safety is a high priority for the Company. Electrical Safety audit, Weekly internal safety audit, Mock Drills, Safety training programs and installation of Safety equipment were some of the actions taken. In addition to this TPL also provides social services to employees, pollution control measures, environmental protection measures, customer welfare programmes, etc

Events organized by TPL for a cause-
* World Health Day – 7thApril
* World Blood Donors Day – 14thJune
* National Blood Donation Day – 1stOctober
* World AIDS Day – 1stDecember
Medical Systems Group is a manufacturing unit of Terumo Penpol.Marketing department interacts with MSG to assert the capability of meeting specification of customer requirements and the delivery schedule prior to acceptance of an order along with regulatory requirements.

Department policy
It is the policy of MSG of Terumo Penpol Ltd to enhance customer satisfaction by designing, developing and manufacturing products meeting quality standards (in- house) and making them available to customers on schedule. They supply the products to the hospitals and blood banks. Penpol is India’s largest manufacturer of Blood Bags. The products of MSG are commonly known by the brand name “Compo Safe TM”. Penpol offers comprehensive range of equipments intended to make operations at the Blood Bag, blood transfusion activities safer and more effective. The “Compo Safe TM” range of products includes equipments for collection and storage of blood and a software package for blood bank management.

MSG manufactures three types of devices:
* Collection devices-donor couch, blood collection monitor, tube sealer etc
* Processing devices -plasma separator, centrifuge etc
* Storage device-refrigerator, defreeze, platelet agitator, incubator etc
MSG consists of the following functional areas:
* Production
* Quality control
* Purchase
* Store control

MSG quality objectives
* Designing and manufacturing of products meeting quality standards.
* Empower personnel with right knowledge, technical tools.
* Put together a working environment conducive to creativity, innovation and team effort.
Fig 15 Medical Systems Group

A scan of the internal and external environment is an important part of the strategic planning process. Environmental factors internal to the firm usually can be classified as Strength or Weakness and those external to the firm can be classified as Opportunities or Threats. Such an analysis of the strategic environment is referred to as a SWOT Analysis. The Overall evaluation of company’s strength, weakness, opportunities and threats is called as SWOT analysis. It can do so by using a form which is called marketing memo or an outside consultant can be hired. but it is always better that then companies do their own SWOT analysis and accept their weakness and threats and review the marketing, financial, and organizational competencies and rates each factor as a single strength, minor strength, neutral factor ,minor weakness and major weakness.
Clearly, the business does not have to correct all its weakness nor should it focus about its strengths. The big question is whether the business should limits itself to those where it posses the required strength or should it explore better opportunities might have to acquire or develop certain strengths.
Sometimes a business does poorly not because its departments lack the required strength but because they do not work together as a team. Every year the company asks each department to rate its own weakness and those of other department with which it interacts. Once each department’s weakness are identified, work can be undertaken to correct them.


1. Stable managementTPL has a well- mannered team of highly qualified, experienced and dedicated management professionals. Almost all of the managers possess an industrial experience of over 10 years. All the top level executives are serving the company for more than ten years.

2. Sound financial position
Since inception, the firm enjoys a sound financial capability as it enjoys an association with the MNC Terumo co-operation. All financial matters are handled by a team of highly qualified and experienced professionals.
3. Product quality and standard with Terumo Penpol brand image
TPL’s products have high quality and standard because they came across highly sophisticated quality checks. TPL always ensures quality to its products in all stages.TPL has got ISO Certifications and CE (“Conformity European) marking.
4. Maximum range of products – product mix
TPL is mainly dealing with blood bags and its variants like single, double, triple, quadruple and Penta bags and its systems.
5. Good sales network of branch
TPL has a well equipped sales network covering both domestic and international market. The department concerned is handled by a team of professionally qualified, experienced and competent workforce.

6. Higher number of installations with strong customer base

TPL’s products enjoy a strong customer loyalty than the others. They manufacturer’s products as per the customer’s need.
7. Very good after sales service with own service networks
TPL provides an appreciable after sales services to their customers with the assistance of highly skilled technicians.TPL ensures effective handling customer queries after sales.
8. Experienced financial services and strong customer relations
The firm is equipped with eminent and experienced financial services professionals and the firm maintains strong relations with their customers.

1.High prices of blood bags compared to indigenous product and certain imported brands
The prices of TPL’s products are comparatively more when compared to the other market players. The other companies provide the same product for fewer prices with warranties and offers.
2. Lack of complete product range – refrigerated centrifuge and cell separator
TPL’s main product is blood bag and it lags some of the allied products in the range. At this time the competing firms possess them.
3. Organized lobby by foreign companies
The market witnesses an organized effort from the part of certain forces to capture market share for the foreign companies. These sort of activities affects TPL’s product performance.
4. Servicing difficulties of blood bank equipment
The equipment used in this industry are highly sophisticated, it faces servicing difficulties because of its complexity.
5. Servicing delays and additional cost in closing complaints
Servicing is a complex activity it is not an easy task and it requires more time, effort and money to close them all. Some times the cost incurred for complaint handling may be heavy.

1. High demand for products in domestic and international market
The product enjoys a high rate of demand both in domestic and international market. This is a great opportunity for TPL because they rely on delivering high quality and standardized product to the customers.
2. up gradation of blood banks
The blood bank services are to be upgraded to stay tuned with the environment changes.
3. New blood bank projects
New blood bank projects are to be initialized to get more acquaintance with the industry.
4. Value added features in blood bags
The products must be provided with value added features.
5. Large unexplored territory – blood bank equipments
This industry is now witnessing changes in connection with blood bank equipments it throws a great opportunity to use.
1. Quality complaints of blood bags
Sometimes it may happen due to carelessness from the part of employees.
2. Competition from Indian companies
Competition from the part of domestic firms like HLL is a real threat.
3. Free equipment as package along with projects by major competitors
TPL’s major competitors provide free equipments along with the product this may affect the firm’s performance.
4. Centralized purchase plan by NACO for blood bags and blood banks
The centralized purchase plan by NACO for blood bags and blood banks may reduce TPL’s sales because of the price difference between competitors.

1. Terumo Penpol is the India’s largest manufacturer of Blood Bags and its part of the Terumo Corporation.
2. They offer customers a wide range of Blood Bags and Blood Bag Equipments and also products to meet specific requirements.
3. The company has a sound financial position and a stable management.
4. The product quality and standard is in line with Terumo Penpol brand image.
5. The company believes in innovation, and produces a wide range of products.
6. The products of Terumo Penpol have high demand in domestic and international market.
7. The company has good sales network of branch and higher number of installations with strong customer base.
8. It maintains very good after sales service with own service networks.
9. Terumo Penpol enjoys experienced financial services and strong customer relations.
10. The company has a lack of complete product range – refrigerated centrifuge and cell separator.
11. Terumo Penpol blood bags are highly priced compared to indigenous product and certain imported brands.12.There is servicing difficulties of blood bank equipments because the unavailability of Technicians.
12. The company faces servicing delays and additional cost in closing complaints.
13. TPL serves the community by complementing the growth & success of business with contribution towards the social, environmental and financial aspects of the society.
14. 14. TPL serves the community by complementing the growth & success of business with contribution towards the social, environmental and financial aspects of the society.


1. Measures like adoption of new technology, which reduces the cost of prodction, can in turn reduce the price of product.
2. Improvised services to blood bank equipments can reduce the exporting difficulties for the same.
3. Proper implementation of company’s quality policy may help to reduce complaints based on quality of products.
4. Counter offers to that of competitors and reduced price may help to with stand the competition in the domestic as well as international markets
5. Timely servicing and smooth handling of customer complaints can reduce additional cost in closing complaints.
6. Innovative and value added features in the products might contribute to an increase in the existing potential market.
7. The appointment of technicians will reduce the servicing difficult
Terumo Penpol is the India’s largest manufacturer of Blood Bags and its part of the Terumo Corporation a Japan Company having its presence over 150countries. The company is one of the largest producers of blood bags in Asia, other than Japan with a capacity of 13 million Blood Bags. Terumo Penpol Ltd (TPL) has opened its new factory premises on 28th May 2008 and this will enable the company to double its production capacity from the existing 13 million. A significant portion of this output is exported. The company’s strategy for growth envisages further expansion of capacity, modernization of processes, adherence to strict quality assurance protocols and a drive to boost efficiency in manufacturing. TPL has successfully launched a whole range of medical electronic products for use in blood transfusion centers and blood banks designed to significantly enhance safety, quality and efficiency of blood transfusion


1. Aswathappa K. 1999, Human Resource & Personnel Management, Newdelhi,
Tata McGraw – Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.

2. Kothari C.R. 2004, Research Methodology Methods & Techniques, Newdelhi,
New Age International Publishers.

3. Kotler Philip 2002, Marketing Management, Newdelhi,
Prentice – Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.,

> www.terumopenpol.com
> www.terumo.com
> www.wikipedia.com

> Annual reports, Department Manuals
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